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Full text of "Henley's twentieth century forrmulas, recipes and processes, containing ten thousand selected household and workshop formulas, recipes, processes and moneymaking methods for the practical use of manufacturers, mechanics, housekeepers and home workers"

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COPYRIGHT,  1914  AND  1913,  BY 

COPYRIGHT,  1912  AND  1907,  BY 

Also,  Entered  at  Stationers'  Hall  Court,  London,  England 

All  rights  reserved 



IN  compiling  this  book  of  formulas,  recipes  and  processes,  the  Edi- 
tor has  endeavored  to  meet  the  practical  requirements  of  the  home  and 
workshop — the  mechanic,  the  manufacturer,  the  artisan,  the  housewife, 
and  the  general  home  worker. 

In  addition  to  exercising  the  utmost  care  in  selecting  his  materials 
from  competent  sources,  the  Editor  has  also  modified  formulas  which 
were  obviously  ill  adapted  for  his  needs,  but  were  valuable  if  altered. 
Processes  of  questionable  merit  he  has  discarded.  By  adhering  to  this 
plan  the  Editor  trusts  that  he  has  succeeded  in  preparing  a  repos- 
itory of  useful  knowledge  representing  the  experience  of  experts  in 
every  branch  of  practical  achievement.  Much  of  the  matter  has  been 
specially  translated  for  this  work  from  foreign  technological  period- 
icals and  books.  In  this  way  the  Editor  has  embodied  much  practical 
information  otherwise  inaccessible  to  most  English-speaking  people. 

Each  recipe  is  to  be  regarded  as  a  basis  of  experiment,  to  be  modi- 
fied to  suit  the  particular  purpose  in  hand,  or  the  peculiar  conditions 
which  may  affect  the  experimenter.  Chemicals  are  not  always  of  uni- 
form relative  purity  and  strength-,  heat  or  cold  may  markedly  influence 
the  result  obtained,  and  lack  of  skill  in  the  handling  of  utensils  and 
instruments  may  sometimes  cause  failure.  Inasmuch  as  a  particular 
formula  may  not  always  be  applicable,  the  Editor  has  thought  it  ad- 
visable to  give  as  many  recipes  as  his  space  would  allow  under  each 
heading.  In  some  instances  a  series  of  formulas  is  given  which  appar- 
ently differ  but  slightly  in  their  ingredients.  This  has  been  done  on 
the  principle  that  one  or  more  may  be  chosen  for  the  purpose  in  hand. 

Recognizing  the  fact  that  works  of  a  similar  character  are  not  un- 
known, the  Editor  has  endeavored  to  present  in  these  pages  the  most 
modern  methods  and  formulas.  Naturally,  old  recipes  and  so-called 
trade  secrets  which  have  proven  their  value  by  long  use  are  also 
included,  particularly  where  no  noteworthy  advance  has  been  made; 
but  the  primary  aim  has  been  to  modernize  and  bring  the  entire  work 
up  to  the  present  date. 

284534  THE  EDITOR. 



Apothecary,  The. 
Berliner  Drog.  Zeitung. 
Brass  World. 

British  Journal  of  Photography.. 
Chemical  News. 

Chemiker  Zeitung  Repertorium. 
Chemisch  Technische  Fabrikant. 
Chemische  Zeitung. 
Comptes  Rendus. 
Cooley's  Receipts. 

Dekorationsmaler,  Der. 
Deutschq  Drog.  Zeitung. 
Deutsche  Goldschmiede  Zeitung. 
Deutsche  Handwerk. 
Deutsche  Maler  Zeitung. 
Deutsche  Topfer  und  Ziefler  Zeitung. 
Dingler's  Polytechnic  Journal. 
Drogisten  Zeitung. 
Druggists'  Circular. 
English    Mechanic. 
Farben  Zeitung. 
Gummi  Zeitung. 
Journal  der  Goldschmiedekunst. 
Journal  of  Applied  Microscopy. 
Journal  of  the  Franklin  Institute. 
Journal  Society  of  Chemical  Industry. 
Journal  Suisse  d'Horlogerie. 
Keramische  Rundschau. 
La  Nature. 

La  Science  en  Famille. 
La    Vie    Scientifique. 
Lack  und   Farben  Industrie. 
Le  Genie  Civil. 
Le  Praticien. 

Leipziger   Farber  und   Zeugdrucker   Zei- 

Maler  Zeitung. 
Mining  and  Scientific  Press. 
Neueste  Erfindungen  und  Erfahrungen. 
Nouvelles  Scientifiques. 
Oils,  Colors,  and  Drysalteries. 
Parfumer,   Der. 
Pharmaceutische  Zeitung. 
Pharmaceutische   Centralhalle. 
Pharmaceutische  Era. 
Pharmaceutische  Journal. 
Pharmaceutische  Journal   Formulary. 
Photo  Times. 
Polytech.  Centralblatt. 
Polyt.  Notizblatt. 
Popular  Science  News. 
Pottery  Gazette. 
Practical  Druggist. 
Revue  Chronometrique. 
Revue  de  la  Droguerie. 
Revue  des  Produits  Chimiques. 
Revue  Industrielle. 
Science,  Arts  and  Nature. 
Science  Pratique. 
Seifensieder  Zeitung,  Der. 
Seifenfabrikant,  Der. 

Stein  der  Weisen,  Der. 
Sudd.  Apoth.  Zeitung. 
Technisches  Centralblatt. 
Technische  Rundschau. 
Uhland's  Technische  Rundschau. 
Verzinnen  Verzinken  Vernickeln,  Das. 
Werkmeister  Zeitung. 
Wiener  Drogisten  Zeitung. 
Wiener  Gewerbe  Zeitung. 
Zeitschrift    fur    die    Gesammte    Kohlen- 
saure  Industrie. 



See  Cosmetics  and  Ointments. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 


An  Acid-Proof  Table  Top.— 

Copper  sulphate 1  part 

Potassium  chlorate..  ..      1  part 
Water 8  parts 

Boil  until  salts  are  dissolved. 


Aniline  hydrochlorate.      3  parts 
Water 20  parts 

Or,  if  more  readily  procurable: 

Aniline 6  parts 

Hydrochloric  acid 9  parts 

Water 50  parts 

By  the  use  of  a  brush  two  coats  of  so- 
lution No.  1  are  applied  while  hot;  the  sec- 
ond coat  as  soon  as  the  first  is  dry.  Then 
two  coats  of  solution  No.  2,  and  the  wood 
allowed  to  dry  thoroughly.  Later,  a 
coat  of  raw  linseed  oil  is  to  be  applied, 
using  a  cloth  instead  of  a  brush,  in  order 
to  get  a  thinner  coat  of  the  oil. 

A  writer  in  the  Journal  of  Applied 
Microscopy  states  that  he  has  used  this 
method  upon  some  old  laboratory  tables 
which  had  been  finished  in  the  usual  way, 
the  wood  having  been  filled  oiled,  and 
varnished.  After  scraping  off  the  varnish 
down  to  the  wood,  the  solutions  were  ap- 
plied, and  the  result  was  very  satisfac- 

After  some  experimentations  the  for- 
mula was  modified  without  materially 
affecting  the  cost,  and  apparently  in- 
creasing the  resistance  of  the  wood  to  the 
action  of  strong  acids  and  alkalies.  The 
modified  formula  follows: 


Iron  sulphate 4  parts 

Copper  sulphate 4   parts 

Potassium     permanga- 
nate       8  parts 

Water,  q.  s 100  parts 


Aniline. 12  parts 

Hydrochloric  acid ....    18  parts 

Water,  q.  s 100  parts 


Aniline  hydrochlorate     15  parts 
Water,  q.  s 100  parts 

Solution  No.  2  has  not  been  changed, 
except  to  arrange  the  parts  per  hundred. 

The  method  of  application  is  the  same, 
except  that  after  solution  No.  1  has  dried, 
the  excess  of  the  solution  which  has  dried 
upon  the  surface  of  the  wood  is  thor- 
oughly rubbed  off  before  the  application 
of  solution  No.  2.  The  black  color  does 
not  appear  at  once,  but  usually  requires 
a  few  hours  before  becoming  ebony 
black.  The  linseed  oil  may  be  diluted 
with  turpentine  without  disadvantage, 
and  after  a  few  applications  the  surface 
will  take  on  a  dull  and  not  displeas- 
ing polish.  The  table  tops  are  easily 
cleaned  by  washing  with  water  or  suds 
after  a  course  of  work  is  completed,  and 
the  application  of  another  coat  of  oil 
puts  them  in  excellent  order  for  another 
course  of  work.  Strong  acids  or  alkalies 
when  spilled,  if  soon  wiped  off,  have 
scarcely  a  perceptible  effect. 

A  slate  or  tile  top  is  expensive  not  only 
in  its  original  cost,  but  also  as  a  destroyer 
of  glassware.  Wood  tops  when  painted, 
oiled,  or  paraffined  have  objectionable 
features,  the  latter  especially  in  warm 
weather.  Old  table  tops,  after  the  paint 
or  oil  is  scraped  off  down  to  the  wood, 
take  the  above  finish  nearly  as  well  as 
the  new  wood. 

To  Make  Wood  Acid-  and  Chlorine- 
Proof. — Take  6  pounds  of  wood  tar  and 
12  pounds  rosin,  and  melt  them  together 
in  an  iron  kettle,  after  which  stir  in  8 
pounds  finely  powdered  brick  dust. 
The  damaged  parts  must  be  cleaned 
perfectly  and  dried,  whereupon  they 
may  be  painted  over  with  the  warm 
preparation  or  filled  up  and  drawn  off, 
leaving  the  film  on  the  inside. 

Protecting  Cement  Against  Acid. — A 
paint  to  protect  cement  against  acid  is 
obtained  by  mixing  pure  asbestos,  very 
finely  powdered,  with  a  thick  solution  of 



sodium/  silicate',  Tlte"  sodium  silicate 
must  be  as  alkaline  as  possible.  • .  ']The 
asbestos  is  first  rubbed  with  a  small 
quantity  of  the  silicate,  until  a  cake  is 
obtained  and  then  kept  in  well-closed 
vessels.  For  use  this  cake  is  simply 
thinned  with  a  solution  of  the  silicate, 
which  furnishes  a  paint  two  or  three  ap- 
plications of  which  protect  the  walls  of 
reservoirs,  etc.,  against  any  acid  solid 
or  liquid.  This  mass  may  also  be  em- 
ployed for  making  a  coating  of  sand- 

To  Make  Corks  Impermeable  and 
Acid-Proof. — Choose  your  corks  care- 
fully. Then  plunge  them  into  a  solution 
of  gelatin  or  common  glue,  15  parts,  in 
24  parts  of  glycerine  and  500  parts  of 
water,  heated  to  44°  or  48°  C.  (112°-120° 
F.),  and  keep  them  there  for  several 
hours.  On  removing  the  corks,  which 
should  be  weighted  down  in  the  solution, 
dry  them  in  the  shade  until  they  are  free 
from  all  surplus  moisture.  They  are  now 
perfectly  tight,  retaining  at  the  same 
time  the  greater  portion  of  their  elasticity 
and  suppleness.  To  render  them  acid- 
proof,  they  should  be  treated  with  a 
mixture  of  vaseline,  2  parts,  and  paraffine 
7  parts,  heated  to  about  105°  F.  This 
second  operation  may  be  avoided  by 
adding  to  the  gelatin  solution  a  little 
ammonium  dichromate  and  afterwards 
exposing  the  corks  to  the  light. 

Lining  for  Acid  Receptacles. — Plates 
are  formed  of  1  part  of  brown  slate,  2 
of  powdered  glass,  and  1  of  Portland 
cement,  the  whole  worked  up  with  sili- 
cate of  soda,  molded  and  dried.  Make 
a  cement  composed  of  ground  slate  and 
silicate  of  soda  and  smear  the  surface 
for  the  lining;  then,  while  it  is  still  plastic, 
apply  the  plates  prepared  as  above  de- 
scribed. Instead  of  these  plates,  slabs 
of  glass  or  porcelain  or  similar  substances 
may  be  employed  with  the  same  cement. 


See  Adhesives  under  Mucilages. 


See  Glass. 

See  Paint. 


See  Solders. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 


See  Vinegar. 



Manufacture  of  Glue. — I. — The  usual 
process  of  removing  the  phosphate  of 
lime  from  bones  for  glue-making  pur- 
poses by  means  of  dilute  hydrochloric 
acid  has  the  disadvantage  that  the  acid 
cannot  be  regenerated.  Attempts  to  use 
sulphurous  acid  instead  have  so  far 
proved  unsuccessful,  as,  even  with  the 
large  quantities  used,  the  process  is  very 
slow.  According  to  a  German  invention 
this  difficulty  with  sulphurous  acid  can 
be  avoided  by  using  it  in  aqueous  solu- 
tion under  pressure.  The  solution  of 
the  lime  goes  on  very  rapidly,  it  is 
claimed,  and  no  troublesome  precipi- 
tation of  calcium  sulphite  takes  place. 
Both  phosphate  of  lime  and  sulphurous 
acid  are  regenerated  from  the  lyes  by 
simple  distillation. 

II. — Bones  may  be  treated  with  suc- 
cessive quantities  of  combined  sulphur- 
ous acid  and  water,  from  which  the  heat 
of  combination  has  been  previously  dis- 
sipated, the  solution  being  removed  after 
each  treatment,  before  the  bone  salts 
dissolved  therein  precipitate,  and  before 
the  temperature  rises  above  74°  F. — • 
U.  S.  Pat.  783,784. 

III. — A  patent  relating  to  the  process 
for  treating  animal  sinews,  preparatory 
for  the  glue  factory,  has  been  granted  to 
Florsheim,  Chicago,  and  consists  in  im- 
mersing animal  sinews  successively  in 
petroleum  or  benzine  to  remove  the  outer 
fleshy  animal  skin;  in  a  hardening  or 
preserving  bath,  as  boric  acid,  or  alum 
or  copper  sulphate;  and  in  an  alkaline 
bath  to  remove  fatty  matter  from  the 
fibrous  part  of  the  sinews.  The  sinews 
are  afterwards  tanned  and  disintegrated. 

Test  for  Glue.— The  more  water  the 
glue  takes  up,  swelling  it,  the  better  it 
is.  Four  ounces  of  the  glue  to  be  exam- 
ined are  soaked  for  about  12  hours  in  a 
cool  place  in  4  pounds  of  cold  water.  If 
the  glue  has  dissolved  after  this  time,  it 
is  of  bad  quality  and  of  little  value;  but  if 
it  is  coherent,  gelatinous,  and  weighing 
double,  it  is  good;  if  it  weighs  up  to  16 
ounces,  it  is  very  good;  if  as  much  as 
20  ounces,  it  may  be  called  excellent. 

To  Prevent  Glue  from  Cracking.— To 
prevent  glue  from  cracking,  which  fre- 
quently occurs  when  glued  articles  are 



exposed  to  the  heat  of  a  stove,  a  little 
chloride  of  potassium  is  added.  This 
prevents  the  glue  from  becoming  dry 
enough  to  crack.  Glue  thus  treated  will 
adhere  to  glass,  metals,  etc.,  and  may 
also  be  used  for  pasting  on  labels. 

Preventing  the  Putrefaction  of  Strong 
Glues. — The  fatty  matter  always  existing 
in  small  quantity  in  sheets  of  ordinary 
glue  affects  the  adhesive  properties  and 
facilitates  the  development  of  bacteria, 
and  consequently  putrefaction  and  de- 
composition. These  inconveniences  are 
remedied  by  adding  a  small  quantity  of 
caustic  soda  to  the  dissolved  glue.  The 
soda  prevents  decomposition  absolutely; 
with  the  fatty  matter  it  forms  a  hard  soap 
which  renders  it  harmless. 

Liquid  Glues. — 

I. — Glue 3  ounces 

Gelatin 3  ounces 

Acetic  acid 4  ounces 

Water 2  ounces 

Alum 30  grains 

Heat  together  for  6  hours,  skim,  and 

II. — Alcohol 1  fluidounce 

Brown  glue,  No.  2.  .      2  pounds 
Sodium  carbonate  . .    11  ounces 

Water 3£  pints 

Oil  of  clove 160  minims 

Dissolve  the  soda  in  the  water,  pour 
the  solution  over  the  dry  glue,  let  stand 
over  night  or  till  thoroughly  soaked  and 
swelled,  then  heat  carefully  on  a  water 
bath  until  dissolved.  When  nearly  cold 
stir  in  the  oil  of  cloves. 

By  using  white  glue,  a  finer  article,  fit 
for  fancy  work,  may  be  made. 

III. — Dissolve  by  heating  60  parts  of 
borax  in  420  parts  of  water,  add  480 
parts  dextrin  (pale  yellow)  and  50  parts 
of  glucose  and  heat  carefully  with  con- 
tinued stirring,  to  complete  solution; 
replace  the  evaporated  water  and  pour 
through  flannel. 

The  glue  made  in  this  way  remains 
clear  quite  a  long  time,  and  possesses 
great  adhesive  power;  it  also  dries  very 
quickly,  but  upon  careless  and  extended 
heating  above  90°  C.  (194°  F.),  it  is  apt 
to  turn  brown  and  brittle. 

IV. — Pour  50  parts  of  warm  (not  hot) 
water  over  50  parts  of  Cologne  glue  and 
allow  to  soak  over  night.  Next  day  the 
swelled  glue  is  dissolved  with  moderate 
heat,  and  if  still  too  thick,  a  little  more 
water  is  added.  When  this  is  done,  add 
from  2£  to  3  parts  of  crude  nitric  acid, 
stir  well,  and  fill  the  liquid  glue  in  well- 
corked  bottles.  This  is  a  good  liquid 
steam  glue. 

V. — Soak  1  pound  of  good  glue  in  a 
quart  of  water  for  a  few  hours,  then  melt 
the  glue  by  heating  it,  together  with  the 
unabsorbed  water,  then  stir  in  J  pound 
dry  white  lead,  and  when  that  is  well 
mixed  pour  in  4  fluidounces  of  alcohol 
and  continue  the  boiling  5  minutes  longer. 

VI. — Soak  1  pound  of  good  glue  in  1  \ 
pints  of  cold  water  for  5  hours,  then  add 
3  ounces  of  zinc  sulphate  and  2  fluid- 
ounces  of  hydrochloric  acid,  and  keep 
the  mixture  heated  for  10  or  12  hours  at 
175°  to  190°  F.  The  glue  remains  liquid 
and  may  be  used  for  sticking  a  variety  of 

VII. — A  very  inexpensive  liquid  glue 
may  be  prepared  by  first  soaking  and 
then  dissolving  gelatin  in  twice  its  own 
weight  of  water  at  a  very  gentle  heat; 
then  add  glacial  acetic  acid  in  weight 
equal  to  the  weight  of  the  dry  gelatin. 
It  should  be  remembered,  however,  that 
all  acid  glues  are  not  generally  applica- 

VIII.— Glue 200  parts 

Dilute  acetic  acid. .  400  parts 
Dissolve  by  the  aid  of  heat  and  add: 

Alcohol 25  parts 

Alum 5  parts 

IX. — Glue 5  parts 

Calcium  chloride. .  1  part 

Water 1  part 

X. — Sugar  of  lead 1  i  drachms 

Alum 1  i  drachms 

Gum  arabic 2£  drachms 

Wheat  flour 1 "  av.  Ib. 

Water,  q.  s. 

Dissolve  the  gum  in  2  quarts  of  warm 
water;  when  cold  mix  in  the  flour,  and 
add  the  sugar  of  lead  and  alum  dissolved 
in  wrater;  heat  the  whole  over  a  slow  fire 
until  it  shows  signs  of  ebullition.  Let  it 
cool,  and  add  enough  gum  water  to  bring 
it  to  the  proper  consistence. 

XI. — Dilute  1  part  of  official  phos- 
phoric acid  with  2  parts  of  water  and  neu- 
tralize the  solution  with  carbonate  of 
ammonium.  Add  to  the  liquid  an  equal 
quantity  of  water,  warm  it  on  a  water 
bath,  and  dissolve  in  it  sufficient  glue  to 
form  a  thick  syrupy  liquid.  Keep  in 
well-stoppered  bottles. 

XII. — Dissolve  3  parts  of  glue  in  small 
pieces  in  12  to  15  of  saccharate  of  lime. 
By  heating,  the  glue  dissolves  rapidly 
and  remains  liquid,  when  cold,  without 
loss  of  adhesive  power.  Any  desirable 
consistence  can  be  secured  by  varying 
the  amount  of  saccharate  of  lime.  Thick 
glue  retains  its  muddy  color,  while  a  thin 
solution  becomes  clear  on  standing. 

The  saccharate  of  lime  is  prepared  by 


dissolving  1  part  of  sugar  in  3  parts  of 
water,  and  after  adding  £  part  of  the 
weight  of  the  sugar  of  slaked  lime,  heat- 
ing the  whole  from  149°  to  185°  F.,  allow- 
ing it  to  macerate  for  several  days,  shaking 
it  frequently.  The  solution,  which  has 
the  properties  of  mucilage,  is  then  de- 
canted from  the  sediment. 

XIII. — In  a  solution  of  borax  in  water 
soak  a  good  quantity  of  glue  until  it  has 
thoroughly  imbibed  the  liquid.  Pour  off 
the  surplus  solution  and  then  put  on 
the  water  bath  and  melt  the  glue.  Cool 
down  until  the  glue  begins  to  set,  then 
add,  drop  by  drop,  with  agitation, 
enough  acetic  acid  to  check  the  tendency 
to  solidification.  If,  after  becoming 
quite  cold,  there  is  still  a  tendency  to 
solidification,  add  a  few  drops  more  of 
the  acid.  The  liquid  should  be  of  the 
consistence  of  ordinary  mucilage  at  all 

XIV.— Gelatin 100  parts 

Cabinetmakers'  glue.     100  parts 

Alcohol 25  parts 

Alum 2  parts 

Acetic   acid,    20   per 

cent 800  parts 

Soak  the  gelatin  and  glue  with  the 
acetic  acid  and  heat  on  a  water  bath  until 
fluid;  then  add  the  alum  and  alcohol. 

XV.— Glue 10  parts 

Water 15  parts 

Sodium  salicylate. ...  1  part 
XVI. — Soak  5  parts  of  Cologne  glue 
in  an  aqueous  calcium  chloride  solution 
(1  : 4)  and  heat  on  the  water  bath  until 
dissolved,  replacing  the  evaporating 
water;  or  slack  100  parts  of  lime  with  150 
parts  of  hot  water,  dissolve  60  parts  of 
sugar  in  180  parts  of  water,  and  add  15 
parts  of  the  slacked  lime  to  the  solution, 
heating  the  whole  to  75°  C.  (167°  F.). 
Place  aside  for  a  few  days,  shaking  from 
time  to  time.  In  the  clear  sugar-lime 
solution  collected  by  decanting  soak  60 
parts  of  glue  and  assist  the  solution  by 
moderate  heating. 

XVII.— Molasses,  100  parts,  dissolved 
in  300  parts  of  water,  25  parts  of  quick- 
lime (slaked  to  powder),  being  then 
stirred  in  arid  the  mixture  heated  to  167° 
F.  on  a  water  bath,  with  frequent  stir- 
rings. After  settling  for  a  few  days  a 
large  portion  of  the  lime  will  have  dis- 
solved, and  the  clear,  white,  thick  solu- 
tion, when  decanted,  behaves  like  rubber 
solution  and  makes  a  highly  adherent 

XVIII.— Dissolve  bone  glue,  250 
parts,  by  heating  in  1,000  parts  of  water, 
and  add  to  the  solution  barium  perox- 
ide 10  parts,  sulphuric  acid  (66°  B.)  5 

parts,  and  water  15  parts.  Heat  for  48 
hours  on  the  water  bath  to  80°  C.  (176° 
F.).  Thus  a  syrupy  liquid  is  obtained, 
which  is  allowed  to  settle  and  is  then 
decanted.  This  glue  has  no  unpleasant 
odor,  and  does  not  mold. 

JQX. — A  glue  possessing  the  adhesive 
qualities  of  ordinary  joiners'  glue,  but 
constituting  a  pale  yellow  liquid  which  is 
ready  for  use  without  requiring  heating 
and  possesses  great  resistance  to  damp- 
ness, is  produced  by  treating  dry  casein 
with  a  diluted  borax  solution  or  with 
enough  ammonia  solution  to  cause  a 
faintly  alkaline  reaction.  The  prepara- 
tion may  be  employed  alone  or  mixed 
with  liquid  starch  in  any  proportion. 

Glue  for  Celluloid. — I. — Two  parts 
shellac,  3  parts  spirits  of  camphor,  and  4 
parts  strong  alcohol  dissolved  in  a  warm 
place,  give  an  excellent  gluing  agent  to  fix 
wood,  tin,  and  other  bodies  to  celluloid. 
The  glue  must  be  kept  well  corked  up. 

II. — A  collodion  solution  may  be  used, 
or  an  alcoholic  solution  of  fine  celluloid 

Glue  to  Form  Paper  Pads. — 

I. — Glue 3^  ounces 

Glycerine 8    ounces 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity. 
Pour  upon  the  glue  more  than  enough 
water  to  cover  it  and  let  stand  for  several 
hours,  then  decant  the  greater  portion  of 
the  water;  apply  heat  until  the  glue  is 
dissolved,  and  add  the  glycerin.  If  the 
mixture  is  too  thick,  add  more  water. 

II. — Glue 6    ounces 

Alum 30    grains 

Acetic  acid £  ounce 

Alcohol 1 1  ounces 

Water 6§  ounces 

Mix  all  but  the  alcohol,  digest  on  a 
water  bath  till  the  glue  is  dissolved,  allow 
to  cool  and  add  the  alcohol. 

III. — Glue 5  ounces 

Water 1  ounce 

Calcium  chloride. .        1  ounce 
Dissolve  the  calcium  chloride  in  the 
water,  add  the  glue,  macerate  until  it  is 
thoroughly  softened,  and  then  heat  until 
completely  dissolved. 

IV. — Glue 20  ounces 

Glycerine 5  ounces 

Syrupy  glucose.  . .        1  ounce 

Tannin 50  grains 

Cover  the  glue  with  cold  water,  and  let 
stand  over  night.  In  the  morning  pour 
off  superfluous  water,  throw  the  glue  on 
muslin,  and  manipulate  so  as  to  get  rid 
of  as  much  moisture  as  possible,  then  put 
in  a  water  bath  and  melt.  Add  the  glyc- 


erine  and  syrup,  and  stir  well   in.     Fi- 
nally, dissolve  the  tannin  in  the  smallest 
quantity  of  water  possible  and  add. 
This  mixture  must  be  used  hot. 

V. — Glue 15  ounces 

Glycerine 5  ounces 

Linseed  oil 2  ounces 

Sugar 1  ounce 

Soak  the  glue  as  before,  melt,  add  the 
sugar  and  glycerine,  continuing  the  heat, 
and  finally  add  the  oil  gradually  under 
constant  stirring. 

This  must  be  used  hot. 

Glue  for  Tablets.— 

I. — Glue 3^  ounces 

Glycerine 8    ounces 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity. 
Pour  upon  the  glue  more  than  enough 
water  to  cover  it  and  let  stand  for  several 
hours,  then  decant  the  greater  portion  of 
the  water;  apply  heat  until  the  glue  is 
dissolved,  and  add  the  glycerine.  If  the 
mixture  is  too  thick,  add  more  water. 

II. — Glue 6     ounces 

Alum 30    grains 

Acetic  acid £  ounce 

Alcohol if  ounces 

Water G|  ounces 

Mix  all  but  the  alcohol,  digest  on  a 
water  bath  till  the  glue  is  dissolved,  allow 
to  cool  and  add  the  alcohol. 

III. — Glue.  . .- 5  ounces 

Water 1  ounce 

Calcium  chloride.  . .        1  ounce 
Dissolve  the  calcium  chloride  in  the 
water,  add  the  glue,  macerate  until  it  is 
thoroughly  softened,  and  then  apply  heat 
until  completely  dissolved. 

IV. — Glue,  1  pound;  glycerine,  4  ounces; 
glucose  syrup,  2  tablespoonfuls;  tannin, 
-^o  ounce.  Use  warm,  and  give  an  hour 
to  dry  and  set  on  the  pads.  This  can  be 
colored  with  any  aniline  dye. 

Marine  Glue. — Marine  glue  is  a  prod- 
uct consisting  of  shellac  and  caoutchouc, 
which  is  mixed  differently  according  to 
the  use  for  which  it  is  required.  The 
quantity  of  benzol  used  as  solvent  gov- 
erns the  hardness  or  softness  of  the  glue. 

I. — One  part  Para  caoutchouc  is  dis- 
solved in  12  parts  benzol;  20  parts  pow- 
dered shellac  are  added  to  the  solution, 
and  the  mixture  is  carefully  heated. 

II. — Stronger  glue  is  obtained  by  dis- 
solving 10  parts  good  crude  caoutchouc 
in  120  parts  benzine  or  naphtha  which 
solution  is  poured  slowly  and  in  a  fine 
stream  into  20  parts  asphaltum  melted 
in  a  kettle,  stirring  constantly  and  heat- 
ing. Pour  the  finished  glue,  after  the 
solvent  has  almost  evaporated  and  the 

mass  has  become  quite  uniform,  into  flat 
molds,  in  which  it  solidifies  into  very  hard 
tablets  of  dark  brown  or  black  color. 
For  use,  these  glue  tablets  are  first  soaked 
in  boiling  water  and  then  heated  over  a 
free  flame  until  the  marine  glue  has  be- 
come thinly  liquid.  The  pieces  to  be 
glued  are  also  warmed  and  a  very  durable 
union  is  obtained. 

III. — Cut  caoutchouc  into  small  pieces 
and  dissolve  in  coal  naphtha  by  heat  and 
agitation.  Add  to  this  solution  pow- 
dered shellac,  and  heat  the  whole,  con- 
stantly stirring  until  combination  takes 
place,  then  pour  it  on  metal  plates  to  form 
sheets.  When  used  it  must  be  heated  to 
248°  F.,  and  applied  with  a  brush. 

Water-Proof  Glues.— I.— The  glue  is 
put  in  water  till  it  is  soft,  and  subse- 
quently melted  in  linseed  oil  at  moderate 
heat.  This  glue  is  affected  neither  by 
water  nor  by  vapors. 

II. — Dissolve  a  small  quantity  of  san- 
darac  and  mastic  in  a  little  alcohol,  and 
add  a  little  turpentine.  The  solution  is 
boiled  in  a  kettle  over  the  fire,  and  an 
equal  quantity  of  a  strong  hot  solution  of 
glue  and  isinglass  is  added.  Then  filter 
through  a  cloth  while  hot. 

III. — Water-proof  glue  may  also  be 
produced  by  the  simple  addition  of 
bichromate  of  potassium  to  the  liquid  glue 
solution,  and  subsequent  exposure  to  the 

IV. — Mix  glue  as  usual,  and  then  add 
linseed  oil  in  the  proportion  of  1  part  oil 
to  8  parts  glue.  If  it  is  desired  that  the 
mixture  remain  liquid,  \  ounce  of  nitric 
acid  should  be  added  to  every  pound  of 
glue.  This  will  also  prevent  the  glue 
from  souring. 

V.— In  1,000  parts  of  rectified  alcohol 
dissolve  60  parts  of  sandarac  and  as 
much  mastic  whereupon  add  60  parts  of 
white  oil  of  turpentine.  Next,  prepare  a 
rather  strong  glue  solution  and  add  about 
the  like  quantity  of  isinglass,  heating  the 
solution  until  it  commences  to  boil;  then 
slowly  add  the  hot  glue  solution  till  a  thin 
paste  forms,  which  can  still  be  filtered 
through  a  cloth.  Heat  the  solution  be- 
fore use  and  employ  like  ordinary  glue. 
A  connection  effected  with  this  glue  is 
not  dissolved  by  cold  water  and  even 
resists  hot  water  for  a  long  time. 

Vl.— Soak  1,000  parts  of  Cologne  glue 
in  cold  water  for  12  hours  and  in  another 
vessel  for  the  same  length  of  time  150 
parts  of  isinglass  in  a  mixture  of  lamp 
spirit  and  water.  Then  dissolve  both 
masses  together  on  the  water  bath  in  a 
suitable  vessel,  thinning,  if  necessary, 
with  some  hot  water.  Next  add  100 


parts  of  linseed  oil  varnish  and  filter  hot 
through  linen. 

VII. — Ordinary  glue  is  kept  in  water 
until  it  swells  up  without  losing  its  shape. 
Thus  softened  it  is  placed  in  an  iron 
crucible  without  adding  water;  then  add 
linseed  oil  according  to  the  quantity  of 
the  glue  and  leave  this  mixture  to  boil 
over  a  slow  fire  until  a  gelatinous  mass 
results.  Such  glue  unites  materials  in  a 
very  durable  manner.  It  adheres  firmly 
and  hardens  quickly.  Its  chief  advan- 
tage, however,  consists  in  that  it  neither 
absorbs  water  nor  allows  it  to  pass 
through,  whereby  the  connecting  places 
are  often  destroyed.  A  little  borax  will 
prevent  putrefaction. 

VIII. — Bichromate  of  potassium  40 
parts  (by  weight);  gelatin  glue,  55  parts; 
alum,  5  parts.  Dissolve  the  glue  in  a 
little  water  and  add  the  bichromate  of 
potassium  and  the  alum. 

IX. — This  preparation  permits  an  ab- 
solutely permanent  gluing  of  pieces  of 
cardboard,  even  when  they  are  moist- 
ened by  water.  Melt  together  equal 
parts  of  good  pitch  and  gutta-percha;  of 
this  take  9  parts,  and  add  to  it  3  parts  of 
boiled  linseed  oil  and  1 A  parts  of  litharge. 
Place  this  over  the  fire  and  stir  it  till  all 
the  ingredients  are  intimately  mixed. 
The  mixture  may  be  diluted  with  a  little 
benzine  or  oil  of  turpentine,  and  must  be 
warm  when  used. 

Glue  to  Fasten  Linoleum  on  Iron 
Stairs. — I. — Use  a  mixture  of  glue,  isin- 
glass, and  dextrin  which,  dissolved  in 
water  and  heated,  is  given  an  admixture 
of  turpentine.  The  strips  pasted  down 
must  be  weighted  with  boards  and  brick 
on  top  until  the  adhesive  agent  has  hard- 

II. — Soak  3  parts  of  glue  in  8  parts 
water,  add  A  part  hydrochloric  acid  and 
f  part  zinc  vitriol  and  let  this  mixture 
boil  several  hours.  Coat  the  floor  and 
the  back  of  the  linoleum  with  this. 
Press  the  linoleum  down  uniformly  and 
firmly  and  weight  it  for  some  time. 

Glue  for  Attaching  Gloss  to  Precious 
Metals. — Sandarac  varnish,  15  parts; 
marine  glue,  5  parts;  drying  oil,  5  parts; 
white  lead,  5  parts;  Spanish  white,  5 
parts;  turpentine,  5  parts.  Triturate  all  to 
form  a  rather  homogeneous  paste.  This 
glue  becomes  very  hard  and  resisting. 

Elastic  Glue. — Although  elastic  glue  is 
less  durable  than  rubber,  and  will  not 
stand  much  heat,  yet  it  is  cheaper  than 
rubber,  and  is  not,  like  rubber  affected 
by  oil  colors.  Hence  it  is  largely  used 
for  printing  rollers  and  stamps.  For 

stamps,  good  glue  is  soaked  for  24  hours 
in  soft  water.  The  water  is  poured  off, 
and  the  swollen  glue  is  melted  and  mixed 
with  glycerine  and  a  little  salicylic  acid 
and  cast  into  molds.  The  durability  is  in- 
creased by  painting  the  mass  with  a  solu- 
tion of  tannin,  or,  better,  of  bichromate 
of  potassium.  Printing  rollers  require 
greater  firmness  and  elasticity.  The 
mass  for  them  once  consisted  solely  of 
glue  and  vinegar,  and  their  manufacture 
was  very  difficult.  The  use  of  glycerine 
has  remedied  this,  and  gives  great  elas- 
ticity without  adhesiveness,  and  has  re- 
moved the  liability  of  moldiness.  Swol- 
len glue,  which  has  been  superficially 
dried,  is  fused  with  glycerine  and  cast 
into  oil  molds.  Similar  mixtures  are 
used  for  casting  plaster  ornaments,  etc., 
and  give  very  sharp  casts.  A  mass  con- 
sisting of  glue  and  glycerine  is  poured 
over  the  model  in  a  box.  When  the  mold 
is  removed,  it  is  painted  with  plaster  out- 
side and  with  boiled  oil  inside,  and  can 
then  be  used  many  times  for  making  re- 
productions of  the  model. 

Glue  for  Paper  and  Metal. — A  glue 
which  will  keep  well  and  adhere  tightly 
is  obtained  by  diluting  1,000  parts  by 
weight  of  potato  starch  in  1,200  parts  by 
weight  of  water  and  adding  50  parts  by 
weight  of  pure  nitric  acid.  The  mixture 
is  kept  in  a  hot  place  for  48  hours,  taking 
care  to  stir  frequently.  It  is  afterwards 
boiled  to  a  thick  and  transparent  consist- 
ency, diluted  with  water  if  there  is  occa- 
sion, and  then  there  are  added  in  the 
form  of  a  screened  powder,  2  parts  of  sal 
ammoniac  and  1  part  of  sulphur  flowers. 

Glue  for  Attaching  Cloth  Strips  to  Iron. 
— Soak  500  parts  of  Cologne  glue  in  the 
evening  with  clean  cold  water  in  a  clean 
vessel;  in  the  morning  pour  off  the  water, 
place  the  softened  glue  without  admix- 
ture of  water  into  a  clean  copper  or 
enamel  receptacle,  which  is  put  on  a  mod- 
erate low  fire  (charcoal  or  steam  appa- 
ratus). During  the  dissolution  the  mass 
must  be  continually  stirred  with  a  wood- 
en trowel  or  spatula.  If  the  glue  is  too 
thick,  it  is  thinned  with  diluted  spirit, 
but  not  with  water.  As  soon  as  the  glue 
has  reached  the  boiling  point,  about  50 
parts  of  linseed  oil  varnish  (boiled  oil)  is 
added  to  the  mass  with  constant  stirring. 
When  the  latter  has  been  stirred  up  well, 
add  50  parts  of  powdered  colophony  and 
shake  it  into  the  mass  with  stirring, 
subsequently  removing  the  glue  from  the 
fire.  In  order  to  increase  the  binding 
qualities  and  to  guard  against  moisture, 
it  is  well  still  to  add  about  50  parts  of 
isinglass,  which  has  been  previously  cut 



into  narrow  strips  and  placed,  well 
beaten,  in  a  vessel,  into  which  enough 
spirit  of  wine  has  been  poured  to  cover 
all.  When  dissolved,  the  last  -  named 
mass  is  added  to  the  boiling  glue  with 
constant  stirring.  The  adhesive  agent 
is  now  ready  for  use  and  is  employed  hot, 
it  being  advisable  to  warm  the  iron  also. 
Apply  glue  only  to  a  surface  equivalent 
to  a  single  strip  at  a  time.  The  strips  are 
pressed  down  with  a  stiff  brush  or  a  wad 
of  cloth. 

Glue  for  Leather  or  Cardboard. — To 
attach  leather  to  cardboard  dissolve 
good  glue  (softened  by  swelling  in  water) 
with  a  little  turpentine  and  enough  water 
in  an  ordinary  glue  pot,  and  then  having 
made  a  thick  paste  with  starch  in  the 
proportion  of  2  parts  by  weight,  of  starch 
powder  for  every  1  part,  by  weight,  of 
dry  glue,  mix  the  compounds  and  allow 
the  mixture  to  become  cold  before  appli- 
cation to  the  cardboard. 

For  Wood,  Glass,  Cardboard,  and  all 
Articles  of  a  Metallic  or  Mineral  Char- 
acter.— Take  boiled  linseed  oil  20  parts, 
Flemish  glue  20  parts,  hydrated  lime  15 
parts,  powdered  turpentine  5  parts,  alum 
5  parts  acetic  acid  5  parts.  Dissolve  the 
glue  with  the  acetic  acid,  add  the  alum, 
then  the  hydrated  lime,  and  finally  the 
turpentine  and  the  boiled  linseed  oil. 
Triturate  all  well  until  it  forms  a  homo- 
geneous paste  and  keep  in  well-closed 
flasks.  Use  like  any  other  glue. 

Glue  for  Uniting  Metals  with  Fabrics. 
— Cologne  glue  of  good  quality  is  soaked 
and  boiled  down  to  the  consistency  of 
that  used  by  cabinetmakers.  Then  add, 
with  constant  stirring,  sifted  wood  ashes 
until  a  moderately  thick,  homogeneous 
mass  results.  Use  hot  and  press  the 
pieces  well  together  during  the  drying. 
For  tinfoil,  about  2  per  cent  of  boracic 
acid  should  be  added  instead  of  the  wood 

Glue  or  Paste  for  Making  Paper 
Boxes. — 

Chloral  hydrate 5  parts 

Gelatin,  white 8  parts 

Gum  arabic 2  parts 

Boiling  water 30  parts 

Mix  the  chloral,  gelatin,  and  gum 
arabic  in  a  porcelain  container,  pour  the 
boiling  water  over  the  mixture  and  let 
stand  for  1  day,  giving  it  a  vigorous  stir- 
ring several  times  during  the  day.  In 
cold  weather  this  is  apt  to  get  hard  and 
stiff,  but  this  may  be  obviated  by  stand- 
ing the  container  in  warm  water  for  a 
few  minutes.  This  paste  adheres  to  any 
surface  whatever. 

Natural  Glue  for  Cementing  Porcelain, 
Crystal  Glass,  etc.— The  large  shell 
snails  which  are  found  in  vineyards  have 
at  the  extremity  of  their  body  a  small, 
whitish  bladder  filled  with  a  substance 
of  greasy  and  gelatinous  aspect.  If  this 
substance  extracted  from  the  bladder  is 
applied  on  the  fragments  of  porcelain  or 
any  body  whatever,  which  are  juxtaposed 
by  being  made  to  touch  at  all  parts,  they 
acquire  such  adhesion  that  if  one  strives 
to  separate  them  by  a  blow,  they  are 
more  liable  to  break  at  another  place 
than  the  cemented  seam.  It  is  necessary 
to  give  this  glue  sufficient  time  to  dry  per- 
fectly, so  as  to  permit  it  to  acquire  the 
highest  degree  of  strength  and  tenacity. 

Belt  Glue. — A  glue  for  belts  can  be 
prepared  as  follows:  Soak  50  parts  of 
gelatin  in  water,  pour  off  the  excess  of 
water,  and  heat  on  the  water  bath.  With 
good  stirring  add,  first,  5  parts,  by 
weight,  of  glycerine,  then  10  parts,  by 
weight,  of  turpentine,  and  5  parts,  by 
weight,  of  linseed  oil  varnish  and  thin 
with  water  as  required.  The  ends  of  the 
belts  to  be  glued  are  cut  off  obliquely  and 
warmed;  then  the  hot  glue  is  applied,  and 
the  united  parts  are  subjected  to  strong 
pressure,  allowing  them  to  dry  thvs  for 
24  hours  before  the  belts  are  used. 

Chromium  Glue  for  Wood,  Paper,  and 
Cloth. — I.  —  (a)  One-half  pound  strong 
glue  (any  glue  if  color  is  immaterial, 
white  fish  glue  otherwise);  soak  12  hours 
in  12  fluidounces  of  cold  water,  (b)  One- 
quarter  pound  gelatin;  soak  2  hours  in 
12  fluidounces  cold  water,  (c)  Two 
ounces  bichromate  of  potassium  dis- 
solved in  8  fluidounces  boiling  water. 
Dissolve  (a)  after  soaking,  in  a  glue  pot, 
and  add  (6).  After  (a)  and  (fc)  are  mixed 
and  dissolved,  stir  in  (c).  This  glue  is 
exceedingly  strong,  and  if  the  article 
cemented  be  exposed  to  strong  sunlight 
for  1  hour,  the  glue  becomes  perfectly 
waterproof.  Of  course,  it  is  understood 
that  the  exposure  to  sunlight  is  to  be 
made  after  the  glue  is  thoroughly  dry. 
The  one  objectionable  feature  of  this 
cement  is  its  color,  which  is  a  yellow- 
brown.  By  substituting  chrome  alum 
in  place  of  the  bichromate,  an  olive  color 
is  obtained. 

II. — Use  a  moderately  strong  gelatin 
solution  (containing  5  to  10  per  cent  of 
dry  gelatin),  to  which  about  1  part  of 
acid  chromate  of  potassium  in  solution  is 
added  to  every  5  parts  of  gelatin.  This 
mixture  has  the  property  of  becoming  in- 
soluble by  water  through  the  action  of 
sunlight  under  partial  reduction  of  the 
chromic  acid. 



Fireproof  Glue. — 

Raw  linseed  oil 8  parts 

Glue  or  gelatin 1  part 

Quicklime 2  parts 

Soak  the  glue  or  gelatin  in  the  oil  for 
10  to  12  hours,  and  then  melt  it  by  gently 
heating  the  oil,  and  when  perfectly  fluid 
stir  in  the  quicklime  until  the  whole 
mass  is  homogeneous,  then  spread  out  in 
layers  to  dry  gradually,  out  of  the  sun's 
rays.  For  use,  reheat  the  glue  in  a  glue 
pot  in  the  ordinary  way  of  melting  glue. 


Under  this  heading  will  be  found  only 
cements  for  causing  one  substance  to  ad- 
here to  another.  Cements  used  prima- 
rily as  fillers,  such  as  dental  cements, 
will  be  found  under  Cements,  Putties, 

Cutlers'  Cements  for  Fixing  Knife 
Blades  into  Handles. — 

I. — Rosin 4  pounds 

Beeswax 1  pound 

Plaster    of    Paris     or 

brickdust 1  pound 

II.— Pitch 5  pounds 

Wood  ashes 1  pound 

Tallow 1  pound 

III. — Rosin,  12;  sulphur  flowers,  3; 
iron  filings,  5.  Melt  together,  fill  the 
handle  while  hot,  and  insert  the  instru- 

IV. — Plaster  of  Paris  is  ordinarily 
used  for  fastening  loose  handles.  It  is 
made  into  a  moderately  thick  paste  with 
water  run  into  the  hole  in  the  head  of  the 
pestle,  the  handle  inserted  and  held  in 
place  till  the  cement  hardens.  Some  add 
sand  to  the  paste,  and  claim  to  get  better 

V. — Boil  together  1  part  of  caustic  soda, 
3  parts  of  rosin,  and  5  parts  of  water  till 
homogeneous  and  add  4  parts  of  plaster 
of  Paris.  The  paste  sets  in  half  an  hour 
and  is  but  little  affected  by  water. 

VI. — 'Equal  quantities  of  gutta  percha 
and  shellac  are  melted  together  and  well 
stirred.  This  is  best  done  in  an  iron  cap- 
sule placed  on  a  sandbath  and  heated 
over  a  gas  furnace  or  on  the  top  of  a 
stove.  The  combination  possesses  both 
hardness  and  toughness,  qualities  that 
make  it  particularly  desirable  in  mend- 
ing mortars  and  pestles.  In  using, 
the  articles  to  be  cemented  should  be 
warmed  to  about  the  melting  point  of  the 
mixture  and  retained  in  proper  position 
until  cool,  when  they  are  ready  for  use. 

VII.— Rosin 600  )    Parts 

Sulphur 150  }•     by 

Iron  filings 250  )  weight. 

Pour  the  mixture,  hot,  into  the  opening 
of  the  heated  handle  and  shove  in  the 
knife  likewise  heated. 

VIII. — Melt  sufficient  black  rosin,  and 
incorporate  thoroughly  with  it  one-fifth  its 
weight  of  very  fine  silver  sand.  Make 
the  pestle  hot,  pour  in  a  little  of  the  mix- 
ture, then  force  the  handle  well  home, 
and  set  aside  for  a  day  before  using. 

IX. — Make  a  smooth,  moderately  soft 
paste  with  litharge  and  glycerine;  fill  the 
hole  in  the  pestle  with  the  cement,  and 
firmly  press  the  handle  in  place,  keeping 
it  under  pressure  for  three  or  four  days. 

Cements  for  Stone. — I. — An  excellent 
cement  for  broken  marble  consists  of  4 
parts  of  gypsum  and  1  part  of  finely 
powdered  gum  arabic.  Mix  intimately. 
Then  with  a  cold  solution  of  borax  make 
into  a  mortarlike  mass.  Smear  on  each 
face  of  the  parts  to  be  joined,  and  fasten 
the  bits  of  marble  together.  In  the 
course  of  a  few  days  the  cement  becomes 
very  hard  and  holds  very  tenaciously. 
The  object  mended  should  not  be  touched 
for  several  days.  In  mending  colored 
marbles  the  cement  may  be  given  the  hue 
of  the  marble  by  adding  the  color  to  the 
borax  solution. 

II. — A  cement  which  dries  instanta- 
neously, qualifying  it  for  all  sorts  of  re- 
pairing and  only  presenting  the  disad- 
vantage of  having  to  be  freshly  prepared 
each  time,  notwithstanding  any  subse- 

?uent  heating,  may  be  made  as  follows: 
n  a  metal  vessel  or  iron  spoon  melt  4  to 
5  parts  of  rosin  (or  preferably  mastic) 
and  1  part  of  beeswax.  This  mixture 
must  be  applied  rapidly  it  being  of  ad- 
vantage slightly  to  heat  tne  surfaces  to  be 
united,  which  naturally  must  have  been 
previously  well  cleaned. 

III.— Slaked  lime,  10  parts;  chalk,  15 
parts;  kaolin,  5  parts;  mix.  and  imme- 
diately before  use  stir  with  a  correspond- 
ing amount  of  potash  water  glass. 

IV.— Cement  on  Marble  Slabs.— The 
whole  marble  slab  is  thoroughly  warmed 
and  laid  face  down  upon  a  neatly  cleaned 
planing  bench  upon  which  a  woolen  cloth 
is  spread  so  as  not  to  injure  the  polish  of 
the  slab.  Next  apply  to  the  slab  very 
hot,  weak  glue  and  quickly  sift  hot  plaster 
of  Paris  on  the  glue  in  a  thin  even  layer, 
stirring  the  plaster  rapidly  into  the  ap- 
plied glue  by  means  of  a  strong  spatula, 
so  that  a  uniform  glue-plaster  coating 
is  formed  on  the  warm  slab.  Before  this 
has  time  to  harden  tip  the  respective  piece 
of  furniture  on  the  slab.  The  frame,  like- 
wise warmed,  will  adhere  very  firmly  to  the 
slab  after  two  days.  Besides,  this  process 
has  the  advantage  of  great  cleanliness. 



V. — The  following  is  a  recipe  used  by 
marble  worKers,  and  which  probably 
can  be  used  to  advantage:  Flour  of  sul- 
phur, 1  part;  hydrocnlorate  of  am- 
monia, 2  parts;  iron  filings,  16  parts. 
The  above  substances  must  be  reduced 
to  a  powder,  and  securely  preserved 
in  closely  stoppered  vessels.  When  the 
cement  is  to  be  employed,  take  20  parts 
very  fine  iron  filings  and  1  part  of  the 
above  powder;  mix  them  together  with 
enough  water  to  form  a  manageable 
paste.  This  paste  solidifies  in  20  days 
and  becomes  as  hard  as  iron.  A  recipe 
for  another  cement  useful  for  joining 
small  pieces  of  marble  or  alabaster  is  as 
follows:  Add  £  pint  of  vinegar  to  J  pint 
skimmed  milk;  mix  the  curd  with  the 
whites  of  5  eggs,  well  beaten,  and  suffi- 
cient powdered  quicklime  sifted  in  with 
constant  stirring  so  as  to  form  a  paste. 
It  resists  water  and  a  moderate  degree  of 

VI. — Cement  for  Iron  and  Marble. — 
For  fastening  iron  to  marble  or  stone  a 
good  cement  is  made  as  follows:  Thirty 
parts  plaster  of  Paris,  10  parts  iron  filings, 
A  part  sal  ammoniac  mixed  with  vinegar 
to  a  fluid  paste  fresh  for  use. 

Cement  -for  Sandstones. — One  part 
sulphur  and  1  part  rosin  are  melted 
separately;  the  melted  masses  are  mixed 
and  3  parts  litharge  and  2  parts  ground 
glass  stirred  in.  The  latter  ingredients 
must  be  perfectly  dry,  and  have  been 
well  pulverized  and  mixed  previously. 

Equally  good  cement  is  obtained  by 
melting  together  1  part  pitch  and  iV  part 
wax,  and  mixing  with  2  parts  brickdust. 

The  stones  to  be  cemented,  or  be- 
tween the  joints  of  which  the  putty  is  to 
be  poured,  must  be  perfectly  dry.  If 
practicable,  they  should  be  warmed  a 
little,  and  the  surfaces  to  which  the  putty 
is  to  adhere  painted  with  oil  varnish 
once  or  twice.  The  above  two  formulae 
are  of  especial  value  in  case  the  stones 
are  very  much  exposed  to  the  heat  of  the 
sun  in  summer,  as  well  as  to  cold,  rain, 
and  snow  in  winter.  Experience  has 
shown  that  in  these  instances  the  above- 
mentioned  cements  give  better  satisfac- 
tion than  the  other  brands  of  cement. 

Cements  for  Attaching  Objects  to 

Rosin 1  part 

Yellow  wax 2  parts 

Melt  together. 

To  Attach  Copper  to  Glass.— Boil  1 
part  of  caustic  soda  and  3  parts  of  co- 
lophony in  5  parts  of  water  and  mix  with 
the  like  quantity  of  plaster  of  Paris. 

This  cement  is  not  attacked  by  water, 
heat,  and  petroleum.  If,  in  place  of  the 
plaster  of  Paris,  zinc  white,  white  lead, 
or  slaked  lime  is  used,  the  cement  hard- 
ens more  slowly. 

To  Fasten  Brass  upon  Glass.  —Boil  to- 
gether 1  part  of  caustic  soda,  3  parts  of 
rosin,  3  parts  of  gypsum,  and  5  parts  of 
water.  The  cement  made  in  this  way 
hardens  in  about  half  an  hour,  hence  i't 
must  be  applied  quickly.  During  the 
preparation  it  should  be  stirred  con- 
stantly. All  the  ingredients  used  must 
be  in  a  finely  powdered  state. 

Uniting  Glass  with  Horn.  — (1)  A  solu- 
tion of  2  parts  of  gelatin  in  20  parts  water 
is  evaporated  up  to  one-sixth  of  its  volume 
and  J  mastic  dissolved  in  ^  spirit  added 
and  some  zinc  white  stirred  in.  The 
putty  is  applied  warm;  it  dries  easily 
and  can  be  kept  a  long  time.  (2)  Mix 
gold  size  with  the  equal  volume  of  water 

To  Cement  Glass  to  Iron. — 

I. — Rosin 5  ounces 

Yellow  wax 1  ounce 

Venetian  red 1  ounce 

Melt  the  wax  and  rosin  on  a  water 
bath  and  add,  under  constant  stirring,  the 
Venetian  red  previously  well  dried.  Stir 
until  nearly  cool,  so  as  to  prevent  the  Ve- 
netian red  from  settling  to  the  bottom. 

II. — Portland  cement 2  ounces 

Prepared  chalk 1  ounce 

Fine  sand 1  ounce 

Solution  of  sodium  silicate 
enough  to  form  a  semi- 
liquid  paste. 

III. — Litharge 2  parts 

White  lead 1  part 

Work  into  a  pasty  condition  by  using 
3  parts  boiled  linseed  oil,  1  part  copal 

Celluloid  Cements. — I. — To  mend  brok- 
en draughting  triangles  and  other  cellu- 
loid articles,  use  3  parts  alcohol  and  4 
parts  ether  mixed  together  and  applied  to 
the  fracture  with  a  brush  until  the  edges 
become  warm.  The  edges  are  then 
stuck  together,  and  left  to  dry  for  at  least 
24  hours. 

II. — Camphor,  1  part;  alcohol,  4  parts. 
Dissolve  and  add  equal  quantity  (by 
weight)  of  shellac  to  this  solution.  N 

III. — If  firmness  is  desired  in  putting 
celluloid  on  wood,  tin,  etc.,  the  following 
gluing  agent  is  recommended,  viz.:  A 
compound  of  2  parts  shellac,  3  parts 
spirit  of  camphor,  and  4  parts  strong 



IV. — Shellac 2  ounces 

Spirits  of  camphor. .  2  ounces 
Alcohol,  90  per  cent. .  6  to  8  ounces 
V.  — Make  a  moderately  strong  glue  or 
solution  of  gelatin.  In  a  dark  place  or 
a  dark  room  mix  with  the  above  a  small 
amount  of  concentrated  solution  of  potas- 
sium dichromate.  Coat  the  back  of  the 
label,  which  must  be  clean,  with  a  thin 
layer  of  the  mixture.  Strongly  press  the 
label  against  the  bottle  and  keep  the  two 
in  close  contact  by  tying  with  twine  or 
otherwise.  Expose  to  sunlight  for  some 
hours;  this  causes  the  cement  to  be  insol- 
uble even  in  hot  water. 

VI. — Lime av.  oz.  1 

White  of  egg av.  oz.  2£ 

Plaster  of  Paris av.  oz.  5| 

Water fl.    oz.  1 

Reduce  the  lime  to  a  fine  powder;  mix 
it  with  the  white  of  egg  by  trituration, 
forming  a  uniform  paste.  Dilute  with 
water,  rapidly  incorporate  the  plaster  of 
Paris,  and  use  the  cement  immediately. 
The  surfaces  to  be  cemented  must  first 
be  moistened  with  water  so  that  the  ce- 
ment will  readily  adhere.  The  pieces 
must  be  firmly  pressed  together  and  kept 
in  t>his  position  for  about  12  hours. 

Cementing  Celluloid  and  Hard-Rubber 
Articles. — I. — Celluloid  articles  can  be 
mended  by  making  a  mixture  com- 
posed of  3  parts  of  alcohol  and  4  parts  of 
ether.  This  mixture  should  be  kept  in 
a  well-corked  bottle,  and  when  celluloid 
articles  are  to  be  mended,  the  broken 
surfaces  are  painted  over  with  the  alcohol 
and  ether  mixture  until  the  surfaces 
soften:  then  press  together  and  bind  and 
allow  to  dry  for  at  least  24  hours. 

II. — Dissolve  1  part  of  gum  camphor 
in  4  parts  of  alcohol;  dissolve  an  equal 
weight  of  shellac  in  such  strong  camphor 
solution.  The  cement  is  applied  warm 
and  the  parts  united  must  not  be  dis- 
turbed until  the  cement  is  hard.  Hard- 
rubber  articles  are  never  mended  to  form 
a  strong  joint. 

III. — Melt  together  equal  parts  of 
gutta  percha  and  real  asphaltum.  The 
cement  is  applied  hot,  and  the  broken 
surfaces  pressed  together  and  held  in 
place  while  cooling. 

Sign-Letter  Cements.— 

I. — Copal  varnish 15  parts 

Drying  oil 5  parts 

Turpentine  (spirits).     3  parts 

Oil  of  turpentine 2  parts 

Liquefied  glue 5  parts 

Melt  all  together  on  a  water  bath  until 
well  mixed,  and  then  add  10  parts  slaked 

II. — Mix  100  parts  finely  powdered 
white  litharge  with  50  parts  dry  white 
lead,  knead  together  3  parts  linseed  oil 
varnish  and  1  part  copal  varnish  into  a 
firm  dough.  Coat  the  side  to  be  attached 
with  this,  removing  the  superfluous  ce- 
ment. It  will  dry  quickly  and  become 
very  hard. 

III. — Copal  varnish 15  parts 

Linseed-oil  varnish  .      5  parts 

Raw  turpentine 3  parts 

Oil  of  turpentine. ...      2  parts 
Carpenters'  glue,  dis- 
solved in  water  ...      5  parts 
Precipitated  chalk  . .    10  parts 

IV. — Mastic  gum 1  part 

Litharge,  lead 2  parts 

White  lead 1  part 

Linseed  oil 3  parts 

Melt  together  to  a  homogeneous  mass. 
Apply  hot.  To  make  a  thorough  and 
reliable  job,  the  letters  should  be  heated 
to  at  least  the  temperature  of  the  cement. 
To  Fix  Gold  Letters,  etc.,  upon  Glass. 
— I. — The  glass  must  be  entirely  clean  and 
polished,  and  the  medium  is  prepared  in 
the  following  manner:  One  ounce  fish 
glue  or  isinglass  is  dissolved  in  water 
so  that  the  latter  covers  the  glue.  When 
this  is  dissolved  a  quart  of  rectified  spir- 
it of  wine  is  added,  and  enough  water  is 
poured  in  to  make  up  one-quarter  the 
whole.  The  substance  must  be  kept  well 

II. — Take  i  quart  of  the  best  rum 
and  I  ounce  fish  glue,  which  is  dissolved 
in  the  former  at  a  moderate  degree  of 
heat.  Then  add  ?  quart  distilled  water, 
and  filter  through  a  piece  of  old  linen. 
The  glass  is  laid  upon  a  perfectly  level 
table  and  is  covered  with  this  substance 
to  the  thickness  of  J  inch,  using  a  clean 
brush.  Seize  the  gold  leaf  with  a 
pointed  object  and  place  it  smoothly 
upon  the  prepared  mass,  and  it  will  be 
attracted  by  the  glass  at  once.  After  5 
minutes  hold  the  glass  slightly  slanting 
so  that  the  superfluous  mass  can  run  off, 
and  leave  the  plate  in  this  position  for  24 
hours,  when  it  will  be  perfectly  dry.  Now 
trace  the  letters  or  the  design  on  a  piece 
of  paper,  and  perforate  the  lines  with  a 
thick  needle,  mak:ng  the  holes  -^  inch 
apart.  Then  place  the  perforated  paper 
upcwi  the  surface  of  the  glass,  and  stamp 
the  tracery  on  with  powdered  chalk.  The 
paper  pattern  is  then  carefully  removed, 
and  the  accurate  design  will  remain  upon 
the  gold.  The  outlines  are  now  filled 
out  with  an  oily  gold  mass,  mixed  with 
a  little  chrome  orange  and  diluted  with 
boiled  oil  or  turpentine.  When  all  is 
dry  the  superfluous  gold  is  washed  off 



with  water  by  means  of  a  common  rag. 
The  back  of  the  glass  is  then  painted 
with  a  suitable  color. 

Attaching  Enamel  Letters  to  Glass. — 
To  affix  enamel  letters  to  glass,  first 
clean  the  surface  of  the  glass  perfectly, 
leaving  no  grease  or  sticky  substance 
of  any  kind  adhering  to  the  surface. 
Then  with  a  piece  of  soap  sketch  the  out- 
lines of  the  design.  Make  the  proper 
division  of  the  guide  lines,  and  strike  off 
accurately  the  position  each  letter  is  to 
occupy.  Then  to  the  back  of  the  letters 
apply  a  cement  made  as  follows:  White 
lead  ground  in  oil,  2  parts;  dry  white 
lead,  3  parts.  Mix  to  a  soft  putty  con- 
sistency with  good  copal  varnish. 

With  a  small  knife  or  spatula  apply 
the  cement  to  the  back  of  the  letters, 
observing  especial  care  in  getting  the 
mixture  well  and  uniformly  laid  around 
the  inside  edges  of  the  letter.  In  at- 
taching ^he  letters  to  the  glass  make  sure 
to  expel  the  air  from  beneath  the  char- 
acters, and  to  do  this,  work  them  up 
and  down  and  sidewise.  If  the  weather 
be  at  all  warm,  support  the  letters 
while  drying  by  pressing  tiny  beads  of 
sealing  wax  against  the  glass,  close  to 
the  under  side  or  bottom  of  the  letters. 
With  a  putty  knife,  keenly  sharpened 
on  one  edge,  next  remove  all  the  sur- 
plus cement.  Give  the  letters  a  hard, 
firm  pressure  against  the  glass  around 
all  edges  to  securely  guard  against  the 
disruptive  attacks  of  moisture. 

The  seepage  of  moisture  beneath  the . 
surface  of  the  letters  is  the  main  cause 
of  their  early  detachment  from  the  glass. 

The  removal  of  the  letters  from  the 
glass  may  be  effected  by  applying  tur- 
pentine to  the  top  of  the  characters, 
allowing  it  to  soak  down  and  through 
the  cement.  Oxalic  acid  applied  in  the 
same  way  will  usually  slick  the  letters 
off  in  a  trice. 

Cement  for  Porcelain  Letters. — Slake 
15  parts  of  fresh  quicklime  in  20  parts  of 
water.  Melt  50  parts  of  caoutchouc  and 
50  parts  of  linseed-oil  varnish  together, 
and  bring  the  mixture  to  a  boil.  While 
boiling,  pour  the  liquid  o>n  the  slaked 
lime,  little  by  little,  under  constant  stir- 
ring. Pass  the  mixture,  while  still  hot, 
through  muslin,  to  remove  any  possible 
lumps,  and  let  cool.  It  takes  the  cement 
2  days  to  set  completely,  but  when  dry 
it  makes  a  joint  that  will  resist  a  great 
deal  of  strain.  By  thinning  the  mixture 
down  with  oil  of  turpentine,  a  brilliant, 
powerfully  adhesive  varnish  is  obtained. 

Water  -  Glass  Cements.  —  I.  —  W7ater 
<rlass  (sodium  of  potassium  silicate),  which 

is  frequently  recommended  for  cement-- 
ing glass,  does  not,  as  is  often  asserted, 
form  a  vitreous  connection  between  the 
joined  surfaces;  and,  in  fact,  some  of 
the  commercial  varieties  will  not  even 
dry,  but  merely  form  a  thick  paste, 
which  has  a  strong  affinity  for  moisture. 
Good  30°  B.  water  glass  is,  however, 
suitable  for  mending  articles  that  are  ex- 
posed to  heat,  and  is  best  applied  to  sur- 
faces that  have  been  gently  warmed; 
when  the  pieces  are  put  together  they 
should  be  pressed  warmly,  to  expel  any 
superfluous  cement,  and  then  heated 

To  repair  cracked  glasses  or  bottles 
through  which  water  will  leak,  water 
glasses  may  be  used,  the  application 
being  effected  in  the  following  easy 
manner:  The  vessel  is  warmed  to  induce 
rarefaction  of  the  internal  air,  after 
which  the  mouth  is  closed,  either  by  a 
cork  in  the  case  of  bottles,  or  by  a  piece 
of  parchment  or  bladder  if  a  wide- 
mouthed  vessel  is  under  treatment. 

While  still  hot,  the  outside  of  the 
crack  is  covered  with  a  little  glass,  and 
the  vessel  set  aside  to  cool,  whereupon 
the  difference  between  the  pressure  of  the 
external  and  internal  air  will  force  the 
cement  into  the  fissure  and  close  it 
completely.  All  that  is  then  necessary 
is  to  take  off  the  cover  and  leave  the 
vessel  to  warm  for  a  few  hours.  Sub- 
sequently rinse  it  out  with  lime  water, 
followed  by  clean  water,  and  it  will  then 
hold  any  liquid,  acids  and  alkaline  fluids 
alone  excepted. 

II. — When  water  glass  is  brought  into 
contact  with  calcium  chloride,  a  cal- 
cium silicate  is  at  once  formed  which 
is  insoluble  in  water.  It  seems  possible 
that  this  reaction  may  be  used  in  bind- 
ing together  masses  of  sand,  etc.  The 
process  indicated  has  long  been  used  in 
the  preservation  of  stone  which  has  be- 
come "weathered."  The  stone  is  first 
brushed  with  the  water  glass  and  after- 
wards with  a  solution  of  calcium  chlor- 
ide. The  conditions  here  are  of  course 

Calcium  chloride  must  riot  be  con- 
founded with  the  so-called  "  chloride  of 
lime  "  which  is  a  mixture  of  calcium  hy- 
pochlorite  and  other  bodies. 

To  Fasten  Paper  Tickets  to  Glass  —To 
attach  paper  tickets  to  glass,  the  em- 
ployment of  water  glass  is  efficacious. 
Care  should  be  taken  to  spread  this  prod- 
uct on  the  glass  and  not  on  the  paper, 
and  then  to  apply  the  paper  dry,  which 
should  be  done  immediately.  When  the 
solution  is  dry  the  paper  cannot  be  de- 


tached.  The  silicate  should  be  some- 
what diluted.  It  is  spread  on  the  glass 
with  a  rag  or  a  small  sponge. 


Jewelers  and  goldsmiths  require,  for 
the  cementing  of  genuine  and  colored 
gems,  as  well  as  for  the  placing  of  col- 
ored folio  under  certain  stones,  very 
adhesive  gluing  agents,  which  must, 
however,  be  colorless.  In  this  respect 
these  are  distinguished  chiefly  by  the 
so-called  diamond  cement  and  the  regu- 
lar jewelers'  cement.  Diamond  ce- 
ment is  much  esteemed  by  jewelers  for 
cementing  precious  stones  and  corals, 
but  may  also  be  employed  with  ad- 
vantage for  laying  colored  fluxes  of 
glass  on  white  glass.  The  diamond 
cement  is  of  such  a  nature  as  to  be  able 
to  remain  for  some  time  in  contact  with 
water  without  becoming  soft.  It  ad- 
heres best  between  glass  or  between  pre- 
cious stones.  It  is  composed  as  follows: 
Isinglass  8  parts,  gum  ammoniac  1  part, 
galbanum  1  part,  spirit  of  wine  4  parts. 
Soak  the  isinglass  in  water  with  admix- 
ture of  a  little  spirit  of  wine  and  add  the 
solution  of  the  gums  in  the  remainder 
of  the  spirit  of  wine.  Before  use,  heat 
the  diamond  cement  a  little  so  as  to 
soften  it.  Jewelers'  cement  is  used  for 
similar  purposes  as  is  the  diamond  ce- 
ment, and  is  prepared  from:  Isinglass 
(dry)  10  parts,  mastic  varnish  5  parts. 
Dissolve  the  isinglass  in  very  little  water, 
adding  some  strong  spirit  of  wine.  The 
mastic  varnish  is  prepared  by  pouring 
a  mixture  of  highly  rectified  spirit  of 
wine  and  benzine  over  finely  powdered 
mastic  and  dissolving  it  in  the  smallest 
possible  quantity  of  liquid.  The  two 
solutions  of  isinglass  and  mastic  are  in- 
timately ground  together  in  a  porcelain 

Armenian  Cement. — The  celebrated 
"  Armenian  "  cement,  so  called  formerly 
used  by  Turkish  and  Oriental  jewelers 
generally,  for  setting  precious  stones, 
"  facing  diamonds,"  rubies,  etc.,  is  made 
as  follows: 

Mastic  gum 10  parts 

Isinglass  (fish  glue)  .      20  parts 
Gum  ammoniac  ....        5  parts 

Alcohol  absolute 60  parts 

Alcohol,  50  per  cent. .      35  parts 

Water 100  parts 

Dissolve  the  mastic  in  the  absolute 
alcohol;  dissolve,  by  the  aid  of  gentle 
heat,  on  the  water  bath,  the  isinglass  in 
the  water,  and  add  10  parts  of  the  dilute 
alcohol.  Now  dissolve  the  ammoniacum 
in  the  residue  of  the  dilute  alcohol.  Add 

the  first  solution  to  the  second,  mix  thor- 
oughly by  agitation  and  then  add  the 
solution  of  gum  ammoniac  and  stir  well 
in.  Finally  put  on  the  water  bath,  and 
keeping  at  a  moderate  heat,  evaporate 
the  whole  down  to  175  parts. 

Cement  for  Enameled  Dials.— The 
following  is  a  good  cement  for  enameled 
dials,  plates,  or  other  pieces:  Grind  into 
a  fine  powder  2A  parts  of  dammar  rosin 
and  2i  parts  of  copal,  using  colorless 
pieces  if  possible.  Next  add  2  parts 
of  Venetian  turpentine  and  enough  spirit 
of  wine  so  that  the  whole  forms  a  thick 
paste.  To  this  grind  3  parts  of  the  finest 
zinc  white.  The  mass  now  has  the 
consistency  of  prepared  oil  paint.  To 
remove  the  yellow  tinge  of  the  cement 
add  a  trifle  of  Berlin  blue  to  the  zinc 
white.  Finally,  the  whole  is  heated  until 
the  spirit  of  wine  is  driven  off  and  a  molt- 
en mass  remains,  which  is  allowed  to  cool 
and  is  kept  for  use.  Heat  the  parts  to  be 

Watch-Lid  Cement.— The  hardest  ce- 
ment for  fixing  on  watch  lids  is  shellac. 
If  the  lids  are  exceedingly  thin  the  en- 
graving will  always  press  through.  Be- 
fore cementing  it  on  the  inside  of  the  lid, 
in  order  not  to  injure  the  polish,  it  is 
coated  with  chalk  dissolved  in  alcohol, 
which  is  first  allowed  to  dry.  Next  melt 
the  shellac  on  the  stick,  heat  the  watch 
lid  and  put  it  on.  After  the  engraving 
has  been  done,  simply  force  the  lid  off  and 
'remove  the  remaining  shellac  from  the 
latter  by  light  tapping.  If  this  does  not 
remove  it  completely  lay  the  lid  in  alco- 
hol, leaving  it  therein  until  all  the  shel- 
lac has  dissolved.  All  that  remains  to  be 
done  now  is  to  wash  out  the  watch  lid. 

Jewelers'  Glue  Cement. — Dissolve  on 
a  water  bath  50  parts  of  fish  glue  in 
a  little  95-per-cent  alcohol  adding  4 
parts,  by  weight,  of  gum  ammoniac. 
On  the  other  hand,  dissolve  2  parts,  by 
weight,  of  mastic  in  10  parts,  by  weight, 
of  alcohol.  Mix  these  two  solutions  and 
preserve  in  a  well-corked  flask.  For 
use  it  suffices  to  soften  it  on  the  water 

Casein  Cements. — 

I. — Borax 5  parts 

Water 95  parts 

Casein,  sufficient  quantity. 

Dissolve  the  borax  in  water  and  in- 
corporate enough  casein  to  produce  a 
mass  of  the  proper  consistency. 

II. — The  casein  is  made  feebly  alka- 
line by  means  of  soda  or  potash  lye  and 


then  subjected  for  about  24  hours  to  a 
temperature  of  140°  F.  Next  follow 
the  customary  admixture,  such  as  lime 
and  water  glass,  and  finally,  to  accom- 
plish a  quicker  resinification,  substances 
containing  tannin  are  added.  For  tan- 
nic  admixtures  to  the  partially  disinte- 
grated casein,  slight  quantities — about 
1  per  cent — of  gallic  acid,  cutch,  or 
quercitannic  acid  are  employed.  The 
feebly  alkaline  casein  cement  contain- 
ing cannic  acid  is  used  in  the  well-known 
manner  for  the  gluing  together  of  wood. 

For  Metals.— Make  a  paste  with  16 
ounces  casein,  20  ounces  slaked  lime,  and 
20  ounces  of  sand,  in  water. 

For  Glass. — I. — Dissolve  casein  in  a 
concentrated  solution  of  borax. 

II. — Make  a  paste  of  casein  and 
water  glass. 

Pasteboard  and  Paper  Cement. — I. — 
Let  pure  glue  swell  in  cold  water;  pour 
and  press  off  the  excess;  put  on  the 
water  bath  and  melt.  Paper  or  other 
material  cemented  with  this  is  then 
immediately,  before  the  cement  dries, 
submitted  to  the  action  of  formaldehyde 
and  dried.  The  cement  resists  the  action 
of  water,  even  hot. 

II. — Melt  together  equal  parts  of 
good  pitch  and  gutta  percha.  To  9 
parts  of  this  mass  add  3  parts  of  boiled 
linseed  oil  and  ^  part  litharge.  The 
heat  is  kept  up  until,  with  constant 
stirring,  an  intimate  union  of  all  the  in- 
gredients has  taken  place.  The  mix- 
ture is  diluted  with  a  little  benzine  or 
oil  of  turpentine  and  applied  while  still 
warm.  The  cement  is  waterproof. 

III. — The  National  Druggist  says 
that  experience  with  pasting  or  cement- 
ing parchment  paper  seems  to  show 
that  about  the  best  agent  is  casein 
cement,  made  by  dissolving  casein  in 
a  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  borax. 

IV. — The  following  is  recommended 
for  paper  boxes: 

Chloral  hydrate 5  parts 

Gelatin,  white 8  parts 

Gum  arabic 2  parts 

Boiling  water 30  parts 

Mix  the  chloral,  gelatin,  and  gum 
arabic  in  a  porcelain  container,  pour  the 
boiling  water  over  the  mixture  and  let 
stand  for  1  day,  giving  it  a  vigorous 
stirring  several  times  during  the  day. 
In  cold  weather  this  is  apt  to  get  hard 
and  stiff,  but  this  may  be  obviated  by 
standing  the  container  in  warm  water 
for  a  few  minutes.  This  paste  adheres 
to  any  surface  whatever. 

Waterproof  Cements  for  Glass,  Stone- 
ware, and  Metal. — I. — Make  a  paste  of 
sulphur,  sal  ammoniac,  iron  filings,  and 
boiled  oil. 

II. — Mix  together  dry  :  Whiting,  6 
pounds;  plaster  of  Paris,  3  pounds; 
sand,  3  pounds;  litharge,  3  pounds; 
rosin,  1  pound.  Make  to  a  paste  with 
copal  varnish. 

III. — Make  a  paste  of  boiled  oil,  6 
pounds;  copal,  6  pounds;  litharge,  2 
pounds;  white  lead,  1  pound. 

IV. — Make  a  paste  with  boiled  oil, 
3  pounds;  brickdust  2  pounds;  dry 
slaked  lime,  1  pound. 

V. — Dissolve  93  ounces  of  alum  and 
93  ounces  of  sugar  of  lead  in  water  to 
concentration.  Dissolve  separately  152 
ounces  of  gum  arabic  in  25  gallons  of 
water,  and  then  stir  in  62  i  pounds  of 
flour.  Then  heat  to  a  uniform  paste 
with  the  metallic  salts,  but  take  care  not 
to  boil  the  mass. 

VI. — For  Iron  and  Marble  to  Stand  in 
Heat. — In  3  pounds  of  water  dissolve 
first,  1  pound  water  glass  and  then  1 
pound  of  borax.  With  the  solution 
make  2  pounds  of  clay  and  1  pound  of 
barytes,  first  mixed  dry,  to  a  paste. 

VII.— Glue  to  Resist  Boiling  Water.— 
Dissolve  separately  in  water  55  pounds 
of  glue  and  a  mixture  of  40  pounds  of 
bichromate  and  5  pounds  of  alum.  Mix 
as  wanted. 

VIII.  (Chinese  Glue).— Dissolve  shel- 
lac in  10  times  its  weight  of  ammonia. 

IX. — Make  a  paste  of  40  ounces  of 
dry  slaked  lime  10  ounces  of  alum,  and 
50  ounces  of  white  of  egg. 

X.— Alcohol 1,000  parts 

Sandarac 60  parts 

Mastic 60  parts 

Turpentine  oil 60  parts 

Dissolve  the  gums  in  the  alcohol  and 
add  the  oil  and  stir  in.  Now  prepare 
a  solution  of  equal  parts  of  glue  and 
isinglass,  by  soaking  125  parts  of  each 
in  cold  water  until  it  becomes  saturated, 
pouring  and  pressing  off  the  residue,  and 
melting  on  the  water  bath.  This  should 
produce  a  volume  of  glue  nearly  equal 
to  that  of  the  solution  of  gums.  The 
latter  should,  in  the  meantime,  have 
been  cautiously  raised  to  the  boiling 
point  on  the  water  bath,  and  then  mixed 
with  the  hot  glue  solution. 

It  is  said  that  articles  united  with 
this  substance  will  stand  the  strain  of 
cold  water  for  an  unlimited  time,  and 
it  takes  hot  water  even  a  long  time  to 
affect  it. 


JQ. — Burgundy  pitch .   6  parts 

Gutta  percha 1  part 

Pumice  stone,  in  fine 

powder 3  parts 

Melt  the  gutta  percha  very  carefully 
add  the  pumice  stone,  and  lastly  the 
pitch,  and  stir  until  homogeneous. 

Use  while  still  hot.  This  cement  will 
withstand  water  and  dilute  mineral 


1. — Use  a  melted  mixture  of  gutta 
percha  and  genuine  asphalt,  applied 
hot.  The  hard-rubber  goods  must  be 
kept  pressed  together  until  the  cement 
has  cooled. 

II. — A  cement  which  is  effective  for 
cementing  rubber  to  iron  and  which  is 
especially  valuable  for  fastening  rub- 
ber bands  to  bandsaw  wheels  is  made 
as  follows:  Powdered  shellac,  1  part; 
strong  water  of  ammonia,  10  parts.  Put' 
the  shellac  in  the  ammonia  water  and 
set  it  away  in  a  tightly  closed  jar  for 
3  or  4  weeks.  By  that  time  the  mixture 
will  become  a  perfectly  liquid  transpar- 
ent mass  and  is  then  ready  for  use. 
When  applied  to  rubber  the  ammonia 
softens  it,  but  it  quickly  evaporates,  leav- 
ing the  rubber  in  the  same  condition  as 
before.  The  shellac  clings  to  the  iron 
and  thus  forms  a  firm  bond  between  the 
iron  and  the  rubber. 
III. — Gutta  percha  white.  1  drachm 
Carbon  disulphide.  .  1  ounce 

Dissolve,  filter,  and  add: 

India  rubber 15  grains 


Cement  for  Metal  on  Hard  Rubber. — 
I. — Soak  good  Cologne  glue  and  boil  down 
so  as  to  give  it  the  consistency  of  joiners' 
glue,  and  add  with  constant  stirring, 
enough  sifted  wood  ashes  until  a  homo- 
geneous, moderately  thick  mass  results. 
Use  warm  and  fit  the  pieces  well  together 
while  drying. 

How  to  Unite  Rubber  and  Leather. — 
II.  —  Roughen  both  surfaces,  the  leather 
and  the  rubber,  with  a  sharp  glass  edge; 
apply  to  both  a  diluted  solution  of  gutta 
percha  in  carbon  bisulphide  and  let  this 
solution  soak  into  the  material.  Then 
press  upon  each  surface  a  skin  of  gutta 
percha  fa  of  an  inch  in  thickness  between 
rolls.  The  two  surfaces  are  now  united 
in  a  press,  which  should  be  warm  but  not 
hot.  This  method  should  answer  in  all 
cases  in  which  it  is  applicable.  The 
other  prescription  covers  cases  in  which 
a  press  cannot  be  used.  Cut  30  parts  of 
rubber  into  small  pieces,  and  dissolve 

it  in  140  parts  of  carbon  bisulphide,  the 
vessel  being  placed  on  a  water  bath  of 
30°  C.  (86°  F.).  Further,  melt  10  parts 
of  rubber  with  15  of  colophony,  and  add 
35  parts  of  oil  of  turpentine.  When  the 
rubber  has  been  completely  dissolved, 
the  two  liquids  may  be  mixed.  The 
resulting  cement  must  be  kept  well 

To  Fasten  Rubber  to  Wood.— I  — 
Make  a  cement  by  macerating  virgin 

gum  rubber,  or  as  pure  rubber  as  can  be 
ad,  cut  in  small  pieces,  in  just  enough 
naphtha  or  gasoline  to  cover  it.  Let  it 
stand  in  a  very  tightly  corked  or  sealed 
jar  for  14  days,  or  a  sufficient  time  to 
become  dissolved,  shaking  the  mixture 

II. — Dissolve  pulverized  gum  shellac, 
1  ounce,  in  9i  ounces  of  strong  ammonia. 
This  of  course  must  be  kept  tightly 
corked.  It  will  not  be  as  clastic  as  the 
first  preparation. 

III. — Fuse  together  shellac  and  gutta 
percha  in  equal  weights. 

IV. — India  rubber 8  ounces 

Gutta  percha 4  ounces 

Isinglass 2  ounces 

Bisulphide  of  carbon  32  ounces 

V. — India  rubber 5  ounces 

Gum  mastic 1  ounce 

Chloroform 3  ounces 

VI. — Gutta  percha 16  ounces 

India  rubber 4  ounces 

Pitch 4  ounces 

Shellac 1  ounce 

Linseed  oil 1  ounce 

Amalgamate  by  heat. 
VII. — Mix  1  ounce  of  oil  of  turpentine 
with  10  ounces  of  bisulphide  of  carbon  in 
which  as  much  gutta  percha  as  possible 
has  been  dissolved. 

VIII. — Amalgamate  by  heat: 

Gutta  percha.'. .  . .    100  ounces 
Venice  turpentine.      80  ounces 

Shellac 8  ounces 

India  rubber 2  ounces 

Liquid  storax 10  ounces 

IX. — Amalgamate  by  heat: 

India  rubber 100  ounces 

Rosin 15  ounces 

Shellac 10  ounces 

Then  dissolve  in  bisulphide  of  carbon. 
X. — Make  the  following  solutions  sep- 
arately and  mix: 

(a)  India  rubber 5  ounces 

Chloroform 140  ounces 

(b)  India  rubber 5  ounces 

Rosin    2  ounces 

Venice  turpentine.        1  ounce 
Oil  of  turpentine. .      20  ounces 


Cement   for   Patching   Rubber   Boots 
and  Shoes. — 
I. — India    rubber,     finely 

chopped 100  parts 

Rosin    15  parts 

Shellac.  . .  . .  ..      10  parts 

Carbon      disulphide, 

q.  s.  to  dissolve. 

This    will    not   only   unite   leather  to 
leather,  india  rubber,  etc.,  but  will  unite 
rubber  to  almost  any  substance. 
II. — Caoutchouc,  finely  cut     4  parts 
India    rubber,    finely 

cut ;•••••. 1  part 

Carbon  disulphide  ...    32  parts 

Dissolve  the  caoutchouc  in  the  carbon 
disulphide,  add  the  rubber,  let  macer- 
ate a  few  days,  then  mash  with  a  palette 
knife  to  a  smooth  paste.  The  vessel  in 
which  the  solution  is  made  in  both 
instances  above  must  be  kept  tightly 
closed,  and  should  have  frequent  agita- 

III.— Take  100  parts  of  crude  rubber 
or  caoutchouc,  cut  it  up  in  small  bits, 
and  dissolve  it  in  sufficient  carbon  bisul- 
phide, add  to  it  15  parts  of  rosin  and 
10  parts  of  gum  lac.  The  user  must 
not  overlook  the  great  inflammability  and 
exceedingly  volatile  nature  of  the  carbon 

Tire  Cements. — 

I. — India  rubber 15  grams 

Chloroform 2  ounces 

Mastic ^  ounce 

Mix  the  india  rubber  and  chloroform 
together,  and  when  dissolved,  the  mastic 
is  added  in  powder.  It  is  then  allowed 
to  stand  a  week  or  two  before  using. 

II. — The  following  is  recommended  as 
very  good  for  cementing  pneumatic  tires  to 
bicycle  wheels: 

Shellac 1  ounce 

Gutta  percha 1  ounce 

Sulphur 45  grains 

Red  lead 45  grains 

Melt  together  the  shellac  and  gutta  per- 
cha, then   add,  with   constant  stirring,  the 
sulphur  and  red  lead.     Use  while  hot. 
III. — Raw  gutta  percha. .    16  ounces 
Carbon  bisulphide.    72  ounces 
Eau  de  Cologne. .  . .    2§  ounces 
This  cement  is  the  subject  of  an  Eng- 
lish    patent    and    is    recommended    for 
patching  cycle  and  motor  tires,  insulat- 
ing electric  wires,  etc. 

IV. — A  good  thick  shellac  varnish  with   j 
which  a  small  amount  of  castor  oil  has   ( 
been  mixed  will  be  found  a  very  excellent   i 
bicycle  rim  cement.     The  formula  rec- 
ommended by  Edel  is  as  follows: 

Shellac 1  pound 

Alcohol ]  pint 

Mix  and  dissolve,  then  add: 

Castor  oil £  ounce 

The  castor  oil  prevents  the  cement 
from  becoming  hard  and  brittle. 

A  cement  used  to  fasten  bicycle  tires 
may  be  made  by  melting  together  at  a 
gentle  heat  equal  parts  of  gutta  percha 
and  asphalt.  Apply  hot.  Sometimes  a 
small  quantity  each  of  sulphur  and  red 
lead  is  added  (about  1  part  of  each  to  20 
parts  of  cement). 

Cements  for  Leather.— 

I. — Gutta  percha 20  parts 

Syrian  asphalt,  pow- 
dered     20  parts 

Carbon  disulphide . .  50  parts 
Oil  of  turpentine  ...  10  parts 
The  gutta  percha,  shredded  fine,  is 
dissolved  in  the  carbon  disulphide  and 
turpentine  oil.  To  the  solution  add  the 
asphalt  and  set  away  for  several  days, 
or  until  the  asphalt  is  dissolved.  The 
cement  should  have  the  consistency  of 
honey.  If  the  preparation  is  thinner 
than  this  let  it  stand,  open,  for  a  few 
days.  Articles  to  be  patched  should 
first  be  washed  with  benzine. 

II. — Glue 1  ounce 

•Starch  paste 2  ounces 

Turpentine 1  drachm 

.Water,  a  sufficient  quantity. 
Dissolve  the  g.'ue  in  sufficient  water 
with   heat;    mix   the   starch    paste    with 
water;  add  the  turpentine,   and   finally 
mix  with  the  glue  while  hot. 

III. — Soak  for  one  day  1  pound  of  .com- 
mon glue  in  enough  water  to  cover,  and 
1  pound  of  isinglass  in  ale  droppings. 
Then  mix  together  and  heat  gently  un- 
til boiling.  At  this  paint  add  a  little 
Eure  tannin  and  keep  boiling  for  an 
our.  If  the  glue  and  isinglass  when 
mixed  are  too  thick,  add  water.  This 
cement  should  be  used  warm  and  the 
jointed  leather  pressed  tightly  together 
for  12  hours. 

IV. — A  waterproof  cement  for  leather 
caoutchouc,  or  balata,  is  prepared  by 
dissolving  gutta  percha,  caoutchouc, 
benzoin,  gum  lac,  mastic,  etc.,  in  some 
convenient  solvent  like  carbon  disul- 
phide, chloroform,  ether,  or  alcohol. 
The  best  solvent,  however,  in  the  case  of 
gutta  percha,  is  carbon  disulphide  and 
ether  for  mastic.  The  most  favorable 
proportions  are  as  follows:  Gutta  percha, 
200  to  300  parts  to  100  parts  of  the  sol- 
vent, and  75  to  85  parts  of  mastic  to  100 
parts  of  ether.  From  5  to  8  parts  of 
the  former  solution  are  mixed  with  1 


part  of  the  latter,  and  the  mixture  is 
then  boiled  on  the  water  bath,  or  in  a 
vessel  fitted  with  a  water  jacket. 

V. — Make  a  solution  of  200  to  300 
parts  of  caoutchouc,  gutta  percha  india 
rubber,  benzoin,  or  similar  gum,  in  1,000 
parts  of  carbon  disulphide,  chloroform, 
ether,  or  alcohol,  and  of  this  add  5  to  8 
parts  to  a  solution  of  mastic  (75  to  125 
parts)  in  ether  100  parts,  of  equal  volume 
and  boil  together.  Use  hot  water  as  the 
boiling  agent,  or  boil  very  cautiously  on 
the  water  bath. 

VI. — Forty  parts  of  aluminum  ace- 
tate, 10°  B.,  10  parts  of  glue,  10  parts 
of  rye  flour.  These  materials  are  either 
to  be  simultaneously  mixed  and  boiled, 
or  else  the  glue  is  to  be  dissolved  in  the 
aluminum  acetate,  and  the  flour  stirred 
into  the  solution.  This  is  an  excellent 
cement  for  leather,  and  is  used  in  so- 
called  art  work  with  leather,  and  with 
leather  articles  which  are  made  of  sev- 
eral pieces.  It  is  to  be  applied  warm. 

Rubber  Cement  for  Cloth.— The  fol- 
lowing formulas  have  been  recommended: 

I. — Caoutchouc,  5  parts;  chloroform, 
3  parts.  Dissolve  and  add  gum  mastic 
(powder)  1  part. 

II. — Gutta  percha,  16  parts;  india  rub- 
ber. 4  parts;  pitch,  2  parts;  shellac,  1 
part;  linseed  oil,  2  parts.  Reduce  the 
solids  to  small  pieces,  melt  together  with 
the  oil  and  mix  well. 

III. — The  following  cement  for  mend- 
ing rubber  shoes  and  tires  will  answer 
similar  purposes: 

Caoutchouc  in  shavings ..    10  }    parts 

Rosin 4V      by 

'Gum  turpentine 40  )  weight. 

Oil  turpentine,  enough. 

Melt  together  first  the  caoutchouc  and 
rosin,  then  add  the  gum  turpentine,  and 
when  all  is  liquefied,  add  enough  of  oil 
of  turpentine  to  preserve  it  liquid.  A 
second  solution  is  prepared  by  dissolv- 
ing together: 

Caoutchouc 10  (  p£rts 

Chloroform 280  I  weight. 

For  use  these  two  solutions  are  mixed. 
Wash  the  hole  in  the  rubber  shoe 
over  with  the  cement,  then  a  piece  of 
linen  dipped  in  it  is  placed  over  it;  as 
soon  as  the  linen  adheres  to  the  sole,  the 
cement  is  then  applied  as  thickly  as  re- 

Cements    for    Iron. — I. — To   make  a 

good  cement  for  iron  on  iron,  make  a 

thick  paste,  with  water,  of  powdered! 
iron,  60  parts;  sal  ammoniac,  2  parts, 
and  sulphur  flowers.  1  part.  Use  while 

II. — Sulphur  flowers,  6  parts;  dry 
white  lead  6  parts,  and  powdered  borax, 
1  part.  Mix  by  sifting  and  keep  as  a 
dry  powder  in  a  closed  tin  box.  To  use, 
make  into  a  thin  paste  with  strong  sul- 
phuric acid  and  press  together  immedi- 
ately. This  cement  will  harden  in  5 

III. — Graphite 50  pounds 

Whiting 15  pounds 

Litharge 15  pounds 

Make  to  a  paste  with  a  boiled  oil. 
IV. — Make  a  paste  of  white  lead  and 

V. — Make  a  paste  of  litharge  and  glyc- 
erine. Red  lead  may  be  added.  This 
also  does  for  stone. 

VI. — Make  a  paste  of  boiled  oil  of 
equal  parts  of  white  lead,  pipe  clay,  and 
black  oxide  of  manganese. 

VII. — Make  iron  filings  to  a  paste  with 
water  glass. 
VIII. — Sal  ammoniac.  ...      4  ounces 

Sulphur 2  ounces 

Iron  filings 32  ounces 

Make  as  much  as  is  to  be  used  at  once 
to  a  paste  with  a  little  water.  This  re- 
mark applies  to  both  the  following  dry 

IX. — Iron  filings 160  ounces 

Lime 80  ounces 

Red  lead 16  ounces 

Alum 8  ounces 

Sal  ammoniac...        2  ounces 

X. — Clay 10  ounces 

Iron  filings 4  ounces 

Salt 1  ounce 

Borax 1  ounce 

Black     oxide    of 

manganese  ...        2  ounces 
XL— Mix: 

Iron  filings 180  ounces 

Lime 45  ounces 

Salt 8  ounces 

XIL— Mix: 

Iron  filings 140  ounces 

Hydraulic  lime  .  .      20  ounces 

Sand 25  ounces 

Sal  ammoniac.  .  .        3  ounces 
Either  of  these  last  two   mixtures   is 
made  into  a  paste  with  strong  vinegar 
just  before  use. 

XIII. — Mix  equal  weights  of  zinc 
oxide  and  black  oxide  of  manganese 
into  a  paste  with  water  glass. 

XIV. — Copal  varnish,  15  parts;  hy- 
drated  lime,  10  parts;  glue  de  nerfs  (of 
sinews),  5  parts;  fat  drying  oils  5  parts; 


powdered  turpentine,  3  parts;  essence  of 
turpentine,  2  parts.  Dissolve  the  glue 
de  nerjs  on  the  water  bath,  add  all  the 
other  substances,  and  triturate  inti- 

XV. — Copal  varnish,  15  parts;  pow- 
dered turpentine,  3  parts;  essence  of  tur- 
pentine, 2  parts;  powdered  fish  glue,  3 
parts;  iron  filings,  3  parts;  ocher,  10 

XVI. — To  make  a  cement  for  cast  iron, 
take  16  ounces  cast-iron  borings;  2  ounces 
sal  ammoniac,  and  1  ounce  sulphur.  Mix 
well  and  keep  dry.  When  ready  to  use 
take  1  part  of  this  powder  to  20  parts  of 
cast-iron  borings  and  mix  thoroughly  into 
a  stiff  paste,  adding  a  little  water. 

XVII.— Litharge 2  parts 

Boiled  linseed  oil 2  parts 

White  lead 1  part 

Copal 1  part 

Heat  together  until  of  a  uniform  con- 
sistence and  apply  warm. 

XVIII. — A  cement  for  iron  which  is 
said  to  be  perfectly  waterproof  and  fire- 
proof is  made  by  working  up  a  mixture 
of  equal  weights  of  red  lead  and  litharge 
with  glycerine  till  the  mass  is  perfectly 
homogeneous  and  has  the  consistency 
of  a  glazier's  putty.  This  cement  is 
said  to  answer  well,  even  for  very  large 
iron  vessels,  and  to  be  unsurpassable  for 
stopping  up  cracks  in  large  iron  pans  of 
steam  pipes. 

Cement  for  Metal,  Glass,  and  Porce- 
lain.— A  soft  alloy  is  prepared  by  mixing 
from  30  to  36  parts  of  copper  precipi- 
tated in  the  form  of  a  fine  brown  powder, 
with  sulphuric  acid  of  a  specific  gravity 
of  1.85  in  a  cast-iron  or  porcelain  mor- 
tar and  incorporating  by  stirring  with  75 
parts  of  mercury,  the  acid  being  after- 
wards removed  by  washing  with  water. 
In  from  10  to  14  hours  the  amalgam  be- 
comes harder  than  tin,  but  when  heated  to 
692°  F.,  it  can  be  kneaded  like  wax.  In 
this  condition  it  is  applied  to  the  surface 
to  be  cemented,  and  will  fix  them  firmly 
together  on  cooling. 

Dissolve  1  drachm  of  gum  mastic  in  3 
drachms  of  spirits  of  wine.  In  a  sep- 
arate vessel  containing  water  soak  3 
drachms  of  isinglass.  When  thoroughly 
soaked  take  it  out  of  the  water  and  put 
it  into  5  drachms  of  spirits  of  wine.  Take 
a  piece  of  gum  ammoniacum  the  size  of 
a  large  pea  and  grind  it  up  finely  with  a 
little  spirits  of  wine  and  isinglass  until 
it  has  dissolved.  Then  mix  the  whole 
together  with  sufficient  heat.  It  will  be 
found  most  convenient  to  place  the 
vessel  on  a  hot-water  bath.  Keep  this 

cement  in  a  bottle  closely  stoppered,  and 
when  it  is  to  be  used,  place  it  in  hot 
water  until  dissolved. 

Cements  for  Fastening  Porcelain  to 
Metal. — I. — Mix  equal  parts  of  alcohol 
(95  per  cent)  and  water,  and  make  a 
paste  by  incorporating  the  liquid  with 
300  parts  of  finely  pulverized  chalk  and 
250  parts  of  starch. 

II. — Mix  finely  powdered  burned  lime, 
300  parts,  with  powdered  starch,  250 
parts,  and  moisten  the  mixture  with  a 
compound  of  equal  parts  of  water  and 
alcohol  of  95  per  cent  until  a  paste 

III. — Cement  or  plaster  can  be  used 
if  the  surfaces  are  sufficiently  large; 
cement  is  the  better  article  when  the 
object  may  be  exposed  to  moisture  or 
subjected  to  much  pressure.  A  process 
which  can  be  recommended  consists  in 
mingling  equal  weights  of  chalk,  brick- 
dust,  clay,  and  Romain  cement.  These 
materials,  pulverized  and  sifted  are  in- 
corporated with  linseed  oil  in  the  pro- 
portion of  half  a  kilo  of  oil  to  3  kilos  of 
the  mingled  powder.  The  Romain  or 
Romanic  cement  is  so  designated  from 
the  district  in  France  where  the  calca- 
reous stone  from  which  it  is  prepared  is 
found  in  considerable  quantity.  Al- 
though its  adhesive  qualities  are  unques- 
tioned, there  are  undoubtedly  American 
cements  equally  as  good. 

IV.— Acetate  of  lead,  46  £  parts  by 
weight;  alum,  46 £  parts  by  weight; 
gum  arabic,  76  parts  by  weight;  flour, 
500  parts  by  weight;  water,  2,000  parts 
by  weight.  Dissolve  the  acetate  of  lead 
and  the  alum  in  a  little  water;  on  the 
other  hand  dissolve  the  gum  arabic  in 
water  by  pouring,  for  instance,  the  2 
liters  of  boiling  water  on  the  gum  arabic 
reduced  to  powder.  When  the  gum  has 
dissolved,  add  the  flower,  put  all  on  the 
fire,  and  stir  well  with  a  piece  of  wood; 
then  add  the  solution  of  acetate  of  lead 
and  the  alum;  agitate  well  so  as  to  pre- 
vent any  lumps  from  forming;  retire  from 
the  fire  before  allowing  to  boil.  This 
glue  is  used  cold,  does  not  peel  off,  and 
is  excellent  to  make  wood,  glass,  card- 
board, etc.  adhere  to  metals. 

Cement  for  Leather  and  Iron. — To 
face  a  cast-iron  pulley  with  leather  apply 
acetic  acid  to  the  face  of  the  pulley  with 
a  brush,  which  will  roughen  it  by  rusting, 
and  then  when  dry  apply  a  cement  made 
of  1  pound  of  fish  glue  and  %  pound  of 
common  glue,  melted  in  a  mixture  of 
alcohol  and  water.  The  leather  should 
then  be  placed  on  the  pulley  and  dried 
under  pressure. 


Amber  Cements. — I. — To  solder  to- 
gether two  pieces  of  yellow  amber, 
slightly  heat  the  parts  to  be  united  and 
moisten  them  with  a  solution  of  caustic 
soda;  then  bring  the  two  pieces  together 

II. — Dissolve  in  a  closed  bottle  75 
parts  of  cut-up  caoutchouc  in  60  parts  of 
chloroform.  Add  15  parts  of  mastic  and 
let  the  mixture  stand  in  the  cold  until  all 
has  dissolved. 

III. — Moisten  the  pieces  to  be  joined 
with  caustic  potash  and  press  them  to- 
gether when  warm.  The  union  is  so 
perfect  that  no  trace  of  the  juncture  is 
visible.  A  concentrated  alcoholic  solu- 
tion of  the  rosin  over  the  amber,  soluble 
in  alcohol,  is  also  employed  for  this  pur- 
pose. Another  medium  is  a  solution 
of  hard  and  very  finely  powdered  copal 
in  pure  sulphuric  ether.  Coat  both 
fractures,  previously  well  cleaned,  with 
this  solution  and  endeavor  to  combine 
them  intimately  by  tying  or  pressing. 

IV. — In  30  parts  by  weight  of  copal 
dissolve  30  parts  by  weight  of  alumina 
by  means  of  a  water  bath.  Bathe  the 
surface  to  be  cemented  with  this  gelat- 
inous liquid,  but  very  slightly.  Unite 
the  fractures  and  press  them  together 
firmly  until  the  mixture  is  dry. 

Acid -Proof  Cements  for  Stoneware 
and  Glass. — I. — Mix  with  the  aid  of  heat 
equal  weights  of  pitch,  rosin,  and  plaster 
of  Paris. 

II. — Mix  silicate  of  soda  to  a  paste 
with  ground  glass. 

III. — Mix  boiled  oil  to  a  paste  with 
china  clay. 

IV. — Mix  coal  tar  to  a  paste  with 
pipe  clay. 

V. — Mix  boiled  oil  to  a  paste  with 

VI.— Mix  with  the  aid  of  heat:  Sul- 
phur, 100  pounds;  tallow,  2  pounds; 
rosin,  2  pounds.  Thicken  with  ground 

VII.— Mix  with  the  aid  of  heat: 
Rosin,  2  pounds;  sulphur,  2  pounds; 
brickdust,  4  pounds. 

VIII.— Mix  with  the  aid  of  heat  2 
pounds  of  india  rubber  and  4  pounds  of 
boiled  oil.  Thicken  with  12  pounds  of 
pipe  clay. 

IX. — Fuse  100  pounds  of  india  rub- 
ber with  7  pounds  of  tallow.  Then 
make  to  a  paste  with  dry  slaked  lime  and 
finally  add  20  pounds  of  red  lead. 

X. — Mix  with  the  aid  of  heat:  Rosin, 
24  pounds;  red  ocher,  8  pounds;  boiled 
oil,  2  pounds;  plaster  of  Paris,  4  pounds. 

Acid-Proof  Cement  for  Wood,  Metals, 
I. — Powdered  asbestos ...    2  parts 

Ground  baryta 1  part 

Sodium  water-glass  so- 
lution     2  parts 


II. — To  withstand  hot   nitric  acid  the 
following  is  used: 

Sodium  water-glass  so- 
lution      2  parts 

Sand 1  part 

Asbestos 1  part 


III. — Asbestos 2  parts 

Sulphate  of  barium.  . .    3  parts 
Silicate  of  sodium  ....   2  parts 
By  mixing  these  ingredients  a  cement 
strong    enough    to    resist    the    strongest 
nitric  acid  will  be  obtained. 

IV. — If  hot  acids  are  dealt  with,  the 
following  mixture  will  be  found  to  possess 
still  more  resistant  powers: 
Silicate  of  sodium  (50° 

Baume) 2  parts 

Fine  sand 1  part 

Asbestos 1  part 

Both  these  cements  take  a  few  hours 
to  set.  If  the  cement  is  wanted  to  set 
at  once,  use  silicate  of  potassium,  instead 
of  silicate  of  sodium.  This  mixture  will 
be  instantly  effective  and  possesses  the 
same  power  of  resistance  as  the  other. 

Directions  for  Repairing  Broken  Glass, 
Porcelain,  Bric-a-Brac. — Broken  glass, 
china,  bric-a-brac,  and  picture  frames, 
not  to  name  casts,  require  each  a  differ- 
ent cement — in  fact,  several  different 
cements.  Glass  may  be  beautifully 
mended  to  look  at,  but  seldom  so  as  to 
be  safely  used.  For  clear  glass  the  best 
cement  is  isinglass  dissolved  in  gin.  Put 
2  ounces  of  isinglass  in  a  clean,  wide- 
mouthed  bottle,  add  half  a  pint  of  gin, 
and  set  in  the  sun  until  dissolved.  Shake 
well  every  day,  and  before  using  strain 
through  double  lawn,  squeezing  very 

Spread  a  white  cloth  over  the  mend- 
ing table  and  supply  it  with  plenty  of 
clean  linen  rags,  strong  rubber  bands, 
and  narrow  white  tape,  also  a  basin  of 
tepid  water  and  a  clean  soft  towel.  Wash 
the  broken  glass  very  clean,  especially 
along  the  break,  but  take  care  not  to 
chip  it  further.  Wet  both  broken  edges 
well  with  the  glue,  using  a  camel's-hair 
pencil.  Fit  the  break  to  a  nicety,  then 
slip  on  rubber  bands  length-  and  cross- 
wise, every  way  they  will  hold.  If  they 
will  not  hold  true  as  upon  a  stemmed 


thing,  a  vase  or  jug  or  scent  bottle, 
string  half  a  dozen  bands  of  the  same 
size  and  strength  upon  a  bit  of  tape,  and 
tie  the  tape  about  neck  or  base  before 
beginning  the  gluing.  After  the  parts 
are  joined  slip  another  tape  through  the 
same  bands  and  tie  it  above  the  fracture; 
thus  with  all  their  strength  the  bands 

Eull  the  break  together.  The  bands  can 
e  used  thus  on  casts  of  china — in  fact, 
to  hold  anything  mendable.  In  glass 
mending  the  greater  the  pressure  the 
better — if  only  it  stops  short  of  the  break- 
ing point.  Properly  made  the  isinglass 
cement  is  as  clear  as  water.  When  the 
pieces  fit  true  one  on  the  other  the  break 
should  be  hardly  visible,  if  the  pressure 
has  been  great  enough  to  force  out  the 
tiny  bubbles,  which  otherwise  refract 
the  light  and  make  the  line  of  cleavage 
distressingly  apparent.  Mended  glass 
may  be  used  to  hold  dry  things — as  rose 
leaves,  sachets,  violet  powder,  even  can- 
dies and  fruits.  But  it  will  not  bear 
to  have  any  sort  of  liquid  left  standing 
in  it,  nor  to  be  washed  beyond  a  quick 
rinsing  in  tepid  water.  In  wriping  always 
use  a  very  soft  towel,  and  pat  the  vessel 
dry  with  due  regard  to  its  infirmities. 

Mend  a  lamp  loose  in  the  collar  with 
sifted  plaster  of  Paris  mixed  to  a  very 
soft  paste  with  beaten  white  of  egg. 
Have  everything  ready  before  wetting 
up  the  plaster,  and  work  quickly  so  it 
may  set  in  place.  With  several  lamps  to 
mend  wet  enough  plaster  for  one  at  a 
time.  It  takes  less  than  5  minutes  to 
set,  and  is  utterly  worthless  if  one  tries 
working  it  over.  Metal  work  apart 
from  the  glass  needs  the  soldering  iron. 
Dust  the  break  well  with  powdered  rosin, 
tie  the  parts  firmly  together,  lay  the  stick 
of  solder  above  the  break,  and  fetch  the 
iron  down  on  it  lightly  but  firmly.  When 
the  solder  cools,  remove  the  melted  rosin 
with  a  cloth  dipped  in  alcohol. 

Since  breakables  have  so  unhappy  a 
knack  of  fracturing  themselves  in  such 
fashion  they  cannot  possibly  stand  up- 
right, one  needs  a  sand  box.  It  is  only 
a  box  of  handy  size  with  8  inches  of 
clean,  coarse  sand  in  the  bottom.  Along 
with  it  there  should  be  some  small  leaden 
weights,  with  rings  cast  in  them,  run- 
ning from  an  ounce  to  a  quarter  pound. 
Two  of  each  weight  are  needed.  In  use, 
tapes  are  tied  to  the  rings,  and  the  pair  of 
weights  swung  outside  the  edges  of  the 
box,  so  as  to  press  in  place  the  upper 
part  of  a  broken  thing  to  which  the  tapes 
have  been  fastened. 

Set  broken  platters  on  edge  in  the  sand 
box  with  the  break  up.  The  sand  will 
hold  them  firm,  and  the  broken  bit  can 

be  slapped  on.  It  is  the  same  with 
plates  and  saucers.  None  of  these  com- 
monly requires  weighting.  But  very 
fine  pieces  where  an  invisible  seam  is 
wanted  should  be  held  firm  until  partly 
set,  then  have  the  pair  of  heaviest  weights 
accurately  balanced  across  the  broken 
piece.  The  weights  are  also  very  useful 
to  prop  and  stay  topheavy  articles  and 
balance  them  so  they  shall  not  get  out 
of  kilter.  A  cup  broken,  as  is  so  com- 
mon with  cups,  can  have  the  tape  passed 
around  it,  crossing  inside  the  handle, 
then  be  set  firmly  in  the  sand,  face  down, 
and  be  held  by  the  hanging  weights 
pulling  one  against  the  other. 

The  most  dependable  cement  for  china 
is  pure  white  lead,  ground  in  linseed  oil, 
so  thick  it  will  barely  spread  smoothly 
with  a  knife.  Given  time  enough  to 
harden  (some  3  months),  it  makes  a  seam 
practically  indestructible.  The  objec- 
tion to  it  is  that  it  always  shows  in  a 
staring  white  line.  A  better  cement  for 
fine  china  is  white  of  egg  and  plaster.  Sift 
the  plaster  three  times  and  tie  a  generous 
pinch  of  it  loosely  in  mosquito  netting. 
Then  beat  the  egg  until  it  will  stick  to 
the  plaster.  Have  the  broken  egg  very 
clean,  cover  both  with  the  beaten  egg, 
dust  well  with  the  plaster,  fit  together  at 
once,  tie,  using  rubber  bands  if  possible, 
wrap  loosely  in  very  soft  tissue  paper, 
and  bury  head  and  ears  in  the  sand  box, 
taking  care  that  the  break  lies  so  that 
the  sand  will  hold  it  together.  Leave  in 
the  box  24  hours.  After  a  week  the  su- 
perfluous plaster  may  be  gently  scraped 

General  Formulas  for  Cements  for 
Repairing  Porcelain,  Glassware,  Crock- 
ery, Plaster,  and  Meerschaum. — I. — 
An  excellent  cement  for  joining  broken 
crockery  and  similar  small  articles  can 
be  made  by  melting  4  or  5  parts  of  rosin 
(or,  better  still,  gum  mastic)  with  1  part 
of  beeswax  in  an  iron  spoon  or  similar 
vessel.  Apply  while  hot.  It  will  not 
stand  great  heat. 

II. — An  excellent  cement  for  porcelain 
and  stoneware  is  obtained  by  mixing  20 
parts  of  fish  glue  with  an  equal  weight 
of  crystallizable  acetic  acid  and  evapo- 
rate the  mixture  carefully  to  a  syrupy 
consistency  so  that  it  forms  a  gelatinous 
mass  on  cooling.  For  use  the  cement 
thus  obtained  is  made  liquid  again  by 
heating  and  applied  to  the  fracture  with 
a  brush.  The  pieces  should  now  be 
pressed  firmly  together,  by  winding  a 
twine  tightly  around  them,  until  the 
cement  has  hardened. 

III. — For  luting  vessels  made  of  glass, 


porcelain,  etc.,  which  are  to  be  used  to 
hold  strong  acids,  a  mixture  of  asbestos 
powder,  water  glass,  and  an  indifferent  pow- 
der (permanent  white,  sand,  etc.)  is  rec- 
ommended. To  begin  with,  asbestos 
powder  is  made  into  a  pulp  with  three 
or  four  times  the  quantity  (weight)  of  a 
solution  of  soda  water  glass  (of  30° 
B.).  The  same  is  exceedingly  fat  and 
plastic,  but  is  not  very  well  suited  for 
working,  as  it  shrinks  too  much  and 
cracks  when  drying.  By  an  addition  of 
fine  writing  sand  of  the  same  weight 
as  the  asbestos  used,  the  mass  can  be 
made  less  fat,  so  as  to  obviate  shrinking, 
without  detracting  from  the  plasticity. 
Small  vessels  were  molded  from  it  and 
dried  in  the  air,  to  be  tested  afterwards. 
Put  in  water,  the  hardened  mass  becomes 
soft  again  and  falls  apart.  Brought  into 
contact,  however,  with  very  strong  min- 
eral acids,  it  becomes  even  firmer  and 
withstands  the  liquid  perfectly.  Con- 
centrated nitric  acid  was  kept  in  such 
small  vessels  without  the  mass  being 
visibly  attacked  or  anything  penetrating 
it.  The  action  of  the  acid  manifestly 
has  the  effect  that  silicic  acid  is  set  free 
from  the  water  glass  in  excess,  which 
clogs  up  the  pores  entirely  and  con- 
tributes to  the  lutation.  Later  on,  the 
mass  cannot  be  dissolved  by  pure  water 
any  more.  The  mass  is  also  highly  fire- 
proof. One  of  the  molded  bodies  can 
be  kept  glowing  in  a  Bunsen  gas  flame 
for  about  half  a  day  after  treatment  with 
acid,  without  slagging  in  the  least.  For 
many  purposes  it  ought  to  be  welcome 
to  have  such  a  mass  at  hand.  It  cannot 
be  kept  ready  for  use,  however,  as  it 
hardens  a  few  hours  after  being  pre- 
pared; if  potash  water  glass  is  used,  in- 
stead of  the  soda  'iomposition,  this  in- 
duration takes  place  still  more  quickly. 

IV. — Cement  for  Glass,  Porcelain,  etc. 
Isinglass  (fish  glue)  .  .    50  parts 

Gum  ammoniac 4  parts 

Gum  mastic 2  parts 

Alcohol,  95  per  cent . .    10  parts 
Water,  q.  s. 

Soak  the  isinglass  in  cold  water  over 
night,  or  until  it  has  become  swollen  and 
soft  throughout.  In  the  morning  throw 
off  any  superfluous  fluid  and  throw  the 
isinglass  on  a  clean  towel  or  other  coarse 
cloth,  and  hang  it  up  in  such  a  way  that 
any  free  residual  water  will  drain  away. 
Upon  doing  this  thoroughly  depends,  in 
a  great  measure,  the  strengtn  of  the 
cement.  When  the  gelatin  has  become 
thoroughly  drained  put  it  into  a  flask 
or  other  container,  place  it  in  the  water 
bath  and  heat  carefully  until  it  becomes 

fluid,  being  careful  not  to  let  it  come  to 
a  boil,  as  this  injures  its  adhesive  prop- 
erties (the  same  may  be  said  in  regard 
to  glues  and  gelatins  of  all  kinds).  Dis- 
solve the  gums  in  the  alcohol  and  add 
the  solution  to  the  gelatin  after  remov- 
ing the  same  from  the  water  bath,  and 
letting  it  cool  down  to  about  160°  F. 
Stir  well  together  or  mix  by  agitation. 

The  following  precautions  must  be 
observed:  1.  Both  surfaces  to  be  joined 
must  be  absolutely  clean,  free  from  dust, 
dirt,  grease,  etc.  2.  Where  the  cement 
is  one  that  requires  the  application  of 
heat  before  use,  the  objects  to  be  united 
should  also  be  heated  to  a  point  at  least 
as  high  as  the  melting  point  of  the  cement. 
Otherwise,  the  cement  on  application  is 
chilled  and  consequently  fails  to  make  a 
lasting  joint.  3.  The  thinner  the  layer 
of  cement  the  stronger  the  joint;  avoid, 
therefore,  using  too  much  of  the  binding 
material.  Cover  both  surfaces  to  be 
united,  coapt  them  exactly,  and  press 
together  as  closely  as  possible.  In  this 
manner  the  thinnest  possible  layer  is 
secured.  4.  Bind  the  parts  securely  to- 
gether, and  let  remain  without  loosening 
or  attempting  to  use  the  article  for  2  or 
3  days  or  longer.  A  liquid  cement  ac- 
quires its  full  strength  only  after  evapor- 
ation of  the  fluids  used  as  solvents,  and 
this  can  occur  only  from  the  infinitesimal 
line  of  exposed  surface. 

V. — Liquid  Porcelain  Cement. — Fish 
glue,  20  parts;  glass  acetic  acid,  20  parts; 
heat  together  until  the  mass  gelatinizes 
on  cooling. 

VI. — Take  1  ounce  of  Russian  isin- 
glass, cut  in  small  pieces,  and  bruise 
well;  then  add  6  ounces  of  warm  water, 
and  leave  it  in  a  warm  place  for  from 
24  to  48  hours.  Evaporate  the  re- 
sulting solution  to  about  3  ounces. 
Next  dissolve  ^  ounce  of  mastic  in  4 
ounces  of  alcohol,  and  add  the  mastic 
solution  to  the  isinglass  in  small  quan- 
tities at  a  time,  continuing  the  heat  and 
stirring  well.  While  still  hot  strain  the 
liquid  through  muslin. 

VII. — For  optical  glasses,  Canada  bal- 
sam is  employed,  the  two  pieces  being  firm- 
ly pressed  together.  After  a  while,  espe- 
cially by  humidity,  punctures  will  form, 
and  the  glass  is  separated  by  a  mist  of 
varying  reflexes,  while  in  certain  climates 
the  heat  will  melt  the  balsam.  For  all 
other  glass  articles  which  require  only 
simple  treatment,  such  as  knobs  of  covers, 
plates,  etc.,  silicate  of  potash  is  excel- 

VIII.  — Glass  Cement.— Dissolve  in  150 
parts  of  acetic  acid  of  96  per  cent,  100 


parts  of  gelatin  by  the  use  of  heat,  and 
add  ammonium  bichromate,  5  parts. 
This  glue  must  be  kept  away  from  the 

IX.— White  glue 10  parts 

Potassium  bichromate        2  parts 
Water 100  parts 

The  glue  is  dissolved  in  a  portion  of 
the  water  by  the  aid  of  heat,  the  bichro- 
mate in  the  remainder,  and  the  liquids 
mixed,  the  mixing  being  done  in  a  feebly 
lighted  place,  and  the  mixture  is  then 
kept  in  the  dark.  It  is  applied  in  feeble 
light,  being  reliquefied  by  gentle  heat, 
and  the  glass,  the  fractured  pieces  being 
tightly  clamped  together,  is  then  exposed 
to  a  strong  light  for  some  time.  By  this 
exposure  the  cement  becomes  insoluble. 
This  is  waterproof  cement  for  glass. 

X. — Diamond  Glass  Cement. — Dis- 
solve 100  parts  of  fish  glue  in  150  parts 
of  90  per  cent  alcohol  and  add,  with  con- 
stant stirring,  200  parts  of  powdered 
rosin.  This  cement  must  be  preserved 
in  absolutely  tight  bottles,  as  it  solidifies 
very  quickly. 

XI  — To  unite  objects  of  crystal  dis- 
solve 8  parts  of  caoutchouc  and  100  parts 
of  gum  mastic  in  600  parts  of  chloro- 
form. Set  aside,  hermetically  closed, 
for  8  days;  then  apply  with  a  brush, 

XII. — To  make  a  transparent  cement 
for  glass,  digest  together  for  a  week  in 
the  cold  1  ounce  of  india  rubber,  67 
ounces  of  chloroform,  and  40  ounces  of 

XIII. — A  mixture  of  traumaticin,  a 
solution  of  caoutchouc  in  chloroform, 
and  a  concentrated  solution  of  water 
glass  make  a  capital  cement  for  unit- 
ing articles  of  glass.  Not  only  is  the 
joint  very  strong,  but  it  is  transparent. 
Neither  changes  of  temperature  nor 
moisture  affect  the  cement. 

XIV. — A  transparent  cement  for  por- 
celain is  prepared  by  dissolving  75  parts 
of  india  rubber,  cut  into  small  pieces, 
in  a  bottle  containing  60  parts  chloro- 
form; to  this  add  15  parts  green  mastic. 
Let  the  bottle  stand  in  the  cold  until  the 
ingredients  have  become  thoroughly  dis- 

XV. — Some  preparations  resist  the  ac- 
tion of  heat  and  moisture  a  short  time, 
but  generally  yield  very  quickly.  The 
following  cement  for  glass  has  proven 
most  resistant  to  liquids  and  heat: 
Silver  litharge  ....  1,000  parts 

White  lead 50  parts 

Boiled  linseed  oil. .  3  parts 

Copal  varnish  ....  1  part 

Mix  the  lead  and  litharge  thoroughly, 
and  the  oil  and  copal  in  the  same  man- 
ner, and  preserve  separately.  When 
needed  for  use,  mix  in  the  proportions 
indicated  (150  parts  of  the  powder  to  4 
parts  of  the  liquid)  and  knead  well  to- 
gether. Apply  to  the  edges  of  the  glass, 
bind  the  broken  parts  together,  and  let 
stand  for  from  24  to  48  hours. 

XVI. — To  reunite  plaster  articles  dis- 
solve small  pieces  of  celluloid  in  ether; 
in  a  quarter  of  an  hour  decant,  and  use 
the  pasty  deposit  which  remains  for 
smearing  the  edges  of  the  articles.  It 
dries  rapidly  and  is  insoluble  in  water. 

XVII.— To  Mend  Wedgwood  Mortars. 
— It  is  easy  enough  to  mend  mortars  so 
that  they  may  be  used  for  making  emul- 
sions and  other  light  work  which  does 
not  tax  their  strength  too  much.  But 
a  mended  mortar  will  hardly  be  able  to 
stand  the  force  required  for  powdering 
hard  substances.  A  good  cement  for 
mending  mortars  is  the  following: 

a. — Glass  flour  elutriated.  10  parts 
Fluorspar,    powdered 

and  elutriated 20  parts 

Silicate  of  soda 60  parts 

Both  glass  and  fluorspar  must  be  in 
the  finest  possible  condition,  which  is 
best  done  by  shaking  each  in  fine  pow- 
der, with  water  allowing  the  coarser 
particles  to  deposit,  and  then  to  pour  off 
the  remainder,  which  holds  the  finest 
particles  in  suspension.  The  mixture 
must  be  made  very  rapidly  by  quick 
stirring,  and  when  thoroughly  mixed 
must  be  at  once  applied.  This  is  said 
to  yield  an  excellent  cement. 

b. — Freshly    burnt    plaster 

of  Paris 5  parts 

Freshly  burnt  lime  ....    1  part 
White  of  egg,  sufficient. 

Reduce  the  first  two  ingredients  to  a 
very  fine  powder  and  mix  them  well; 
moisten  the  two  surfaces  to  be  united  with 
a  small  quantity  of  white  of  egg  to  make 
them  adhesive;  then  mix  the  powder  very 
rapidly  with  the  white  of  egg  and  apply 
the  mixture  to  the  broken  surfaces.  If 
they  are  large,  two  persons  should  do  this, 
each  applying  the  cement  to  one  portion. 
The  pieces  are  then  firmly  pressed  to- 
gether and  left  undisturbed  for  several 
da.ys.  The  less  cement  is  used  the  better 
will  the  articles  hold  together. 

c. — If  there  is  no  objection  to  dark- 
colored  cement,  the  very  best  that  can 
be  used  is  probably  marine  glue.  This 
is  made  thus:  Ten  parts  of  caoutchouc  or 
india  rubber  are  dissolved  in  120  parts 
of  benzine  or  petroleum  naphtha,  with 


the  aid  of  a  gentle  heat.  When  the  so- 
lution is  complete,  which  sometimes 
laquires  from  10  to  14  days,  20  parts  of 
asphalt  are  melted  in  an  iron  vessel  and 
the  caoutchouc  solution  is  poured  in  very 
slowly  in  a  fine  stream  and  under  con- 
tinued heating,  until  the  mass  has  be- 
come homogeneous  and  nearly  all  the 
solvent  has  been  driven  off.  It  is  then 
poured  out  and  cast  into  greased  tin 
molds.  It  forms  dark  brown  or  black 
cakes,  which  are  very  hard  to  break. 
This  cement  requires  considerable  heat 
to  melt  it;  and  to  prevent  it  from  being 
burnt  it  is  best  to  heat  a  capsule  contain- 
ing a  piece  of  it  first  on  a  water  bath  until 
the  cake  softens  and  begins  to  be  liquid. 
It  is  then  carefully  wiped  dry  and  heated 
over  a  naked  flame,  under  constant  stir- 
ring, up  to  about  300°  F.  The  edges  of 
the  article  to  be  mended  should,  if  possi- 
ble, also  be  heated  to  at  least  212°  F., 
so  as  to  permit  the  cement  to  be  ap- 
plied at  leisure  and  with  care.  The 
thinner  the  cement  is  applied  the  better 
it  binds. 

Meerschaum  Cements. — I. — If  the  ma- 
terial is  genuine  (natural)  meerschaum 
a  lasting  joint  can  be  made  between  the 
parts  by  proceeding  as  follows:  Clean  a 
clove  or  two  of  garlic  (the  fresher  the 
better)  by  removing  all  the  outside  hull 
of  skin;  throw  into  a  little  mortar  and 
mash  to  a  paste.  Rub  this  paste  over 
each  surface  to  be  united  and  join  quick- 
ly. Bring  the  parts  as  closely  together 
as  possible  and  fasten  in  this  position. 
Have  ready  some  boiling  fresh  milk; 
place  the  article  in  it  and  continue  the 
boiling  for  30  minutes.  Remove  and 
let  cool  slowly.  If  properly  done,  this 
makes  a  joint  that  will  stand  any  ordi- 
nary treatment,  and  is  nearly  invisible. 
For  composition,  use  a  cement  made  of 
quicklime,  rubbed  to  a  thick  cream  with 
egg  albumen. 

II. — Mix  very  fine  meerschaum  shay- 
ings  with  albumen  or  dissolve  casein  in 
water  glass,  stir  finely  powdered  magne- 
sia into  the  mass,  and  use  the  cement 
at  once.  This  hardens  quickly. 

Asbestos  Cement. — Ground  asbestos 
may  be  made  into  a  cement  which  will 
stand  a  high  degree  of  heat  by  simply 
mixing  it  with  a  solution  of  sodium  sili- 
cate. By  subsequent  treatment  with  a 
solution  of  calcium  chloride  the  mass 
may  be  made  insoluble,  silicate  of  cal- 
cium being  formed. 

A  cement  said  to  stand  a  high  degree 
of  heat  and  to  be  suitable  for  cementing 
glass,  porcelain,  or  other  vessels  intended 
to  hold  corrosive  acids,  is  this  one: 

I. — Asbestos 2  parts 

Barium  sulphate 3  parts 

Sodium  silicate 2  parts 

By  mixing  these  ingredients  a  cement 
strong  enough  to  resist  the  strongest 
nitric  acid  will  be  obtained.  If  hot  acids 
are  dealt  with,  the  following  mixture  will 
be  found  to  possess  still  more  resistant 
powers : 

II. — Sodium  silicate 2  parts 

Fine  sand 1  part 

Asbestos  powder 1  part 

Both  these  cements  take  a  few  hours 
to  set.  If  the  cement  is  wanted  to  set  at 
once,  use  potassium  silicate  instead  of 
sodium  silicate.  This  mixture  will  be 
instantly  effective,  and  possesses  the 
same  power  of  resistance  as  the  other. 

Parisian  Cement.  —  Mix  1  part  of 
finely  ground  glass  powder,  obtained 
by  levigation,  with  3  parts  of  finely  pow- 
dered zinc  oxide  rendered  perfectly  free 
from  carbonic  acid  by  calcination.  Be- 
sides prepare  a  solution  of  1  part,  by 
weight,  of  borax  in  a  very  small  quantity 
of  hot  water  and  mix  this  with  50  parts 
of  a  highly  concentrated  zinc  chloride 
solution  of  1.5  to  1.6  specific  gravity. 
As  is  well  known  the  mixture  of  this 
powder  with  the  liquid  into  a  soft  uni- 
form paste  is  accomplished  only  imme- 
diately before  use.  The  induration  to 
a  stonelike  mass  takes  place  within  a 
few  minutes,  the  admixture  of  borax 
retarding  the  solidification  somewhat. 
The  pure  white  color  of  the  powder  may 
be  tinted  with  ocher,  manganese,  etc., 
according  to  the  shade  desired. 

Strong  Cement.  —  Pour  over  well- 
washed  and  cleaned  casein  12|  parts  of 
boiled  linseed  oil  and  the  same  amount 
of  castor  oil.  Boil.  Stir  actively  and 
add  a  small  amount  of  a  saturated  aque- 
ous solution  of  alum;  remove  from  the 
fire  and  set  aside.  After  a  while  a  milky 
looking  fluid  will  separate  and  rise.  This 
should  be  poured  off.  To  the  residue 
add  120  parts  of  rock  candy  syrup  and 
6  parts  of  dextrin. 

A  Cheap  and  Excellent  Cement. — A 
cheap  and  excellent  cement,  insoluble 
after  drying  in  water,  petroleum,  oils, 
carbon  disulphide,  etc.,  very  hard  when 
dry  and  of  very  considerable  tensile 
strength,  is  composed  of  casein  and 
some  tannic-acid  compound,  as,  for  in- 
stance, calcium  tannate,  and  is  prepared 
as  follows: 

First,  a  tannin  solution  is  prepared 
either  by  dissolving  a  tannin  salt,  or  by 
extraction  from  vegetable  sources  (as 
barks  from  certain  trees,  etc.),  to  which 


is  added  clear  lime  water  (obtained  by 
filtering  milk  of  lime,  or  by  letting  the 
milk  stand  until  the  lime  subsides)  until 
no  further  precipitation  occurs,  and  red 
litmus  paper  plunged  in  the  fluid  is 
turned  blue.  The  liquid  is  now  sepa- 
rated from  its  precipitate,  either  by  de- 
cantation  or  otherwise,  and  the  precipi- 
tate is  dried.  In  operating  with  large 
quantities  of  the  substance,  this  is  done 
by  passing  a  stream  of  atmospheric 
air  through  the  same.  The  lime  tan- 
nate  obtained  thus  is  then  mixed  with 
casein  in  proportions  running  from  1 :  1 
up  to  1 :  10,  and  the  mixture,  thoroughly 
dried,  is  milled  into  the  consistency  of  the 
finest  powder.  This  powder  has  now 
only  to  be  mixed  with  water  to  be  ready 
for  use,  the  consistency  of  the  prepara- 
tion depending  upon  the  use  to  which 
it  is  to  be  put. 

Universal  Cement. — Take  gum  arable, 
100  parts,  by  weight;  starch,  75  parts,  by 
weight;  white  sugar,  21  parts,  by  weight; 
camphor,  4  parts,  by  weight.  Dissolve 
the  gum  arabic  in  a  little  water;  also 
dissolve  the  starch  in  a  little  water.  Mix 
and  add  the  sugar  and  camphor.  Boil 
on  the  water  bath  until  a  paste  is  formed 
which,  on  coating,  will  thicken. 

Cement  for  Ivory. — Melt  together 
equal  parts  of  gutta  percha  and  ordinary 

Eitch.     The  pieces  to  be  united  have  to 
e  warmed. 

Cement  for  Belts.— Mix  50  parts,  by 
weight,  of  fish  glue  with  equal  parts  of 
whey  and  acetic  acid.  Then  add  50 
parts,  by  weight,  of  garlic  in  paste  form 
and  boil  the  whole  on  the  water  bath. 
At  the  same  time  make  a  solution  of 
100  parts,  by  weight,  of  gelatin  in  the 
same  quantity  of  whey,  and  mix  both 
liquids.  To  the  whole  add,  finally,  50 
parts,  by  weight,  of  90-per-cent  alcohol 
and,  after  filtration,  a  cement  is  ob- 
tained which  can  be  readily  applied  with 
a  brush  and  possesses  extraordinary 
binding  qualities. 

Cement  for  Chemical  Apparatus. — 
Melt  together  20  parts  of  gutta  percha, 
10  parts  of  yellow  wax,  and  30  parts  of 

Size  Over  Portland  Cement.  —  The 
best  size  to  use  on  Portland  cement 
molding  for  wall  paper  would  ordinarily 
be  glue  and  alum  size  put  on  thin  and 
warm,  made  in  proportion  of  ^  pound 
of  glue  and  same  weight  of  alum  dis- 
solved in  separate  pails,  then  poured  to- 

Aquarium  Cements. — 

I. — Litharge 3  ounces 

Fine  white  sand  ...      3  ounces 
Plaster  of  Paris ....      3  ounces 
Rosin,  in  fine  pow- 
der       1  ounce 

Linseed  oil,  enough. 
Drier,  enough. 

Mix  the  first  three  ingredients,  add 
sufficient  linseed  oil  to  make  a  homogene- 
ous paste,  and  then  add  a  small  quantity 
of  drier.  ^This  should  stand  a  few  hours 
before  it  is  used.  It  is  said  that  glass 
joined  to  iron  with  this  cement  will 
break  before  it  will  come  loose. 

II. — Litharge 1  ounce 

Fine  white  sand. ...      1  ounce 
Plaster  of  Paris.  ...      1  ounce 
Manganese  borate.    20  grains 
Rosin,  in  fine  pow- 
der     3£  pounds 

Linseed  varnish  oil, 

III. — Take  equal  parts  of  flowers  of 
sulphur,  ammonium  chloride,  and  iron 
filings,  and  mix  thoroughly  with  boiled 
linseed  oil.  Finally,  add  enough  white 
lead  to  form  a  thin  paste. 
IV. — Powdered  graphite.  6  parts 

Slaked  lime 3  parts 

Barium  sulphate. . .      8  parts 
Linseed  varnish  oil.      7  parts 
V. — Simply  mix  equal  parts  of  white 
and  red  lead  with  a  little  kettle-boiled 
linseed  oil. 

Substitute  for  Cement  on  Grinder 
Disks. — A  good  substitute  in  place  of 
glue  or  various  kinds  of  cement  for  fast- 
ening emery  cloth  to  the  disks  of  grind- 
ers of  the  Gardner  type  is  to  heat  or  warm 
the  disk  and  apply  a  thin  coating  of 
beeswax;  then  put  the  emery  cloth  in 
place  and  allow  to  set  and  cool  under 

Knpckenplombe. — If  1  part  of  thymol 
be  mixed  with  2  parts  of  ipdoform  we 
obtain  a  substance  that  retains  its  fluid- 
ity down  to  72°  C.  (161.6°  F.).  If  the 
temperature  be  carried  down  to  60°  C. 
(140°  F.)  it  suddenly  becomes  solid  and 
hard.  If,  in  its  liquid  condition,  this 
substance  be  mixed  intimately  with  an 
equal  quantity  of  calcined  bone,  it  forms 
a  cement  that  can  be  molded  or  kneaded 
into  any  shape,  that,  at  the  temperature 
of  the  body  (98°  F.),  becomes  as  hard  as 
stone,  a  fact  that  suggests  many  useful 
purposes  to  which  the  mixture  may  be 

Cement  for  General  Use. — Take  gum 
arabic,  100  parts,  by  weight;  starch,  75 


parts  by  weight;  white  sugar,  21  parts,  by 
weight;  camphor,  4  parts,  by  weight. 
Dissolve  the  gum  arable  in  a  little  water. 
On  the  other  hand,  dissolve  the  starch 
also  in  some  water.  When  this  is  done 
add  the  sugar  and  the  camphor  and  put 
in  a  water  bath.  Boil  until  a  paste  is 
formed,  which  must  be  rather  thin,  be- 
cause it  will  thicken  on  cooling. 

Strong  Cement. — Pour  over  well- 
washed  and  cleaned  casein  12  A  parts 
of  boiled  linseed  oil  and  the  same  amount 
of  castor  oil,  put  on  the  fire  and  bring 
to  a  boil;  stir  actively  and  add  a  small 
amount  of  a  saturated  aqueous  solution 
of  alum;  remove  from  the  fire  and  set 
aside.  After  standing  a  while  a  milky- 
looking  fluid  will  separate  at  the  bottom 
and  rise  to  the  top.  This  should  be 
poured  off  and  to  the  residue  add  120 
parts  of  rock-candy  syrup  and  6  parts  of 

Syndeticon. — 1. — Slake  100  parts  of 
burnt  lime  with  50  parts  of  water>  pour 
off  the  supernatant  water;  next,  dissolve 
60  parts  of  lump  sugar  in  160  parts  of 
water,  add  to  the  solution  15  parts  of  the 
slaked  lime,  heat  to  70°  or  80°  C.  (158°  to 
176°  F.),  and  set  aside  shaking  fre- 
quently. Finally  dissolve  50  to  60  parts 
of  genuine  Cologne  glue  in  250  parts  of 
the  clear  solution. 

II. — A  solution  of  10  parts  gum  ara- 
bic  and  30  parts  of  sugar  in  100  parts  of 
soda  water  glass. 

III. — A  hot  solution  of  50  parts  of 
Cologne  glue  in  60  parts  of  a  20-per-cent 
aqueous  calcium-chloride  solution. 

IV. —  A  solution  of  50  parts  of  Co- 
logne glue  in  60  parts  of  acetic  acid. 

V. — Soak  isinglass  (fish  bladder)  in 
acetic  acid  of  70  per  cent  until  it  swells  up, 
then  rub  it  up,  adding  a  little  water  dur- 
ing the  process. 

"Shio  Liao." — Under  this  name  the 
Chinese  manufacture  an  excellent  ce- 
ment which  takes  the  place  of  glue,  and 
with  which  gypsum,  marble,  porcelain, 
stone,  and  stoneware  can  be  cemented. 
It  consists  of  the  following  parts  (by 
weight):  Slaked  powdered  lime.  54 
parts;  powdered  alum,  6  parts;  and 
iresh,  well  -  strained  blood,  40  parts. 
These  materials  are  stirred  thoroughly 
until  an  intimately  bound  mass  of  the 
consistency  of  a  more  or  less  stiff  salve 
is  obtained.  In  paste  form  this  mass  is 
used  as  cement;  in  a  liquid  state  it  is 
employed  for  painting  all  sorts  of  arti- 
cles wnich  are  to  be  rendered  waterproof 
and  durable.  Cardboard  covers,  which 
are  coated  with  it  two  or  three  times,  be 

come  as  hard  as  wood.  The  Chinese  paint 
their  houses  with  "shio  liao"  and  glaze 
their  barrels  with  it,  in  which  they  trans- 
port oil  and  other  greasy  substances. 


Lutes  always  consist  of  a  menstruum 
and  dissolved  or  suspended  solids,  and 
they  must  not  be  attacked  by  the  gases 
and  liquids  coming  in  contact  with  them. 
In  some  cases  the  constituents  of  the  lute 
react  to  form  a  more  strongly  adhering 

The  conditions  of  application  are,  in 

(a)  Heating  the  composition  to  make 
it  plastic  until  firmly  fixed  in  place. 

(6)   Heating  the  surfaces. 

(c)  Applying  the  lute  with  water  or  a 
volatile  solvent,  which  is  allowed  to  vola- 

(d)  Moistening  the  surfaces  with  wa- 
ter, oil,  etc.  (the  menstruum  of  the  lute 

(e~)  Applying  the  lute  in  workable  con- 
dition and  the  setting  taking  place  by 
chemical  reactions. 

(/)    Setting  by  hydration. 

((/)   Setting  by  oxidation. 

These  principles  will  be  found  to  cover 
nearly  all  cases. 

Joints  should  not  be  ill  -  fitting,  de- 
pending upon  the  lute  to  do  what  the 
pipes  or  other  parts  of  the  apparatus 
should  do.  In  most  cases  one  part  of 
the  fitting  should  overlap  the  other,  so 
as  to  make  a  small  amount  of  the  lute 
effective  and  to  keep  the  parts  of  the  ap- 
paratus rigid,  as  a  luted  joint  is  not 
supposed  to  be  a  particularly  strong  one, 
but  rather  one  quickly  applied,  effective 
while  in  place  and  easily  removed. 

Very  moderate  amounts  of  the  lute 
should  be  used,  as  large  amounts  are 
likely  to  develop  cracks,  be  rubbed  off, 

A  classification  may  be  given  as  fol- 

(1)  Plaster  of  Paris. 

(2)  Hydraulic  cement. 

(3)  Clay. 

(4)  Lime. 

(5)  Asphalt  and  pitch. 

(6)  Rosin. 

(7)  Rubber. 

(8)  Linseed  oil. 

(9)  Casein  and  albumen. 

(10)  Silicates    of   soda  and  oxychlo- 
ride  cements. 

(11)  Flour  and  starch. 

(12)  Miscellaneous,    including    core 

I.  Plaster  of  Paris  is,  of  course,  often 
used  alone  as  a  paste.,  which  quickly 


soliames,  for  gas  and  wood  distillation 
retorts,  etc.,  and  similar  places  where 
quickness  of  setting  is  requisite.  It  is 
more  often,  however,  used  with  some 
fibrous  material  to  give  it  greater  strength. 
Asbestos  is  the  most  commonly  used 
material  of  these,  as  it  will  stand  a  high 
temperature.  When  that  is  not  so  im- 
portant, straw,  plush  trimmings,  hair, 
etc.,  are  used  as  binders,  while  broken 
stone,  glass,  and  various  mineral  sub- 
stances are  used  as  fillers,  but  they  do 
not  add  anything  to  the  strength. 
These  lutes  seem  to  be  particularly  suit- 
able for  oil  vapors  and  hydrocarbon 


(1)  Plaster  and  water. 

(2)  Plaster  (wet)  and  asbestos. 

(3)  Plaster  (wet)  and  straw. 

(4)  Plaster   (wet)   and    plush   trim- 


(5)  Plaster  (wet)  and  hair. 

(6)  Plaster  (wet)  and  broken  stone, 


II.  Hydraulic    Cement.  —  Cement    is 
used  either  alone  or  with  sand,  asbestos, 
etc.     These  lutes  are  suitable  for  nitric 
acid.      When  used  with  substances  such 
as  rosin  or  sulphur,  cement  is  probably 
employed   because  it  is   in  such   a   fine 
state  of  division  and  used  as  a  filler  and 
not  because  of  any  powers  of  setting  by 


(1)  Cement — neat. 

(2)  Cement  and  asbestos. 

(3)  Cement  and  sand. 

III.  Clay. — This  most  frequently  en- 
ters into  the  composition  of  lutes  as  a 
filler,  but  even  then  the  very  finely  divid- 
ed condition  of  certain   grades  renders 
it  valuable,  as  it  gives  body  to  a  liquid, 
such  as  linseed  oil,  which,  unless    stiff- 
ened,  would  be  pervious  to  a  gas,  the 
clay  in  all  cases  being  neutral.     Thus, 
for  luting  pipes  carrying  chlorine,  a  stiff 
paste  of  clay  and  molasses  has  been  sug- 
gested by  Theo.  Koller  in  Die  Surrogate, 
but  it  soon  gives  way. 


(1)  Clay  and  linseed  oil. 

(2)  Same,  using  fire  clay. 

(3)  Clay  and  molasses. 

(1)   Is  suitable  for  steam,  etc.;    (2)    for 
chlorine,  and  (3)  for  oil  vapors. 

IV.  Lime  is  used  in  the  old  lute  known 
as  putty,  which  consists  of  caustic  lime 
and   linseed  oil.      Frequently  the  lime  is 
replaced  by  chalk  and    china  clay,   but 
the  lime  should  be,  in  part  at  least,  caus- 
tic,   so  as  to  form  a  certain  amount  of 
lime  soap.      Lime  is  also  used  in  silicate 

and  casein  compositions,  which  are  very 
strong  and  useful,  but  will  be  described 

(1)  Lime  and  boiled  oil  to  stiff  mass. 

(2)  Clay,    etc.,    boiled    oil    to    stiff 


V.  Asphalt  and  Pitch. —These  sub- 
stances are  used  in  lutes  somewhat  inter- 
changeably. As  a  rule,  pitch  makes  the 
stronger  lutes.  Tar  is  sometimes  used, 
but,  because  of  the  light  oils  and,  fre- 
quently, water  contained,  it  is  not  so 
good  as  either  of  the  others. 

Asphalt  dissolved  in  benzol  is  very 
useful  for  uniting  glass  for  photographic, 
microscopical,  and  other  uses.  Also 
for  coating  wood,  concrete,  etc.,  where 
the  melted  asphalt  would  be  too  thick 
to  cover  well.  Benzol  is  the  cheapest 
solvent  that  is  satisfactory  for  this  pur- 
pose, as  the  only  one  that  is  cheaper 
would  be  a  petroleum  naphtha,  which 
does  not  dissolve  all  the  constituents  of 
the  asphalt.  For  waterproofing  wood, 
brick,  concrete,  etc.,  melted  asphalt 
alone  is  much  used,  but  when  a  little 
paraffine  is  added,  it  improves  its  water- 
proofing qualities,  and  in  particular  cases 
boiled  oil  is  also  added  to  advantage. 


1.  Refined  lake  asphalt. 

2.  Asphalt 4  parts 

Paraffine   1  part 

3.  Asphalt 10  parts 

Paraffine '. 2  parts 

Boiled  oil 1  part 

Any  of  these  may  be  thinned  with  hot 
benzol  or  toluol.  Toluol  is  less  volatile 
than  benzol  and  about  as  cheap,  if  not 
cheaper,  the  straw-colored  grades  being 
about  24  cents  per  gallon. 

Examples  of  so-called  "stone  cement" 

4.  Pitch 8  parts 

Rosin 6  parts 

Wax 1  part 

Plaster \  to  *  part 

5.  Pitch 8  parts 

Rosin 7  parts 

Sulphur 2  parts 

Stone  powder 1  part 

These  compositions  are  used  to  unite 
slate  slabs  and  stoneware  for  domestic, 
engineering,  and  chemical  purposes.  Va- 
rious rosin  and  pitch  mixtures  are  used 
for  these  purposes,  and  the  proportions 
of  these  two  ingredients  are  determined 
by  the  consistency  desired.  Sulphur  and 
stone  powder  are  added  to  prevent  the 
formation  of  cracks,  sulphur  acting  chem- 
ically and  stone  powder  mechanically 


Where  the  lute  would  come  in  contact 
with  acid  or  vapors  of  the  same,  lime- 
stone should  not  be  the  powder  used, 
otherwise  it  is  about  the  best.  Wax  is  a 
useful  ingredient  to  keep  the  composi- 
tion from  getting  brittle  with  age. 

A  class  of  lutes  under  this  general 
grouping  that  are  much  used  are  so- 
called  "marine  glues"  (q.  v.).  They 
must  be  tough  and  elastic.  When  used 
for  calking  on  a  vessel  they  must  expand 
and  contract  with  the  temperature  and 
not  crack  or  come  loose. 


6.  Pitch 3  parts 

Shellac 2  parts 

Pure  crude  rubber  ...      1  part 

7.  Pitch 1  part 

Shellac 1  part 

Rubber  substitute  ....      1  part 

These  are  used  by  melting  over  a 

VI.  Rosin,    Shellac,    and    Wax.  —  A 
strong  cement,  used  as  a  stone  cement, 

1.  Rosin 8  parts 

Wax 1  part 

Turpentine 1  part 

It  has  little  or  no  body,  and  is  used  in 
thin  layers. 

For  nitric  and  hydrochloric  acid 

2.  Rosin 1  part 

Sulphur 1  part 

Fire  clay 2  parts 

Sulphur  gives  great  hardness  and 
permanency  to  rosin  lutes,  but  this  com- 
position is  somewhat  brittle. 

Good  waterproof  lutes  of  this  class 

3.  Rosin 1  part 

Wax 1  part 

Powdered  stone 2  parts 

4.  Shellac 5  parts 

Wax.... 1  part 

Turpentine 1  part 

Chalk,  etc 8  to  10  parts 

For  a  soft  air-tight  paste  for  ground- 
glass  surfaces: 

5.  Wax 1  part 

Vaseline 1  part 

6.  A    strong    cement,    without    body, 
for  metals   (other  than  copper  or  alloys 
of  same),  porcelain,  and  glass  is  made  by 
letting  1  part  of  finely  powdered  shellac 
stand  with  10  parts  of  ammonia  water 
until  solution  is  effected. 

VII.  Rubber. — Because  of  its  toughness, 
elasticity,   and    resistance    to    alterative 
influences,  rubber  is  a  very  useful  con- 

stituent in  lutes,  but  its  price  makes  its 
use  very  limited. 
Leather  Cement. 

1.  Asphalt 1  part 

Rosin 1  part 

Gutta  percha 4  parts 

Carbon  disulphide.  . .  20  parts 

To  stand  acid  vapors: 

2.  Rubber 1  part 

Linseed  oil 3  parts 

Fire  clay 3  parts 

3.  Plain    Rubber   Cement. — Cut    the 
crude  rubber  in  small  pieces  and  then 
add  the  solvent.      Carbon  disulphide  is 
the  best,  benzol  good  and  much  cheaper, 
but  gasoline  is  probably  most  extensively 
used  because  of  its  cheapness. 

4.  To     make    corks    and    wood    im- 
pervious to  steam  and  water,  soak  them 
in  a  rubber  solution  as  above;  if  it  is 
desired  to  protect  them  from  oil  vapors, 
use  glue  composition.      (See  Section  IX.) 

VIII.  Linseed  Oil.— This  is  one  of  the 
most  generally  useful  substances  we  have 
for  luting  purposes,  if  absorbed  by  a  por- 
ous substance  that  is  inert. 

Formulas:  1.  China  clay  of  general 
utility  for  aqueous  vapors. 

Linseed  oil  of  general  utility  for  aque- 
ous vapors. 

2.  Lime     forming     the     well  -  known 

Linseed  oil  forming  the  well-known 

3.  Red  or  white  lead  and  linseed  oil. 
These    mixtures    become   very   strong 

when  set  and  are  best  diluted  with  pow- 
dered glass,  clay,  or  graphite.  There 
are  almost  an  endless  number  of  lutes 
using  metallic  oxides  and  linseed  oil.  A 
very  good  one,  not  getting  as  hard  as 
those  containing  lead,  is: 

4.  Oxide  of  iron  and  linseed  oil. 

IX.  Casein,    Albumen,    and    Glue. — 
These,  if  properly  made,   become  very 
tough  and  tenacious;  they  stand  moder- 
ate  heat  and  oil  vapors,   but  not  acid 

1.  Finely  powdered  case- 

in     12  parts 

Slaked  lime  (fresh). .  .    50  parts 

Fine  sand. . ; 50  parts 

Water  to  thick  mush. 
A  very   strong    cement   which   stands 
moderate  heat  is  the  following  : 

2.  Casein    in    very    fine 

powder 1  part 

Rubbed  up  with  sili- 
cate of  soda 3  parts 

A   strong   lute   for   general    purposes. 


which    must    be    used    promptly    when 

3.  White  of  egg  made  into  a  paste 
with  slaked  lime. 

A  composition  for  soaking  corks, 
wood,  packing,  etc.,  to  render  them  im- 
pervious to  oil  vapors,  is: 

Gelatine  or  good  glue     2  parts 

Glycerine A  to  1  part 

Water 6  parts 

Oil  of  wintergreen, 
etc.,  to  keep  from 

X.  Silicate  of  Oxy chloride  Cements. — 
For  oil  vapors,  standing  the  highest  heat: 

1.  A  stiff  paste  of  silicate  of  soda  and 

Gaskets  for  superheated  steam,  re- 
torts, furnaces,  etc.: 

2.  Silicate  of  soda  and  powdered  glass; 
dry  the  mixture  and  heat. 

Not  so  strong,  however,  as  the  follow- 

3.  Silicate  of  soda 50  parts 

Asbestos 15  parts 

Slaked  lime 10  parts 

Metal  Cement: 

4.  Silicate  of  soda 1  part 

Oxides  of  metal,  such 

as   zinc    oxide;    lith- 
arge,     iron       oxide, 

singly  or  mixed 1  part 

Very  hard  and  extra  strong  composi- 

5.  Zinc  oxide 2  parts 

Zinc  chloride 1  part 

Water  to  make  a  paste. 

6.  Magnesium  oxide  ...     2  parts 
Magnesium  chloride.      1  part 
Water  to  make  a  paste. 

XI.  Flour  and  Starch  Compositions. — 

1.  The    well-known   flaxseed  poultice 
sets  very  tough,  but  does  not  stand  water 
or  condensed  steam. 

2.  Flour  and  molasses,  made  by  mak- 
ing   a    stiff    composition     of    the    two. 
This  is  an  excellent  lute  to  have  at  hand 
at  all  times  for  emergency  use,  etc. 

3.  Stiff  paste  of  flour  and  strong  zinc- 
chloride  solution  forms   a   more  imper- 
vious   lute,   and  is   more   permanent  as 
a  cement.     This  is  good  for  most  pur- 
poses, at  ordinary  temperature,  where  it 
would  not  be  in  contact  with  nitric-acid 
vapors  or  condensing  steam. 

4.  A  mixture  of  dextrine  and  fine  sand 
makes  a  good  composition,  mainly  used 
as  core  compound. 

XII.  Miscellaneous. — 
1.  Litharge. 


Mixed  to  form  a  stiff  paste,  sets  and 
becomes  very  hard  and  strong,  and  is  very 
useful   for  inserting  glass  tubes,  etc.,  in 
iron  or  brass. 
For  a  high  heat: 

2.  Alumina 1     part 

Sand 4    parts 

Slaked  lime 1     part 

Borax £  part 

Water  sufficient. 

A  class  of  mixtures  that  can  be  classi- 
fied only  according  to  their  intended  use 
are  core  compounds. 

I. — Dextrine,  about 1  part 

Sand,  about 10  parts 

With  enough  water  to  form  a  paste. 
II. — Powdered   anthracite   coal,    with 
molasses  to  form  a  stiff  paste. 
III. — Rosin,   partly  saponi- 
fied by  soda  lye  ....      1  part 

Flour. 2  parts 

Sand    (with   sufficient 

water) 4  parts 

(These  proportions  are  approximate 
and  the  amount  of  sand  can  be  increased 
for  some  purposes.) 

IV. — Glue,  powdered 1  part 

Flour 4  parts 

Sand    (with   sufficient 

water) 6  parts 

For  some  purposes  the  following  mix- 
ture is  used.     It  does  not  seem  to  be  a 
gasket  or  a  core  compound: 
V.— Oats  (or  wheat)  ground  25  parts 

Glue,  powdered 6  parts 

Sal  ammoniac 1  part 

Paper  read  by  Samuel  S.  Sadtler  before 
the  Franklin  Institute. 


Dextrine  Pastes. — 

I. — Borax,  powdered..  . .     60  parts 
Dextrine,  light  yellow.   480  parts 

Glucose 50  parts 

Water 420  parts 

By  the  aid  of  heat,  dissolve  the  borax 
in  the  water  and  add  the  dextrine  and 
glucose.  Continue  the  heat,  but  do  not 
let  the  mixture  boil,  and  stir  constantly 
until  a  homogeneous  solution  is  obtained, 
from  time  to  time  renewing  the  water 
lost  by  evaporation  with  hot  water. 
Finally,  bring  up  to  full  weight  (1,000 
parts)  by  the  addition  of  hot  water,  then 
strain  through  flannel.  Prepared  in  this 
manner  the  paste  remains  bright  and 
clear  for  a  long  time.  It  has  extraor- 
dinary adhesive  properties  and  dries  very 
rapidly.  If  care  is  not  taken  to  keep  the 
cooking  temperature  below  the  boiling 
point  of  water,  the  paste  is  apt  to  become 
brown  and  to  be  very  brittle  on  drying. 


II. — Dissolve  in  hot  water  a  sufficient 
quantity  of  dextrine  to  bring  it  to  the 
consistency  of  honey.  This  forms  a 
strong  adhesive  paste  that  will  keep  a 
long  time  unchanged,  if  the  water  is  not 
allowed  to  evaporate.  Sheets  of  paper 
may  be  prepared  for  extempore  labels 
by  coating  one  side  with  the  paste  and 
allowing  it  to  dry;  by  slightly  wetting 
the  gummed  side,  the  label  will  adhere 
to  glass.  This  paste  is  very  useful  in  the 
office  or  laboratory. 

III. — Pour  over  1,000  parts  of  dextrine 
450  parts  of  soft  water  and  stir  the  mix- 
ture for  10  minutes.  After  the  dextrine 
has  absorbed  the  water,  put  the  mixture 
over  the  fire,  or,  preferably,  on  a  water 
bath,  and  heat,  with  lively  stirring  for 
5  minutes,  or  until  it  forms  a  light  milk- 
like  liquid,  on  the  surface  of  which  lit- 
tle bubbles  begin  to  form  and  the  liquid 
is  apparently  beginning  to  boil.  Do 
not  allow  it  to  come  to  a  boil.  Re- 
move from  the  fire  and  set  in  a  bucket 
of  cold  water  to  cool  off.  When  cold 
add  to  every  1,000  parts  of  the  solution 
51  parts  glycerine  and  as  much  salicylic 
acid  as  will  stand  on  the  tip  of  a  knife 
blade.  If  the  solution  is  too  thick,  thin 
it  with  water  that  has  been  boiled  and 
cooled  off  again.  Dp  not  add  any  more 
glycerine  or  the  solution  will  never  set. 

IV.— Soften  175  parts  of  thick  dex- 
trine with  cold  water  and  250  parts  of 
boiling  water  added.  Boil  for  5  minutes 
and  then  add  30  parts  of  dilute  acetic 
acid,  30  parts  glycerine,  and  a  drop  or 
two  of  clove  oil. 

V. — Powder  coarsely  400  parts  dex- 
trine and  dissolve  in  600  parts  of  water. 
Add  20  parts  glycerine  and  10  parts  glu- 
cose and  heat  to  90°  C.  (195°  F.). 

VI.  — Stir  400  parts  of  dextrine  with 
water  and  thin  the  mass  with  200  parts 
more   water,    20   parts   glucose,   and    10 
parts     aluminum     sulphate.      Heat    the 
whole  to  90°  C.   (195°  F.)  in  the  water 
bath  until  the  whole  mass  becomes  clear 
and  liquid. 

VII.  —  Warm  2  parts   of   dextrine,  5 
parts  of  water,    1  part  of  acetic  acid,  1 
part  of  alcohol  together,  with  occasional 
stirring  until  a  complete  solution  is  at- 

VIII.  — Dissolve  by  the  aid  of  heat  100 
parts  ot   builders'   glue  in  200  parts  of 
water     add    2    parts    of    bleached    shellac 
dissolved  previously  in  50  parts  of  alcohol. 
Dissolve  by  the  aid  of  heat  50  parts  of  dex- 
trine in  50  parts  of  water,  and  mix  the  two 
solutions    by   stirring  the   second  slowly 
into  the  first.     Strain  the  mixture  through 
a   cloth    into  a  shallow   dish  and   let   it 
harden.      When  needed  cut  off  a  piece  of 

sufficient  size  and  warm  until  it  becomes 
liquid  and  if  necessary  or  advisable  thin 
with  water. 

IX. — Stir  up  10  parts  of  dextrine  with 
sufficient  water  to  make  a  thick  broth. 
Then,  over  a  light  fire,  heat  and  add  25 
parts  of  sodium  water  glass. 

X. — Dissolve  5  parts  of  dextrine  in 
water  and  add  1  part  of  alum. 

Fastening  Cork  to  Metal. — In  fasten- 
ing cork  to  iron  and  brass,  even  when 
these  are  lacquered,  a  good  sealing  wax 
containing  shellac  will  be  found  to  serve 
the  purpose  nicely.  Wax  prepared  with 
rosin  is  not  suitable.  The  cork  surface 
is  painted  with  the  melted  sealing  wax. 
The  surface  of  the  metal  is  heated  with 
a  spirit  flame  entirely  free  from  soot, 
until  the  sealing  wax  melts  when  pressed 
upon  the  metallic  surface.  The  wax  is 
held  in  the  flame  until  it  burns,  and  it  is 
then  applied  to  the  hot  surface  of  the 
metal.  The  cork  surface  painted  with 
sealing  wax  is  now  held  in  the  flame,  and 
as  soon  as  the  wax  begins  to  melt  the 
cork  is  pressed  firmly  on  the  metallic  sur- 
face bearing  the  wax. 

To  Paste  Celluloid  on  Wood,  Tin,  or 
Leather. — To  attach  celluloid  to  wood, 
tin,  or  leather,  a  mixture  of  1  part  of 
shellac,  1  part  of  spirit  of  camphor,  3  to 
4  parts  of  alcohol  and  spirit  of  camphor  (90°) 
is  well  adapted,  in  which  1  part  of  cam- 
phor is  dissolved  without  heating  in  7 
parts  of  spirit  of  wine  of  0.832  specific 
gravity,  adding  2  parts  of  water. 

To  Paste  Paper  Signs  on  Metal  or 
Cloth. — A  piece  of  gutta  percha  of  the 
same  size  as  the  label  is  laid  under  the 
latter  and  the  whole  is  heated.  If  the 
heating  cannot  be  accomplished  by  means 
of  a  spirit  lamp  the  label  should  be  ironed 
down  under  a  protective  cloth  or  paper 
in  the  same  manner  as  woolen  goods  are 
pressed.  This  method  is  also  very  use- 
ful for  attaching  paper  labels  to  minerals. 

Paste  for  Fastening  Leather,  Oilcloth, 
or  Similar  Stuff  to  Table  or  Desk  Tops, 
etc. — Use  the  same  paste  for  leather  as 
for  oilcloth  or  other  goods,  but  moisten 
the  leather  before  applying  the  paste. 
Prepare  the  paste  as  follows:  Mix  2J 
pounds  of  good  wheat  flour  with  2 
tablespoonfuls  of  pulverized  gum  ara- 
bic  or  powdered  rosin  and  2  table- 
spoonfuls  of  pulverized  alum  in  a  clean 
dish  with  water  enough  to  make  a  uni- 
formly thick  batter;  set  it  over  a  slow 
fire  and  stir  continuously  until  the  paste 
is  uniform  and  free  from  lumps.  When 
the  mass  has  become  so  stout  that  the 
wooden  spoon  or  stick  will  stand  in  it 


upright,  it  is  taken  from  the  fire  and 
placed  in  another  dish  and  covered  so 
that  no  skin  will  form  on  top.  When 
cold,  the  table  or  desk  top,  etc.,  is 
covered  with  a  thin  coat  of  the  paste,  the 
cloth,  etc.,  carefully  laid  on  and  smoothed 
from  the  center  toward  the  edges  with 
a  rolling  pin.  The  trimming  of  edges  is 
accomplished  when  the  paste  has  dried. 
To  smooth  out  the  leather  after  pasting,  a 
woolen  cloth  is  of  the  best  service. 

To  Paste  Paper  on  Smooth  Iron. — 
Over  a  water  bath  dissolve  200  parts,  by 
weight,  of  gelatine  in  150  parts,  by  weight, 
of  water;  while  stirring  add  50  parts,  by 
weight,  of  acetic  acid,  50  parts  alco- 
hol, and  50  parts,  by  weight,  of  pulver- 
ized alum.  The  spot  upon  which  it  is 
desired  to  attach  the  paper  must  first 
be  rubbed  with  a  bit  of  fine  emery  paper. 

Paste  for  Affixing  Cloth  to  Metal.— 

Starch 20  parts 

Sugar 10  parts 

Zinc  chloride 1  part 

Water 100  parts 

Mix  the  ingredients  and  stir  .until  a 
perfectly  smooth  liquid  results  entirely 
free  from  lumps,  then  warm  gradually 
until  the  liquid  thickens. 

To  Fix  Paper  upon  Polished  Metal.— 
Dissolve  400  parts,  by  weight,  of  dextrine 
in  600  parts,  by  weight,  of  water;  add 
to  this  10  parts,  by  weight,  of  glucose, 
and  heat  almost  to  boiling. 

Albumen  Paste.— Fresh  egg  albumen 
is  recommended  as  a  paste  for  affixing 
labels  on  bottles.  It  is  said  that  labels 
put  on  with  this  substance,  and  well 
dried  at  the  time,  will  not  loosen  even 
when  bottles  are  put  into  water  and  left 
there  for  some  time.  Albumen,  dry,  is 
almost  proof  against  mold  or  ferments. 
As  to  cost,  it  is  but  little  if  any  higher 
than  gum  arabic,  the  white  of  one  egg 
being  sufficient  to  attach  at  least  100 
medium-sized  labels. 

Paste  for  Parchment  Paper.— The  best 
agent  is  made  by  dissolving  casein  in  a 
saturated  aqueous  solution  of  borax. 

Medical  Paste. — As  an  adhesive  agent 
for  medicinal  purposes  Professor  Reihl, 
of  Leipsic,  recommends  the  viscous  sub- 
stance contained  in  the  white  mistletoe. 
It  is  largely  present  in  the  berries  and 
the  bark  of  the  plant;  it  is  called  viscin, 
and  can  be  produced  at  one-tenth  the 
price  of  caoutchouc.  Solutions  in  ben- 
zine mav  be  used  like  those  of  caout- 
chouc without  causing  any  irritation  if 
applied  mixed  with  medicinal  remedies 
to  the  skin. 

Paste  That  Will  Not  Mold.— Mix  good 
white  flour  with  cold  water  into  a  thick 
paste.  Be  sure  to  stir  out  all  the  lumps; 
then  add  boiling  water,  stirring  all  the 
time  until  thoroughly  cooked.  To  6 
quarts  of  this  add  \  pound  light  brown 
sugar  and  \  ounce  corrosive  sublimate, 
dissolved  in  a  little  hot  water.  When  the 
paste  is  cool  add  1  drachm  oil  of  lavender. 
This  paste  will  keep  for  a  long  time. 

Pasting  Wood  and  Cardboard  on 
Metal. — In  a  little  water  dissolve  50  parts 
of  lead  acetate  and  5  parts  of  alum.  In 
another  receptacle  dissolve  75  parts  of 
gum  arabic  in  2,000  parts  of  water. 
Into  this  gum-arabic  solution  pour  500 

Krts  of  flour,  stirring  constantly,  and 
at  gradually  to  the  boiling  point. 
Mingle  the  solution  first  prepared  with 
the  second  solution.  It  should  be  kept 
in  mind  that,  owing  to  the  lead  acetate, 
this  preparation  is  poisonous. 

Agar  Agar  Paste.— The  agar  agar  is 
broken  up  small,  wetted  with  water,  and 
exposed  in  an  earthenware  vessel  to  the  ac- 
tion of  ozone  pumped  under  pressure  into 
the  vessel  from  the  ozonizing  apparatus. 
About  an  hour  of  this  bleaches  the  agar 
agar  and  makes  it  freely  soluble  in  boil- 
ing water,  when  solutions  far  more  con- 
centrated than  has  hitherto  been  possible 
can  be  prepared.  On  cooling,  the  solu- 
tions assume  a  milky  appearance,  but 
form  no  lumps  and  are  readily  relique- 
fied  by  heating.  If  the  solution  is  com- 
pletely evaporated,  as  of  course  happens 
when  the  adhesive  is  allowed  to  dry  after 
use,  it  leaves  a  firmly  holding  mass  which 
is  insoluble  in  cold  water.  Among  the 
uses  to  which  the  preparation  can  be 
applied  are  the  dressing  of  textile  fabrics 
and  paper  sizing,  and  the  production  of 
photographic  papers,  as  well  as  the  or- 
dinary uses  of  an  adhesive. 

Strongly  Adhesive  Paste. — Four  parts 
glue  are  soaked  a  few  hours  in  15  parts 
cold  water,  and  moderately  heated  till 
the  solution  becomes  perfectly  clear, 
when  65  parts  boiling  water  are  added, 
while  stirring.  In  another  vessel  30 
parts  boiled  starch  are  previously  stirred 
together  with  20  parts  cold  water,  so 
that  a  thin,  milky  liquid  without  lumps 
results.  The  boiling  glue  solution  is 
poured  into  this  while  stirring  constantly, 
and  the  whole  is  kept  boiling  another  10 

Paste  for  Tissue  Paper.— 
(a)  Pulverized  gum  ara- 
bic     2  ounces 

White  sugar 4  drachms 

Boiling  water 3  fluidounces 


(6)  Common        laundry 

starch 1^  ounces 

Cold  water 3    fluidounces 

Make  into  a  batter  and  pour  into 

Boiling  water 32    fluidounces 

Mix  (a)  with  (6),  and  keep  in  a  wide- 
mouthed  bottle. 

Waterproof  and  Acidproof  Pastes. — 

I. — Chromic  acid 2£  parts 

Stronger  ammonia. . .    15     parts 

Sulphuric  acid %  part 

Cuprammonium     so- 
lution   30    parts 

Fine  white  paper ....      4     parts 
II. — Isinglass,  a  sufficient 

Acetic  acid 1     part 

Water 7    parts 

Dissolve  sufficient  isinglass  in  the  mix- 
ture of  acetic  acid  and  water  to  make  a 
thin  mucilage. 

One  of  the  solutions  is  applied  to  the 
surface  of  one  sheet  of  paper  and  the  other 
to  the  other  sheet,  and  they  are  then 
pressed  together. 

III. — A  fair  knotting  varnish  free 
from  surplus  oil  is  by  far  the  best  adhe- 
sive for  fixing  labels,  especially  on  metal 
surfaces.  It  dries  instantly,  insuring 
a  speedy  job  and  immediate  packing,  if 
needful,  without  fear  of  derangement. 
It  has  great  tenacity,  and  is  not  only 
absolutely  damp-proof  itself,  but  is  actu- 
ally repellent  of  moisture,  to  which  all 
water  pastes  are  subject.  It  costs  more, 
but  the  additional  expense  is  often  infini- 
tesimal compared  with  the  pleasure  of  a 
satisfactory  result. 

Balkan  Paste.— 

Pale  glue 4    ounces 

White  loaf  sugar.  ...      2    ounces 
Powdered  starch. ...      1    ounce 

White  dextrine \  pound 

Pure  glycerine 3    ounces 

Carbolic  acid \  ounce 

Boiling  water 32    ounces 

Cut  up  the  glue  and  steep  it  in  i  pint 
boiling  water;  when  softened  melt  in  a 
saucepan;  add  sugar,  starch,  and  dex- 
trine, and  lastly  the  glycerine,  in  which 
carbolic  acid  has  been  mixed;  add  re- 
mainder of  water,  and  boil  until  it  thick- 
ens. Pour  into  jars  or  bottles. 

Permanent  Paste. — 

I. — Wheat  flour 1  pound 

Water,  cold 1  quart 

Nitric  acid 4  fluidrachms 

Boric  acid 40  grains 

Oil  of  cloves 20  minims 

Mix  the  flour,  boric  acid,  and  water* 
then  strain  the  mixture;  add  fbe  nitric 

acid,  apply  heat  with  constant  stirring 
until  the  mixture  thickens;  when  nearly 
cold  add  the  oil  of  cloves.  This  paste 
will  have  a  pleasant  smell,  will  not  attract 
flies,  and  can  be  thinned  by  the  addition 
of  cold  water  as  needed. 

II. — Dissolve  4  ounces  alum  in  4 
quarts  hot  water.  When  cool  add  as 
much  flour  as  will  make  it  of  the  usual 
consistency;  then  stir  into  it  i  ounce 
powdered  rosin;  next  add  a  little  water 
in  which  a  dozen  cloves  have  been 
steeped;  then  boil  it  until  thick  as  mush, 
stirring  from  the  bottom  all  the  time. 
Thin  with  warm  water  for  use. 

Preservatives  for  Paste. — Various  an- 
tiseptics are  employed  for  the  preserva- 
tion of  flour  paste,  mucilage,  etc.  Boric 
and  salicylic  acids,  oil  of  cloves,  oil  of 
sassafras,  and  solution  of  formaldehyde 
are  among  those  which  have  given  best 
service.  A  durable  starch  paste  is  pro- 
duced by  adding  some  borax  to  the 
water  used  in  making  it.  A  paste  from 
10  parts  (weight)  starch  to  100  parts 
(weight)  water  with  1  per  cent  borax 
added  will  keep  many  weeks,  while  with- 
out this  addition  it  will  sour  after  six 
days.  In  the  case  of  a  gluing  material 
prepared  from  starch  paste  and  joiners' 
glue,  borax  has  also  demonstrated  its  pre- 
serving qualities.  The  solution  is  made 
by  mixing  10  parts  (weight)  starch  into 
a  paste  with  water  and  adding  10  parts 
(weight)  glue  soaked  in  water  to  the  hot 
solution;  the  addition  of  -,-V  part  (weight) 
of  borax  to  the  solution  will  cause  it  to 
keep  for  weeks.  It  is  equal  to  the  best 
glue,  but  should  be  warmed  and  stirred 
before  use. 

Board -Sizing. —  A  cheap  sizing  for 
rough,  weather-beaten  boards  may  be 
made  by  dissolving  shellac  in  sal  soda 
and  adding  some  heavy-bodied  pigment. 
This  size  will  stick  to  grease  spots.  Lin- 
seed oil  may  be  added  if  desired.  Lime- 
water  and  linseed  oil  make  a  good  heavy 
sizing,  but  hard  to  spread.  They  are 
usually  used  half  and  half,  though  these 
proportions  may  be  varied  somewhat. 

Rice  Paste. — Mix  the  rice  flour  with 
cold  water,  and  boil  it  over  a  gentle  fire 
until  it  thickens.  This  paste  is  quite 
white  and  becomes  transparent  on  dry- 
ing. It  is  very  adherent  and  of  great  use 
for  many  purposes. 

Casein  Paste.  —  A  solution  of  tannin, 
prepared  from  a  bark  or  from  commer- 
cial tannin,  is  precipitated  with  lime- 
water,  the  lime  being  added  until  the 

j   solution  just  turns  red  litmus  paper  blue. 

•    The  supernatant  liquid  is  then  decanted, 



and  the  precipitate  is  dried  without  arti- 
ficial heat.  The  resulting  calcium  tan- 
nate  is  then  mixed,  according  to  the  pur- 
pose for  which  the  adhesive  is  intended, 
with  from  1  to  10  times  its  weight  of  dry 
casein  by  grinding  in  a  mill.  The  ad- 
hesive compound  is  soluble  in  water, 
petroleum,  oils,  and  carbon  bisulphide. 
It  is  very  strong,  and  is  applied  m  the 
form  of  a  paste  with  water. 


I. — Use  a  cheap  grade  of  rye  or  wheat 
flour,  mix  thoroughly  with  cold  water  to 
about  the  consistency  of  dough,  or  a  little 
thinner,  being  careful  to  remove  all 
lumps;  stir  in  a  tablespoonful  of  pow- 
dered alum  to  a  quart  of  flour,  then  pour 
in  boiling  water,  stirring  rapidly  until  the 
flour  is  thoroughly  cooked.  Let  this  cool 
before  using,  and  thin  with  cold  water. 

II. — Venetian  Paste. — 
(a)    4  ounces  white  or  fish  glue 

8  fluidounces  cold  water 
(6)     2  fluidounces  Venice  turpentine 
(c)      1  pound  rye  flour 

16  fluidounces  (1  pint)  cold  water 
(d~)  64  fluidounces     (|    gallon)     boiling 


Soak  the  4  ounces  of  glue  in  the  cold 
water  for  4  hours;  dissolve  on  a  water 
bath  (glue  pot),  and  while  hot  stir  in  the 
Venice  turpentine.  Make  up  (c)  into  a 
batter  free  from  lumps  and  pour  into  (d). 
Stir  briskly,  and  finally  add  the  glue  so- 
lution. This  makes  a  very  strong  paste, 
and  it  will  adhere  to  a  painted  surface, 
owing  to  the  Venice  turpentine  in  its 

III.— Strong  Adhesive  Paste. — 
(a)  4    pounds  rye  flour 

|  gallon  cold  water 
(6)  1|  gallons  boiling  water 
(c)   2    ounces  pulverized  rosin 

Make  (a)  into  a  batter  free  from  lumps; 
then  pour  into  (6) .  Boil  if  necessary,  and 
while  hot  stir  in  the  pulverized  rosin  a 
little  at  a  time.  This  paste  is  exceed- 
ingly strong,  and  will  stick  heavy  wall 
paper  or  thin  leather.  If  the  paste  be 
too  thick,  thin  with  a  little  hot  water; 
never  thin  paste  with  cold  water. 

IV. —Flour  Paste. — 
(a)    2  pounds  wheat  flour 

32  fluidounces  (1  quart)  cold  water 
(6)     1  ounce  alum 

4  fluidounces  hot  water 
(c)  96  fluidounces    ($    gallon)     boiling 


Work  the  wheat  flour  into  a  batter  free 
from  lumps  with  the  cold  water.  Dis- 
solve the  alum  as  designated  in  (6). 

Now  stir  in  (a)  and  (c)  and,  if  necessary, 
continue  boiling  until  the  paste  thickens 
into  a  semitransparent  mucilage,  after 
which  stir  in  solution  (6).  The  above 
makes  a  very  fine  paste  for  wall  paper. 

V.— Elastic  or  Pliable  Paste. — 
(a)    4  ounces  common  starch 

2  ounces  white  dextrine 
10  fluidounces  cold  water 

(6)     1  ounce  borax 

3  fluidounces  glycerine 

64  fluidounces  (^  gallon)  boiling 

Beat  to  a  batter  the  ingredients  of  (a). 
Dissolve  the  borax  in  the  boiling  water; 
then  add  the  glycerine,  after  which  pour 
(a)  into  solution  (6) .  Stir  until  it  becomes 
translucent.  This  paste  will  not  crack, 
and,  being  very  pliable,  is  used  for  paper, 
cloth,  leather,  and  other  material  where 
flexibility  is  required. 

VI. — A  paste  with  which  wall  paper 
can  be  attached  to  wood  or  masonry, 
adhering  to  it  firmly  in  spite  of  damp- 
ness, is  prepared,  as  usual,  of  rye  flour,  to 
which,  however,  are  added,  after  the  boil- 
ing, 8J  parts,  by  weight,  of  good  linseed- 
oil  varnish  and  8J  parts,  by  weight,  of 
turpentine  to  every  500  parts,  by  weight. 

VII.— Paste  for  Wall  Paper.— Soak  18 
pounds  of  bolus  (bole)  in  water,  after  it 
has  been  beaten  into  small  fragments, 
and  pour  off  the  supernatant  water. 
Boil  10  ounces  of  glue  into  glue  water, 
mix  it  well  with  the  softened  bolus  and 
2  pounds  plaster  of  Paris  and  strain 
through  a  sieve  by  means  of  a  brush. 
Thin  the  mass  with  water  to  the  consist- 
ency of  a  thin  paste.  The  paste  is  now 
ready  for  use.  It  is  not  only  much 
cheaper  than  other  varieties,  but  has  the 
advantage  over  them  of  adhering  better 
to  whitewashed  walls,  and  especially 
such  as  have  been  repeatedly  coated  over 
the  old  coatings  which  were  not  thor- 
oughly removed.  For  hanging  fine  wall 
paper  this  paste  is  less  commendable, 
as  it  forms  a  white  color,,  with  which 
the  paper  might  easily  become  soiled  if 
great  care  is  not  exercised  in  applying 
it.  If  the  fine  wall  paper  is  mounted  on 
ground  paper,  however,  it  can  be  recom- 
mended for  pasting  the  ground  paper  on 
'the  wall. 


Pastes  to  Affix  Labels  to  Tin.— Labels 
separate  from  tin  because  the  paste  be- 
comes too  dry.  Some  moisture  is  pre- 
sumably always  present;  but  more  is 
required  to  cause  continued  adhesion  in  the 
case  of  tin  than  where  the  container  is  of 


glass.  Paste  may  be  kept  moist  by  the 
addition  of  calcium  chloride,  which  is 
strongly  hygroscopic,  or  of  glycerine. 

The  following  formulas  for  pastes  of 
the  type  indicated  were  proposed  by  Leo 

I. — Tragacanth 1  ounce 

Acacia 4  ounces 

Thymol 14  grains 

Glycerine 4  ounces 

Water,    sufficient   to 

make 2  pints 

Dissolve  the  gums  in  1  pint  of  water, 
strain,  and  add  the  glycerine,  in  which 
the  thymol  is  suspended;  shake  well  and 
add  sufficient  water  to  make  2  pints. 
This  separates  on  standing,  but  a  single 
shake  mixes  it  sufficiently  for  use. 

II. — Rye  flour 8  ounces 

Powdered  acacia. ...      1  ounce 

Glycerine 2  ounces 

Oil  of  cloves 40  drops 

Rub  the  rye  flour  and  acacia  to  a 
smooth  paste  with  8  ounces  of  cold  water; 
strain  through  cheese  cloth,  and  pour 
into  1  pint  of  boiling  water,  and  continue 
the  heat  until  as  thick  as  desired.  When 
nearly  cold  add  the  glycerine  and  oil  of 

III.— Rye  flour 5  parts 

Venice  turpentine. ..      1  part 
Liquid  glue,  a  sufficient  quantity 
Rub  up  the  flour  with  the  turpentine 
and  then  add  sufficient  freshly  prepared 
glue  (glue  or  gelatine  dissolved  in  water) 
to  make  a  stiff  paste.     This  paste  dries 

IV. — Dextrine 2  parts 

Acetic  acid 1  part 

Water 5  parts 

Alcohol,  95  per  cent  .      1  part 
Dissolve  the  dextrine  and  acetic  acid 
in  water  by  heating  together  in  the  water 
bath,  and  to  the  solution  add  the  alcohol. 

V. — Dextrine 3  pounds 

Borax 2  ounces 

Glucose 5  drachms 

Water 3  pints  2  ounces 

Dissolve  the  borax  in  the  water  by 
warming,  then  add  the  dextrine  and  glu- 
cose, and  continue  to  heat  gently  until 

Another  variety  is  made  by  dissolving' 
a  cheap  Ghatti  gum  in  limewater,  but  it 
keeps  badly. 

VI. — Add  tartaric  acid  to  thick  flour 
paste.  The  paste  is  to  be  boiled  until 
quite  thick,  and  the  acid,  previously  dis- 
solved in  a  little  water,  is  added,  the  pro- 
portion being  about  2  ounces  to  the  pint 
of  paste. 

VII. — Gum  arabic,  50  parts;  glycer- 
ine, 10  parts;  water,  30  parts;  liq.  Stibii 
chlorat.,  2  parts. 

VIII. — Boil  rye  flour  and  strong  glue 
water  into  a  mass  to  which  are  added,  for 
1,000  parts,  good  linseed-oil  varnish  30 
parts  and  oil  of  turpentine  30  parts. 
This  mixture  furnishes  a  gluing  agent 
which,  it  is  claimed,  even  renders  the 
labels  proof  against  being  loosened  by 

IX.— Pour  140  parts  of  distilled  cold 
water  over  100  parts  of  gum  arabic  in  a 
wide-necked  bottle  and  dissolve  by  fre- 
quent shaking.  To  the  solution,  which 
is  ready  after  standing  for  about  3  days, 
add  10  parts  of  glycerine;  later,  20  parts  of 
diluted  acetic  acid,  and  finally  6  parts  of 
aluminum  sulphate,  then  straining  it 
through  a  fine-hair  sieve. 

X. — Good  glue  is  said  to  be  obtained 
by  dissolving  1  part  of  powdered  sugar 
in  4  parts  of  soda  water  glass. 

XI. — A  glue  for  bottle  labels  is  pre- 
pared by  dissolving  borax  in  water; 
soak  glue  in  this  solution  and  dissolve 
the  glue  by  boiling.  Carefully  drop  as 
much  acetic  acid  into  the  solution  as 
will  allow  it  to  remain  thin  on  cooling. 
Labels  affixed  with  this  agent  adhere 
firmly  and  do  not  become  moldy  in  damp 

XII. — Dissolve  some  isinglass  in  acetic 
acid  and  brush  the  labels  over  with  it. 
There  will  be  no  cause  to  complain 
of  their  coming  off,  nor  of  striking 
through  the  paper.  Take  a  wide- 
mouthed  bottle,  fill  about  two-thirds  with 
commercial  acetic  acid,  and  put  in  as  much 
isinglass  as  the  liquid  will  hold,  and  set 
aside  in  a  warm  place  until  completely 
dissolved.  When  cold  it  should  form  a 
jelly.  To  use  it  place  the  bottle  in  hot 
water.  The  cork  should  be  well-fit- 
ting and  smeared  with  vaseline  or  melted 

How  to  Paste  Labels  on  Tin. — Brush 
over  the  entire  back  of  the  label  with  a 
flour  paste,  fold  the  label  loosely  by 
sticking  both  ends  together  without 
creasing  the  center,  and  throw  to  one 
side  until  this  process  has  been  gone 
through  with  the  whole  lot.  Then  unfold 
each  label  and  place  it  on  the  can  in  the 
regular  manner.  The  paste  ought  not 
to  be  thicker  than  maple  syrup.  When 
of  this  consistency  it  soaks  through  the 
label  and  makes  it  pliable  and  in  a  con- 
dition to  be  easily  rubbed  into  position. 
If  the  paste  is  too  thick  it  dries  quickly, 
and  does  not  soak  through  the  label  suf- 
ficiently. After  the  labels  have  been 
placed  upon  the  cans  the  latter  must  be 


kept  apart  until  dry.  In  putting  the 
paste  upon  the  labels  in  the  first  place, 
follow  the  method  of  placing  the  dry 
labels  over  one  another,  back  sides  up, 
with  the  edge  of  each  just  protruding  over 
the  edge  of  the  one  beneath  it,  so  that 
the  fingers  may  easily  grasp  the  label 
after  the  pasting  has  been  done. 

Druggists'  Label  Paste.— This  paste, 
when  carefully  made,  is  an  admirable  one 
for  label  use,  and  a  very  little  will  go  a 
long  way: 

Wheat  flour 4    ounces 

Nitric  acid 1    drachm 

Boric  acid 10    grains 

Oil  of  cloves 5    drops 

Carbolic  acid |  drachm 

Stir  flour  and  water  together,  mixing 
thoroughly,  and  add  the  other  ingre- 
dients. After  the  stuff  is  well  mixed, 
heat  it,  watching  very  carefully  and  re- 
moving the  instant  it  stiffens. 

To  Attach  Glass  Labels  to  Bottles.— 
Melt  together  1  part  of  rosin  and  2  parts 
of  yellow  wax,  and  use  while  warm. 

Photographic  Mountants  (see  also 
Photography). — Owing  to  the  nature  of 
the  different  papers  used  for  printing 
photographs,  it  is  a  matter  of  extreme 
importance  to  use  a  mountant  that  shall 
not  set  up  decomposition  in  the  coating 
of  the  print.  For  example,  a  mountant 
that  exhibits  acidity  or  alkalinity  is  in- 
jurious with  most  varieties  of  paper;  and 
in  photography  the  following  formulas 
for  pastes,  mucilages,  etc.,  have  there- 
fore been  selected  with  regard  to  their 
absolute  immunity  from  setting  up  de- 
composition in  the  print  or  changing  its 
tone  in  any  way.  One  of  the  usual 
mountants  is  rice  starch  or  else  rice  water. 
The  latter  is  boiled  to  a  thick  jelly, 
strained,  and  the  strained  mass  used 
as  an  agglutinant  for  attaching  photo- 
graphic prints  to  the  mounts.  There  is 
nothing  of  an  injurious  nature  whatever 
in  this  mountant,  neither  is  there  in  a 
mucilage  made  with  gum  dragon. 

This  gum  (also  called  gum  traga- 
canth)  is  usually  in  the  form  of  curls 
(i.e.,  leaf  gum),  which  take  a  long  time 
to  properly  dissolve  in  water — several 
weeks,  in  fact — but  during  the  past  few 
years  there  has  been  put  on  the  market  a 
powdered  gum  dragon  which  does  not 
occupy  so  many  days  in  dissolving.  To 
make  a  mucilage  rom  gum  dragon  a 
very  large  volume  of  water  is  required. 
For  example,  1  ounce  of  the  gum,  either 
leaf  or  powder,  will  swell  up  and  con- 
vert 1  gallon  of  water  into  a  thickish 
mucilage  in  the  course  of  2  or  3  weeks. 

Only  cold  water  must  be  used,  and  be- 
fore using  the  mucilage,  all  whitish 
lumps  (which  are  particles  of  undissolved 
gum)  should  be  picked  out  or  else  the 
mucilage  strained.  The  time  of  solution 
can  be  considerably  shortened  (to  a  few 
hours)  by  acidifying  the  water  in  which 
the  gum  is  placed  with  a  little  sulphuric 
or  oxalic  acid;  but  as  the  resultant  muci- 
lage would  contain  traces  of  their  pres- 
ence, such  acids  are  not  permissible 
when  the  gum-dragon  mucilage  is  to  be 
used  for  mounting  photographs. 

Glycerine  and  gum  arabic  make  a  very 
good  adhesive  of  a  fluid  nature  suited 
to  mounting  photographs;  and  although 
glycerine  is  hygroscopic  by  itself,  such 
tendency  to  absorb  moisture  is  checked 
by  the  reverse  nature  of  the  gum  arabic; 
consequently  an  ideal  fluid  mucilage  is 
produced.  The  proportions  of  the  sev- 
eral ingredients  are  these: 
Gum  arabic,  genuine 
(gum  acacia,  not 

Bassora  gum) 4  ounces 

Boiling  water 12  ounces 

Glycerine,  pure 1  ounce 

First  dissolve  the  gum  in  the  water, 
and  then  stir  in  the  glycerine,  and  allow 
al]  debris  from  the  gum  to  deposit  before 
using.  The  following  adhesive  com- 
pound is  also  one  that  is  free  from  chem- 
ical reactions,  and  is  suited  for  photo- 
graphic purposes: 

Water 2  pints 

Gum    dragon,    pow- 
dered   1  ounce 

Gum  arabic,  genuine  4  ounces 

Glycerine 4  ounces 

Mix  the  gum  arabic  with  half  the  wa- 
ter, and  in  the  remainder  of  the  water 
dissolve  the  gum  dragon.  When  both 
solids  are  dissolved,  mix  them  together, 
and  then  stir  in  the  glycerine. 

The  following  paste  will  be  found  a 
useful  mountant: 

Gum  arabic,  genuine  1  ounce 

Rice  starch 1  ounce 

White  sugar 4  ounces 

Water,  q.  s. 

Dissolve  the  gum  in  just  sufficient 
water  to  completely  dissolve  it,  then  add 
the  sugar,  and  when  that  has  completely 
dissolved  stir  in  the  starch  paste,  and 
then  boil  the  mixture  until  the  starch  is 
properly  cooked. 

A  very  strong,  stiff  paste  for  fastening 
cardboard  mounts  to  frames,  wood,  and 
other  materials  is  prepared  by  making 
a  bowl  of  starch  paste  in  the  usual  way, 
and  then  adding  1  ounce  of  Venice  tur- 
pentine per  pound  of  paste,  and  boil- 


ing  and  stirring  the  mixture  until  the 
thick  turpentine  has  become  well  incor- 
porated. Venice  turpentine  stirred  into 
flour  paste  and  boiled  will  also  be  found 
a  very  adhesive  cement  for  fastening 
cardboard,  strawboard,  leatherette,  and 
skiver  leather  to  wood  or  metal;  but 
owing  to  the  resinous  nature  of  the  Venice 
turpentine,  such  pastes  are  not  suitable 
for  mounting  photographic  prints.  The 
following  half-dozen  compounds  are 
suitable  mountants  to  use  with  silver 

Alcohol,  absolute. ...    10  ounces 

Gelatine,  good 1  ounce 

Glycerine \  to  1  ounce 

Soak  the  gelatine  in  water  for  an  hour 
or  two  until  it  is  completely  softened; 
take  the  gelatine  out  of  the  water,  and 
allow  it  to  drain,  and  put  it  into  a 
bottle  and  pour  alcohol  over  it;  add  the 
glycerine  (if  the  gelatine  is  soft,  use 
only  \  ounce;  if  the  gelatine  is  hard,  use 
1  ounce  of  the  glycerine),  then  melt  the 
gelatine  by  standing  the  bottle  in  a  vessel 
of  hot  water,  and  shake  up  very  well. 
For  use,  remelt  by  heat.  The  alcohol 
prevents  the  prints  from  stretching  or 
cockling,  as  they  are  apt  to,  under  the 
influence  of  the  gelatine. 

In  the  following  compound,  however, 
only  sufficient  alcohol  is  used  to  serve  as 
an  antiseptic,  and  prevent  the  aggluti- 
nant  from  decomposing  :  Dissolve  4 
ounces  of  photographic  gelatine  in  16 
ounces  of  water  (first  soaking  the  gela- 
tine therein  for  an  hour  or  two  until  it  is 
completely  softened),  then  remove  the 
gelatine  from  the  water,  allow  it  to  drain, 
and  put  it  into  the  bottle,  and  pour  the 
alcohol  over  it,  and  put  in  the  glycerine 
(if  the  gelatine  is  soft,  use  only  \  ounce; 
if  the  gelatine  is  hard,  use  1  ounce  of  the 
glycerine),  then  melt  the  gelatine  by 
standing  the  bottle  in  a  vessel  of  hot 
water,  and  shake  up  well  and  mix  thor- 
oughly. For  use,  remelt  by  heat.  The 
alcohol  prevents  the  print  from  stretch- 
ing or  cockling  up  under  the  influence  of 
the  gelatine. 

The  following  paste  agglutinant  is  one 
that  is  very  permanent  and  useful  for  all 
purposes  required  in  a  photographic 
studio:  Take  5  pints  of  water,  10  ounces 
of  arrowroot,  1  ounce  of  gelatine,  and  a 
\  pint  (10  fluidounces)  of  alcohol,  and 
proceed  to  combine  them  as  follows: 
Make  arrowroot  into  a  thick  cream  with 
a  little  of  the  water,  and  in  the  remainder 
of  the  water  soak  the  gelatine  for  a  few 
hours,  after  which  melt  the  gelatine  in 
the  water  by  heating  it,  add  the  arrow- 
root paste,  and  bring  the  mixture  to  the 
boil  and  allow  to  boil  for  4  or  5  minutes, 

then  allow  to  cool,  and  mix  in  the  alcohol, 
adding  a  few  drops  of  oil  of  cloves. 

Perhaps  one  or  the  most  useful  com- 
pounds for  photographic  purposes  is  that 
prepared  as  follows:  Soak  4  ounces  of 
hard  gelatine  in  15  ounces  of  water  for  a 
few  hours,  then  melt  the  gelatine  by 
heating  it  in  a  glue  pot  until  the  solution 
is  quite  clear  and  free  from  lumps,  stir 
in  65  fluidounces  of  cold  water  so  that 
it  is  free  from  lumps,  and  pour  in  the 
boiling-hot  solution  of  gelatine  and  con- 
tinue stirring,  and  if  the  starch  is  not 
completely  cooked,  boil  up  the  mixture 
for  a  few  minutes  until  it  "blows,"  being 
careful  to  keep  it  well  stirred  so  as  not 
to  burn;  when  cold  add  a  few  drops  of 
carbolic  acid  or  some  essential  oil  as  an 
antiseptic  to  prevent  the  compound  from 
decomposing  or  becoming  sour. 

A  useful  photographic  mucilage,  which 
is  very  liquid,  is  obtained  by  mixing  equal 
bulks  of  gum-arabic  and  gum-dragon 
mucilages  of  the  same  consistence.  The 
mixture  of  these  mucilages  will  be  con- 
siderably thinner  than  either  of  them 
when  alone. 

As  an  agglutinant  for  general  use  in  the 
studio,  the  following  is  recommended: 
Dissolve  2  ounces  of  gum  arabic  in  5 
ounces  of  water,  and  for  every  250  parts 
of  the  mucilage  add  20  parts  of  a  solu- 
tion of  sulphate  of  aluminum,  prepared 
by  dissolving  1  part  of  the  sulphate  in 
20  parts  of  water  (common  alum  should 
not  be  used,  only  the  pure  aluminum 
sulphate,  because  common  alum  is  a 
mixture  of  sulphates,  and  usually  con- 
taminated with  iron  salts).  The  addi- 
tion of  the  sulphate  solution  to  the 
gum  mucilage  renders  the  latter  less 
hygroscopic,  and  practically  waterproof, 
besides  being  very  adhesive  to  any 
materials,  particularly  those  exhibiting  a 
smooth  surface. 


For  Affixing  Labels  to  Glass  and  Other 
Objects. — I. — The  mucilage  is  made  by 
simply  pouring  over  the  gum  enough 
water  to  a  little  more  than  cover  it,  and 
then,  as  the  gum  swells,  adding  more  water 
from  time  to  time  in  small  portions,  until 
the  mucilage  is  brought  to  such  con- 
sistency that  it  may  be  easily  spread  with 
the  brush.  The  mucilage  keeps  fairly 
well  without  the  addition  of  any  anti- 

II. — Tragacanth 1  ounce 

Acacia 4  ounces 

Thymol 14  grains 

Glycerine 4  ounces 

Water,  sufficient  to 
make 2  pints 


Dissolve  the  gums  in  1  pint  of  water, 
strain  and  add  the  glycerine,  in  which 
the  thymol  is  suspended;  shake  well  and 
add  sufficient  water  to  make  2  pints. 
This  separates  on  standing,  but  a  single 
shake  mixes  it  sufficiently  for  use. 

III. — Rye  flour 8  ounces 

Powdered  acacia.      1  ounce 

Glycerine 2  ounces 

Oil  of  cloves 40  drops 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Rub  the  rye  flour  and  the  acacia  to  a 
smooth  paste  with  8  ounces  of  cold  water; 
strain  through  cheese  cloth,  and  pour 
into  1  pint  of  boiling  water  and  continue 
the  heat  until  as  thick  as  desired.  When 
nearly  cold  add  the  glycerine  and  oil  of 

IV. — One  part,  by  weight,  of  traga- 
canth,  when  mixed  with  95-per-cent  alco- 
hol to  form  4  fluidounces,  forms  a  liquid  in 
which  a  portion  of  the  tragacanth  is  dis- 
solved and  the  remainder  suspended; 
this  remains  permanently  fluid,  never 
deteriorates,  and  can  be  used  in  place  of 
the  present  mucilage;  4  to  8  minims  to 
each  ounce  of  mixture  is  sufficient  to 
suspend  any  of  the  insoluble  substances 
usually  given  in  mixtures. 

V. — To  250  parts  of  gum-arabic  muci- 
lage add  20  parts  of  water  and  2  parts  of 
sulphate  of  alumina  and  heat  until  dis- 

VI. — Dissolve  \  pound  gum  traga- 
canth, powdered,  J  pound  gum  arabic, 
powdered,  cold  water  to  the  desired  con- 
sistency, and  add  40  drops  carbolic  acid. 

Mucilage  of  Acacia. — Put  the  gum, 
which  should  be  of  the  best  kind,  in  a  flask 
the  size  of  which  should  be  large  enough 
to  contain  the  mucilage  with  about  one- 
fifth  of  its  space  to  spare  (i.  e.,  the  product 
should  fill  it  about  four -fifths  full).  Now 
tare,  and  wash  the  gum  with  distilled  wa- 
ter, letting  the  latter  drain  away  as  much 
as  possible  before  proceeding  further. 
Add  the  requisite  quantity  of  distilled 
water  slowly,  which,  however,  should 
first  have  added  to  it  about  10  per  cent  of 
limewater.  Now  cork  the  flask,  and  lay 
it,  without  shaking,  horizontally  in  a  cool 
place  and  let  it  remain  quietly  for  about 
3  hours,  then  give  it  a  half  turn  to  the 
right  without  disturbing  its  horizontal 
position.  Repeat  this  operation  three  or 
four  times  during  the  day,  and  keep  it 
up  until  the  gum  is  completely  dissolved 
(which  will  not  be  until  the  fourth  day 
probably),  then  strain  through  a  thin 
cloth  previously  wet  with  distilled  wa- 
ter, avoiding,  in  so  doing,  the  formation 
of  foam  or  bubbles.  This  precaution 
should  also  be  observed  in  decantation 

of  the  percolate  into  smaller  bottles  pro- 
vided with  paraffine  corks.  The  small 
amount  of  lime  water,  as  will  be  under- 
stood, is  added  to  the  solvent  water  in 
order  to  prevent  the  action  of  free  acid. 

Commercial  Mucilage.  —  Dissolve  \ 
pound  white  glue  in  equal  parts  water 
and  strong  vinegar,  and  add  \  as  much 
alcohol  and  \  ounce  alum  dissolved  in  a 
little  water.  To  proceed,  first  get  good 
glue  and  soak  in  cold  water  until  it 
swells  and  softens.  Use  pale  vinegar. 
Pour  off  the  cold  water,  then  melt  the 
glue  to  a  thick  paste  in  hot  water,  and 
add  the  vinegar  hot.  When  a  little  cool 
add  the  alcohol  and  alum  water. 

To  Render  Gum  Arabic  More  Ad- 
hesive.— I. — Add  crystallized  aluminum 
sulphate  in  the  proportion  of  2  dissolved 
in  20  parts  of  water  to  250  parts  of  con- 
centrated gum  solution  (75  parts  of  gum 
in  175  parts  of  water). 

II. — Add  to  250  parts  of  concentrated 
gum  solution  (2  parts  of  gum  in  5  parts 
of  water)  2  parts  of  crystallized  alumi- 
num sulphate  dissolved  in  20  parts  of 
water.  This  mixture  glues  even  unsized 
paper,  pasteboard  on  pasteboard,  wood 
on  wood,  glass,  porcelain,  and  other 
substances  on  which  labels  frequently  do 
not  adhere  well. 

Envelope  Gum. — The  gum  used  by 
the  United  States  Government  on  postage 
stamps  is  probably  one  of  the  best  that 
could  be  used  not  only  for  envelopes  but 
for  labels  as  well.  It  will  stick  to  almost 
any  surface.  Its  composition  is  said  to 
be  the  following: 

Gum  arabic 1  part 

Starch 1  part 

Sugar 4  parts 

Water,  sufficient  to 
give  the  desired  con- 

The  gum  arabic  is  first  dissolved  in 
some  water,  the  sugar  added,  then  the 
starch,  after  which  the  mixture  is  boiled 
for  a  few  minutes  in  order  to  dissolve 
the  starch,  after  which  it  is  thinned  down 
to  the  desired  consistency. 

Cheaper  envelope  gums  can  be  made 
by  substituting  dextrine  for  the  gum 
arabic,  glucose  for  the  sugar,  and  adding 
boric  acid  to  preserve  and  help  stiffen  it. 

Mucilage  to  Make  Wood  and  Paste- 
board Adhere  to  Metals. — Dissolve  50 
parts,  by  weight,  of  lead  acetate  together 
with  5  parts,  by  weight,  of  alum  in  a  little 
water.  Make  a  separate  solution  of  75 
parts,  by  weight,  of  gum  arabic  in  2,000 
parts,  by  weight,  of  water,  stir  in  this  500 


parts,  by  weight,  of  flour,  and  heat  slowly 
to  boiling,  stirring  the  while.  Let  it  cool 
somewhat,  and  mix  with  it  the  solution 
containing  the  lead  acetate  and  alum, 
stirring  them  well  together. 

Preservation  of  Gum  Solution. — Put  a 
small  piece  of  camphor  in  the  mucilage 
bottle.  Camphor  vapors  are  generated 
which  kill  all  the  bacterial  germs  that 
have  entered  the  bottle.  The  gum  main- 
tains its  adhesiveness  to  the  last  drop. 


See  Foods. 


See  Photography. 

See  Horse  Chestnut. 


See  Adhesives. 


Prepare  a  mixture  or  frit  of  33  parts 
of  quartz  sand,  65  parts  calcium  phos- 
phate, and  2  parts  of  potash.  The  frit, 
which  has  been  reduced  by  heat  to  the 
fusing  point,  is  finely  ground,  intimately 
mingled  with  a  small  quantity  of  kaolin 
and  pressed  in  molds  which  yield  button- 
shaped  masses.  These  masses,  after  hav- 
ing been  fired,  are  given  a  transparent 
glaze  by  any  of  the  well-known  processes. 


See  Gems,  Artificial. 


See  Silk. 


See  Plating. 


This  air  bath  is  employed  in  cases 
in  which,  upon  drying  or  heating  sub- 
stances, acid  vapors  arise  because  the 
walls  of  the  bath  are  not  attacked  by 
them.  For  the  production  of  the  drying 
apparatus  take  a  flask  with  the  bottom 
burst  off  or  a  bell  jar  tubulated  above. 
This  is  placed  either  upon  a  sand  bath 
or  upon  asbestos  paper,  previously  laid 
upon  a  piece  of  sheet  iron.  The  sand 
bath  or  the  sheet  iron  is  put  on  a  tripod, 
so  that  it  can  be  heated  by  means  of  a 
burner  placed  underneath.  The  sub- 
stance to  be  dried  is  placed  in  a  glass  or 
porcelain  dish,  which  is  put  under  the 
bell  jar,  and  if  desired  the  drying  dish 
may  be  hung  on  the  tripod.  For  regu- 
lating the  temperature  the  tubulure  of 
the  jar  is  closed  with  a  pierced  cork, 

through  whose  aperture  the  thermom- 
eter is  thrust.  In  order  to  permit  the 
vapors  to  escape,  the  cork  is  grooved 
lengthwise  along  the  periphery. 

See  Gelatine. 

See  Photography. 


Ozonatine  is  a  fragrant  air-purifying 
preparation  consisting  of  dextrogyrate 
turpentine  oil  scented  with  slight  quan- 
tities of  fragrant  oils. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 


See  Alloys. 


Patein  (Pharm.  Zeit.)  recommends  the 
following  test  for  albumen  in  urine: 
Dissolve  250  grams  of  citric  acid  in  a 
sufficient  quantity  of  water,  add  enough 
ammonia  to  neutralize,  then  50  grams 
of  alcohol,  and  finally  enough  water  to 
make  1  liter.  To  the  acid  (or  acidulated) 
urine,  one-tenth  its  volume  of  the  ammo- 
nium-citrate solution  made  as  above  is 
added,  and  the  whole  heated  in  the  usual 
manner.  The  appearance  of  the  faint- 
est turbidity  is  said  to  indicate  with  pos- 
itive certainty  the  presence  of  albumen. 

See  Photography. 

See  Adhesives. 


After  the  manuscript  of  this  book  was 
ready  for  the  press,  Congress  passed  the 
bill  which  has  since  become  a  law,  whereby 
the  prohibitive  tax  on  industrial  or  de- 
natured alcohol  is  removed.  So  impor- 
tant is  this  legislative  measure  that  the 
Editor  has  deemed  it  wise  to  insert  an 
article  on  the  sources  of  alcohol  and  the 
manufacture  of  alcohol  from  farm  prod- 
ucts. Because  the  first  portion  of  the 
book  was  in  type  when  this  step  was  de- 
cided upon,  the  Editor  was  compelled  to 
relegate  to  a  later  page  a  monograph 
which  should  properly  have  appeared 
here.  The  reader  will  find  the  matter 
on  alcohol  referred  to  under  the  heading 


"Spirit";  likewise  methods  of  denaturing 
and  a  list  of  denaturants. 
See  Tables. 

Alcohol,  Tests  for  Absolute.—  The 
committee  for  the  compilation  of  the 
German  Arzneibuch  established  the  fol- 
lowing tests  for  the  determination  of  ab- 
solute alcohol: 

Absolute  alcohol  is  a  clear,  colorless,  vol- 
atile, readily  imflammable  liquid  which 
burns  with  a  faintly  luminous  flame. 
Absolute  alcohol  has  a  peculiar  odor,  a 
burning  taste,  and  does  not  affect  litmus 
paper.  Boiling  point,  78.50.  Specific 
gravity,  0.795  to  0.797.  One  hundred 
parts  contain  99.7  to  99.4  parts,  by  vol- 
ume, or  99.6  to  99.0  parts,  by  weight,  of 

Absolute  alcohol  should  have  no  for- 
eign smell  and  should  mix  with  water 
without  cloudiness. 

After  the  admixture  of  5  drops  of  sil- 
ver-nitrate solution,  10  cubic  centimeters 
of  absolute  alcohol  should  not  become 
turbid  or  colored  even  on  heating. 

A  mixture  of  10  cubic  centimeters  of 
absolute  alcohol  and  0.2  cubic  centimeter 
of  potash  lye  evaporated  down  to  1  cubic 
centimeter  should  not  exhibit  an  odor  of 
fusel  oil  after  supersaturation  with  dilute 
sulphuric  acid. 

Five  cubic  centimeters  of  sulphuric 
acid,  carefully  covered,  in  a  test  tube, 
with  a  stratum  of  5  cubic  centimeters  of 
absolute  alcohol,  should  not  form  a  rose- 
colored  zone  at  the  surface  of  contact, 
even  on  standing  for  some  time. 

The  red  color  of  a  mixture  of  10  cubic 
centimeters  of  absolute  alcohol  and  1 
cubic  centimeter  of  potassium -perman- 
ganate solution  should  not  pass  into 
yellow  before  20  minutes. 

Absolute  alcohol  should  not  be  dyed 
by  hydrogen  sulphide  water  or  by  aque- 
ous ammonia. 

Five  cubic  centimeters  of  absolute  al- 
cohol should  not  leave  behind  a  weighable 
residue  after  evaporation  on  water  bath. 

Absolute  Alcohol. — If  gelatine  be  sus- 
pended in  ordinary  alcohol  it  will  absorb 
the  water,  but  as  it  is  insoluble  in  alcohol, 
that  substance  will  remain  behind,  and 
thus  nearly  absolute  alcohol  will  be  ob- 
tained without  distillation. 

Perfumed  Denaturized  Alcohol. — 
East  India  lemon  oil  1,250  parts 

Mirbane  oil 1,000  parts 

Cassia  oil 50  parts 

Clove  oil 75  parts 

Lemon  oil 100  parts 

Amyl  acetate 500  parts 

Spirit  (95  per  cent)  .  7,000  parts 

Dissolve  the  oils  in  the  spirit  and  add 
the  amyl  acetate.  The  mixture  serves 
for  destroying  the  bad  odor  of  denatur- 
ized  spirit  in  distilling.  Use  50  parts  of 
the  perfume  per  1,000  parts  of  spirit. 

Solid  Alcohol.— I.— Heat  1,000  parts  of 
denaturized  alcohol  (90  per  cent)  in  a  flask 
of  double  the  capacity  on  the  water  bath 
to  about  140°  F.,  and  then  mix  with  28  to 
30  parts  of  well-dried,  rasped  Venetian 
soap  and  2  parts  of  gum  lac.  After  re- 
peated shaking,  complete  dissolution 
will  take  place.  The  solution  is  put, 
while  still  warm,  into  metallic  vessels, 
closing  them  up  at  once  and  allowing  the 
mixture  to  cool  therein.  The  admix- 
ture of  gum  lac  effects  a  better  preserva- 
tion and  also  prevents  the  evaporation  of 
the  alcohol.  On  lighting  the  solid  spirit 
the  soap  remains  behind. 

II. — Smaragdine  is  a  trade  name  for 
solidified  alcohol.  It  consists  of  alcohol 
and  gun  cotton,  colored  with  malachite 
green.  It  appears  in  the  market  in  the 
form  of  small  cubes. 

Alcohol  in  Fermented  Beers. — Expe- 
rience has  shown  that  \  pound  of  sugar 
to  1  gallon  of  water  yields  about  2  per  cent 
of  proof  spirit,  or  about  1  per  cent  of  ab- 
solute alcohol.  Beyond  this  amount  it  is 
not  safe  to  go,  if  the  legal  limit  is  to  be 
observed,  yet  a  ginger  beer  brewed  with 
|  pound  per  gallon  of  sugar  would  be  a 
very  wishy-washy  compound,  and  there 
is  little  doubt  that  a  much  larger  quantity 
is  generally  used.  The  more  sugar  that 
is  used — up  to  H  or  1J  pounds  per  gallon 
— the  better  the  •  drink  will  be  and  the 
more  customers  will  relish  it;  but  it  will 
be  as  "strong"  as  lager  and  contain  per- 
haps 5  per  cent  of  alcohol,  which  will  make 
it  anything  but  a  "temperance"  drink. 
Any  maker  who  is  using  as  much  as  even 
£  pound  of  sugar  per  gallon  is  bound  to 
get  more  spirit  than  the  law  allows. 
Meanwhile  it  is  scarcely  accurate  to  term 
ginger  beers,  etc.,  non-alcoholic. 

Alcohol  Deodorizer. — 

Alcohol 160    ounces 

Powdered  quicklime.  300    grains 

Powdered  alum 150    grains 

Spirit  of  nitrous  ether       1£  drachms 

Mix  the  lime  and  alum  intimately  by 

'trituration;  add  the  alcohol  and  shake 

well;  then  add  the  spirit  of  nitrous  ether; 

set  aside  for  7  days  and  filter  through 

animal  charcoal. 

Denaturized  Alcohol. — There  are  two 
general  classes  or  degrees  of  denaturizing, 
viz.,  the  "complete"  and  the  "incom- 
plete," according  to  the  purpose  for 


which  the  alcohol  so  denaturized  is  to  be 
ultimately  used. 

J. — Complete  denaturization  by  the 
German  system  is  accomplished  by  the 
addition  to  every  100  liters  (equal  to  26£ 
gallon*  >  of  spirits: 

(a)  '1  "wo  and  one-half  liters  of  the  "stand- 
ard* 'leiiaturizer,  made  of  4  parts  of 
wood  alcohol,  1  part  of  pyridiiie  (a  nitro- 
genous base  obtained  by  distilling  bone 
oil  or  coal  tar),  with  the  addition  of  50 
grams  to  each  liter  of  oil  of  lavender  or 

(6)  One  and  one-fourth  liters  of  the 
above  "standard"  and  2  liters  of  benzol 
with  every  100  liters  of  alcohol. 

II. — Incomplete  denaturization — i.  e., 
sufficient  to  prevent  alcohol  from  being 
drunk,  but  not  to  disqualify  it  from  use 
for  various  special  purposes,  for  which 
the  wholly  denaturized  spirits  would  be 
unavailable — is  accomplished  by  several 
methods  as  follows,  the  quantity  and 
nature  of  each  substance  given  being 
the  prescribed  dose  for  each  100  liters 
(26*  gallons)  of  spirits: 

(c)  Five  liters  of  wood  alcohol  or  | 
liter  of  pyridiiie. 

(d~)  Twenty  liters  of  solution  of  shellac, 
containing  1  part  gum  to  2  parts  alcohol 
of  90-per-cent  purity.  Alcohol  for  the 
manufacture  of  celluloid  and  pegamoid 
is  denaturized. 

(e)  By  the  addition  of  1  kilogram  of 
camphor  or  2  liters  oil  of  turpentine  or 
\  liter  benzol  to  each  100  liters  of  spirits. 
Alcohol  to  be  used  in  the  manufacture 
of  ethers,  aldehyde,  agaricin,  white  lead, 
bromo-silver  gelatines,  photographic  pa- 
pers and  plates,  electrode  plates,  collo- 
dion, salicylic  acid  and  salts,  aniline 
chemistry,  and  a  great  number  of  other 
purposes,  is  denaturized  by  the  addition 
of — 

(/)  Ten  liters  sulphuric  ether,  or  1 
part  of  benzol,  or  \  part  oil  of  turpentine, 
or  0.025  part  of  animal  oil. 

For  the  manufacture  of  varnishes  and 
inks  alcohol  is  denaturized  by  the  addi- 
tion of  oil  of  turpentine  or  animal  oil, 
and  for  the  production  of  soda  soaps  by 
the  addition  of  1  kilogram  of  castor  oil. 
Alcohol  for  the  production  of  lanolin  is 
prepared  by  adding  5  liters  of  benzine  to 
each  hectoliter  of  spirits. 


The  ale  of  the  modern  brewer  is  man- 
ufactured in  several  varieties,  which  are 
determined  by  the  wants  of  the  consumer 
and  the  particular  market  for  which  it 
is  intended.  Thus,  the  finer  kinds  of 
Burton,  East  India,  Bavarian,  and  other 
like  ales,  having  undergone  a  thorough 

fermentation,  contain  only  a  small  quan- 
tity of  undecomposed  sugar  and  gum, 
varying  from  1  to  5  per  cent.  Some  of 
these  are  highly  "hopped"  or  "bittered," 
the  further  to  promote  their  preservation 
during  transit  and  change  of  temper- 
ature. Mild  or  sweet  ales,  on  the  con- 
trary, are  less  accentuated  by  lengthened 
fermentation,  and  abound  in  saccharine 
and  gummy  matter.  They  are,  there- 
fore, more  nutritious,  though  less  intox- 
icating, than  those  previously  referred  to. 

In  brewing  the  finer  kinds  of  ales,  pale 
malt  and  the  best  hops  of  the  current 
season's  growth  are  always  employed; 
and  when  it  is  desired  to  produce  a  liquor 
possessing  little  color,  very  great  atten- 
tion is  paid  to  their  selection.  With  the 
same  object,  the  boiling  is  conductedwith 
more  than  the  usual  precautions,  and  the 
fermentation  is  carried  on  at  a  somewhat 
lower  temperature  than  that  commonly 
allowed  for  other  varieties  of  beer.  For 
ordinary  ale,  intended  for  immediate  use, 
the  malt  may  be  all  pale;  but,  if  the  liquor 
be  brewed  for  keeping,  and  in  warm 
weather,  when  a  slight  color  is  not  objec- 
tionable, one-fifth,  or  even  one-fourth  of 
amber  malt  may  be  advantageously  em- 
ployed. From  4i  to  6  pounds  of  hops  is 
the  quantity  commonly  used  to  the  one- 
fourth  of  malt,  for  ordinary  ales;  and  7 
pounds  to  10  pounds  for  "keeping"  ales. 
The  proportions,  however,  must  greatly 
depend  on  the  intended  quality  and  de- 
scription of  the  brewing  and  the  period 
that  will  be  allowed  for  its  maturation. 

The  stronger  varieties  of  ale  usually 
contain  from  6  to  8  per  cent  of  "absolute 
alcohol";  ordinary  strong  ale,  41  to  6  per 
cent;  mild  ale,  3  to  4  percent;  and  table  ale, 
1  to  1*  per  cent  (each  by  volume);  togeth- 
er with  some  undecomposed  saccharine, 
gummy,  and  extractive  matter,  the  bitter 
and  narcotic  principles  of  the  hop,  some 
acetic  acid  formed  by  the  oxidation  of 
the  alcohol,  and  very  small  and  variable 
quantities  of  mineral  and  saline  matter. 

Ordinary  ale-wort  (preferably  pale), 
sufficient  to  produce  1  barrel,  is  slowly 
boiled  with  about  3  handfuls  of  hops, 
and  12  to  14  pounds  of  crushed  groats, 
until  the  whole  of  the  soluble  matter  of 
the  latter  is  extracted.  The  resulting 
liquor,  after  being  run  through  a  coarse 
strainer  and  become  lukewarm,  is  fer- 
mented with  2  or  3  pints  of  yeast;  and, 
as  soon  as  the  fermentation  is  at  its 
height,  is  either  closely  bunged  up  for 
draft  or  is  at  once  put  into  strong  stone- 
ware bottles,  which  are  then  well  corked 
and  wired. 

White  ale  is  said  to  be  very  nutritious, 
though  apt  to  prove  laxative  to  those  un- 



accustomed  to  its  use.  It  is  drunk  in  a 
state  of  effervescence  or  lively  fermenta- 
tion; the  glass  or  cup  containing  it  being 
kept  in  constant  motion,  when  removed 
irom  the  mouth,  until  the  whole  is  con- 
sumed, in  order  that  the  thicker  portion 
may  not  subside  to  the  bottom. 


See  Beverages. 

See  Alloys. 


See  Soaps. 


See  Atropine. 


No  general  rules  can  be  given  for 
alloying  metals.  Alloys  differing  greatly 
in  fusibility  are  commonly  made  by 
adding  the  more  fusible  ones,  either  in 
the  melted  state  or  in  small  portions  at  a 
time,  to  the  other  melted  or  heated  to 
the  lowest  possible  temperature  at  which 
a  perfect  union  will  take  place  between 
them.  The  mixture  is  usually  effected 
under  a  flux,  or  some  material  that  will 
promote  liquefaction  and  prevent  vola- 
tilization and  unnecessary  exposure  to 
the  air.  Thus,  in  melting  lead  and  tin 
together  for  solder,  rosin  or  tallow  is 
thrown  upon  the  surface  is  rubbed  with 
sal  ammoniac;  and  in  combining  some 
metals,  powdered  charcoal  is  used  for 
the  same  purpose.  Mercury  or  quick- 
silver combines  with  many  metals  in  the 
cold,  forming  AMALGAMS,  or  easily  fusible 
alloys  (q.  v.). 

Alloys  generally  possess  characteris- 
tics unshared  by  their  component  metals. 
Thus,  copper  and  zinc  form  brass, 
which  has  a  different  density,  hardness, 
and  color  from  either  of  its  constituents. 
Whether  the  metals  tend  to  unite  in 
atomic  proportions  or  in  any  definite 
ratio  is  still  undetermined.  The  evi- 
dence afforded  by  the  natural  alloys  of 
gold  and  silver,  and  by  the  phenomena 
accompanying  the  cooling  of  several 
alloys  from  the  state  of  fusion,  goes  far 
to  prove  that  such  is  the  case  (Rud- 
berg).  The  subject  is,  however,  one  of 
considerable  difficulty,  as  metals  and 
metallic  compounds  are  generally  solu- 
ble in  each  other,  and  unite  by  simple 
fusion  and  contact.  That  they  do  not 
combine  indifferently  with  each  other, 
but  exercise  a  species  of  elective  affinity 
not  dissimilar  to  other  bodies,  is  clearly 

shown  by  the  homogeneity  and  superior 
quality  of  many  alloys  in  which  the  con- 
stituent metals  are  in  atomic  proportion. 
The  variation  of  the  specific  gravity  and 
melting  points  of  alloys  from  the  mean 
of  those  of  their  component  metals  also 
affords  strong  evidence  of  a  chemical 
change  having  taken  place.  Thus,  alloys 
generally  melt  at  lower  temperatures  than 
their  separate  metals.  They  also  usually 
possess  more  tenacity  and  hardness  than 
the  mean  of  their  constituents. 

Matthiessen  found  that  when  weights 
are  suspended  to  spirals  of  hard-drawn 
wire  made  of  copper,  gold,  or  platinum, 
they  become  nearly  straightened  when 
stretched  by  a  moderate  weight;  but 
wires  of  equal  dimensions  composed  of 
copper-tin  (12  per  cent  of  tin),  silver- 
platinum  (36  per  cent  of  platinum),  and 
gold-copper  (84  percent  of  copper)  scarce- 
ly undergo  any  permanent  change  in  form 
when  subjected  to  tension  by  the  same 

The  same  chemist  gives  the  following 
approximate  results  upon  the  tenacity 
of  certain  metals  and  wires  hard-drawn 
through  the  same  gauge  (No.  23) : 


Copper,  breaking  strain 25-30 

Tin,  breaking  strain under  7 

Lead,  breaking  strain under  7 

Tin-lead  (20%  lead) about  7 

Tin-copper  (12%  copper).  .  .about  7 

Copper-tin  (12%  tin) about  80-90 

Gold  (12%  tin) 20-25 

Gold-copper  (8.4%  copper) 70-75 

Silver  (8.4%  copper) 45-50 

Platinum  (8.4%  copper) 45-50 

Silver-platinum  (30%  platinum) .    75-80 

On  the  other  hand,  the  malleability, 
ductility,  and  power  of  resisting  oxygen 
of  alloys  is  generally  diminished.  The 
alloy  formed  of  two  brittle  metals  is 
always  brittle;  that  of  a  brittle  and  a  duc- 
tile metal,  generally  so;  and  even  two 
ductile  metals  sometimes  unite  to  form 
a  brittle  compound.  The  alloys  formed 
of  metals  having  different  fusing  points 
are  usually  malleable  while  cold  and 
brittle  while  hot.  The  action  of  the  air 
on  alloys  is  generally  less  than  on  their 
simple  metals,  unless  the  former  are 
heated.  A  mixture  of  1  part  of  tin  and 
3  parts  of  lead  is  scarcely  acted  on  at 
common  temperatures;  but  at  a  red  heat 
it  readily  takes  fire,  and  continues  to 
burn  for  some  time  like  a  piece  of  bad 
turf.  In  like  manner,  a  mixture  of  tin 
and  zinc,  when  strongly  heated,  de- 
composes both  moist  air  and  steam  with 

The  specific  gravity  of  alloys  is  rarely 



the  arithmetical  mean  of  that  of  their 
constituents,  as  commonly  taught;  and 
in  many  cases  considerable  condensation 
or  expansion  occurs.  When  there  is  a 
strong  affinity  between  two  metals,  the 
density  of  their  alloy  is  generally  greater 
than  the  calculated  mean;  and  vice  versa, 
as  may  be  seen  in  the  following  table: 

Greater  than  the  Mean  of  their  Constit- 

Copper  and  bismuth, 
Copper  and  palladium, 
Copper  and  tin, 
Copper  and  zinc, 
Gold  and  antimony, 
Gold  and  bismuth, 
Gold  and  cobalt, 
Gold  and  tin, 
Gold  and  zinc, 
Lead  and  antimony, 
Palladium  and  bismuth, 
Silver  and  antimony, 
Silver  and  bismuth, 
Silver  and  lead, 
Silver  and  tin, 
Silver  and  zinc. 

Less  than  the  Mean  of  their  Constituents: 
Gold  and  copper, 
Gold  and  iridium, 
Gold  and  iron, 
Gold  and  lead, 
Gold  and  nickel, 
Gold  and  silver, 
Iron  and  antimony, 
Iron  and  bismuth, 
Iron  and  lead, 
Nickel  and  arsenic, 
Silver  and  copper, 
Tin  and  antimony, 
Tin  and  lead, 
Tin  and  palladium, 
Zinc  and  antimony. 

Compounding  Alloys. — Considerable 
experience  is  necessary  to  insure  success 
in  compounding  alloys,  especially  when 
the  metals  employed  vary  greatly  in 
fusibility  and  volatility.  The  following 
are  rules  supplied  by  an  experienced 

1.  Melt  the  least  fusible,  oxidizable, 
and  volatile  first,  and  then  add  the  others 
heated  to  their  point  of  fusion  or  near  it. 
Thus,  if  it  is  desired  to  make  an  alloy  of 
exactly  1  part  of  copper  and  3  of  zinc,  it 
will  be  impossible  to  do  so  by  putting 
proportions  of  the  metals  in  a  crucible 
and  exposing  the  whole  to  heat.  Much 
of  the  zinc  would  fly  off  in  vapor  before 
the  copper  was  melted.  First,  melt  the 
copper  and  add  the  zinc,  which  has  been 
melted  in  another  crucible.  The  zinc 

should  be  in  excess,  as  some  of  it  will  be 
lost  anyway. 

2.  Some  alloys,  as  copper  and  zinc, 
copper  and  arsenic,  may  be  formed  by 
exposing  heated  plates  of  the  least  fusi- 
ble metal  to  the  vapor  of  the  other.     In 
making  brass  in  the  large  way,  thin  plates 
of  copper  are  dissolved,  as  it   were,  in 
melted  zinc  until  the  proper  proportions 
have  been  obtained. 

3.  The  surface  of  all  oxidizable  metals 
should  be  covered  with  some  protecting 
agent,  as  tallow  for   very  fusible   ones, 
rosin  for  lead  and  tin,  charcoal  for  zinc, 
copper,  etc. 

^4.  Stir  the  metal  before  casting  and 
if  possible,  when  casting,  with  a  white- 
wood  stick;  this  is  much  better  for  the 
purpose  than  an  iron  rod. 

5.  If  possible,  add  a  small  portion  of 
old  alloy  to  the  new.  If  the  alloy  is  re- 
quired to  make  sharp  castings  and 
strength  is  not  a  very  great  oVject,  the 
proportion  of  old  alloy  to  the  new  should 
be  increased.  In  all  cases  a  new  or 
thoroughly  well-cleansed  crucible  should 
be  used. 

To  obtain  metals  and  metallic  alloys 
from  their  compounds,  such  as  oxides, 
sulphides,  chlorides,  etc.,  a  process  lately 
patented  makes  use  of  the  reducing 
qualities  of  aluminum  or  its  alloys  with 
magnesium.  The  finely  powdered  ma- 
terial (e.  g.,  chromic  oxide)  is  placed  in  a 
crucible  mixed  with  aluminum  oxide. 
The  mixture  is  set  afire  by  means  of  a 
soldering  pipe  or  a  burning  magnesium 
wire,  and  the  desired  reaction  takes  place. 
For  igniting,  one  may  also  employ  with 
advantage  a  special  priming  cartridge 
consisting  of  pulverized  aluminum  to 
which  a  little  magnesium  may  be  mixed, 
and  peroxide  of  magnesia,  which  is 
shaped  into  balls  and  lighted  with  a 
magnesium  wire.  By  suitable  additions 
to  the  pulverized  mixture,  alloys  con- 
taining aluminum,  magnetism,  chro- 
mium, manganese,  copper,  iron,  boron, 
silicic  acid,  etc.,  are  obtained. 


M.  H.  Pecheux  has  contributed  to  the 
Comptes  Rendus,  from  time  to  time,  the 
results  of  his  investigations  into  the  alloys 
of  aluminum  with  soft  metals,  and  the 
following  constitutes  a  brief  summary  of 
his  observations: 

Lead. — When  aluminum  is  melted 
and  lead  is  added  in  proportion  greater 
than  10  per  cent,  the  metals  separate  on 
cooling  into  three  layers — lead,  alumi- 
num, and  between  them  an  alloy  contain- 
ing from  90  to  97  per  cent  of  aluminum. 


The  albys  with  93,  95,  and  98  per  cent  have 
densities  of  2.745,  2.674,  and  2.600  re- 
spectively, and  melting  points  near  that 
of  aluminum.  Their  color  is  like  that 
of  aluminum,  but  they  are  less  lustrous. 
All  are  malleable,  easily  cut,  softer  than 
aluminum,  and  have  a  granular  fracture. 
On  remelting  they  become  somewhat 
richer  in  lead,  through  a  tendency  to 
liquation.  They  do  not  oxidize  in  moist 
air,  nor  at  their  melting  points.  They 
are  attacked  in  the  cold  by  hydrochloric 
and  by  strong  sulphuric  acid,  with  evo- 
lution of  hydrogen,  and  by  strong  nitric 
acid  when  hot;  strong  solution  of  po- 
tassium hydroxide  also  attacks  them. 
They  are  without  action  on  distilled 
water,  whether  cold  or  hot. 

Zinc. — Well-defined  alloys  were  ob- 
tained, corresponding  to  the  formulas 
Zn3Al,  Zn2Al,  ZnAl,  ZnAl2,  ZnAl3, 
ZnAl4,  ZnAl6,  ZnAl10,  ZnAl12.  Their 
melting  points  and  densities  all  lie  be- 
tween those  of  zinc  and  aluminum,  and 
those  containing  most  zinc  are  the  hard- 
est. They  are  all  dissolved  by  cold 
hydrochloric  acid  and  by  hot  dilute  nitric 
acid.  Cold  concentrated  nitric  acid  at- 
tacks the  first  three,  and  cold  dilute  acid 
the  first  five.  The  Zn3Al,  ZnAlR,  ZnAl10, 
and  ZnAl12  are  only  slightly  affected  by 
cold  potassium-hydroxide  solution;  the 
others  are  strongly  attacked,  potassium 
zincate  and  aluminate  probably  being 

Tin. — A  filed  rod  of  tin-aluminum  alloy 
plunged  in  cold  water  gives  off  for  some 
minutes  bubbles  of  gas,  composed  of 
hydrogen  and  oxygen  in  explosive  pro- 
portions. An  unfiled  rod,  or  a  filed  rod 
of  either  aluminum  or  tin,  is  without 
action,  though  the  unfiled  rod  of  alloy 
will  act  on  boiling  water.  The  filed  rod 
of  alloy,  in  faintly  acid  solution  of  cop- 
per or  zinc  sulphate,  becomes  covered 
with  a  deposit  of  copper  or  zinc,  while 
bubbles  of  oxygen  are  given  off.  M. 
Pecheux  believes  that  the  metals  are  truly 
alloyed  only  at  the  surface,  and  that  filing 
lays  bare  an  almost  infinitely  numerous 
series  of  junctions  of  the  two  metals, 
which,  heated  by  the  filing,  act  as  ther- 

Bismuth. — By  the  method  used  for 
lead,  bismuth  alloys  were  obtained  con- 
taining 75,  85,  88,  and  94  per  cent  of 
aluminum,  with  densities  2.86,  2.79, 
2.78.  and  2.74  respectively.  They  were 
sonorous,  brittle,  finely  grained,  and 
homogeneous,  silver-white,  and  with 
melting  points  between  those  of  their  con- 
stituents, but  nearer  that  of  aluminum. 
They  are  not  oxidized  in  air  at  the  tem- 

perature of  casting,  but  are  readily  at- 
tacked by  acids,  concentrated  or  dilute, 
and  by  potassium-hydroxide  solution. 
The  filed  alloys  behave  like  those  of  tin, 
but  still  more  markedly. 

Magnesium. — These  were  obtained 
with  66,  68,  73,  77,  and  85  per  cent 
of  aluminum,  and  densities  2.24,  2.47, 
2.32,  2.37,  2.47.  They  are  brittle,  with 
large  granular  fracture,  silver-white,  file 
well,  take  a  good  polish,  and  have  melt- 
ing points  near  that  of  aluminum. 
Being  viscous  when  melted,  they  are  dif- 
ficult to  cast,  and  when  slowly  cooled 
form  a  gray,  spongy  mass  which  cannot 
be  remelted.  They  do  not  oxidize  in 
air  at  the  ordinary  temperatures,  but 
burn  readily  at  a  bright-red  heat.  They 
are  attacked  violently  by  acids  and  by 
potassium-hydroxide  solution,  decom- 
pose hydrogen  peroxide,  and  slowly  de- 
compose water  even  in  the  cold. 

Tin,  Bismuth,  and  Magnesium. —The 
action  of  water  on  these  alloys  just  re- 
ferred to  has  been  recently  demonstrated 
on  a  larger  scale,  5  to  6  cubic  centimeters 
of  hydrogen  having  been  obtained  in  20 
minutes  from  2  cubic  centimeters  of  the 
filed  tin  alloy.  The  bismuth  alloy  yield- 
ed more  hydrogen  than  the  tin  alloy,  and 
the  magnesium  alloy  more  than  the  bis- 
muth alloy.  The  oxygen  of  the  decom- 
posed water  unites  with  the  aluminum. 
Larger  quantities  of  hydrogen  are  ob- 
tained from  copper-sulphate  solution, 
apart  from  the  decomposition  of  this 
solution  by  precipitation  of  copper  at  the 
expense  of  the  metal  alloyed  with  the 
aluminum.  The  alloys  of  aluminum 
with  zinc  and  lead  do  not  decompose 
pure  water,  but  do  decompose  the  water 
of  copper-sulphate  solution,  and,  more 
slowly,  that  of  zinc-sulphate  solution. 

Aluminum  is  a  metal  whose  properties 
are  very  materially  influenced  by  a  pro- 
portionately small  addition  of  copper. 
Alloys  of  99  per  cent  aluminum  and  1  per 
cent  of  copper  are  hard,  brittle,  and  bluish 
in  color;  95  per  cent  of  aluminum  and  5 
per  cent  of  copper  give  an  alloy  which  can 
be  hammered,  but  with  10  per  cent  of  cop- 
per the  metal  can  no  longer  be  worked. 
With  80  per  cent  and  upward  of  copper 
are  obtained  alloys  of  a  beautiful  yellow 
color,  and  these  mixtures,  containing  from 
5  to  10  percent  of  aluminum  and  from  90 
to  95  per  cent  of  copper,  are  the  genuine 
aluminum  bronzes.  The  10-per-cent  al- 
loys are  of  a  pure  golden-yellow  color; 
with  5  per  cent  of  aluminum  they  are 
reddish  yellow,  like  gold  heavily  alloyed 
with  copper,  and  a  2-per-cent  admix- 
ture is  01  an  almost  pure  copper  red 



As  the  proportion  of  copper  increases, 
the  brittleness  is  diminished,  and  alloys 
containing  10  per  cent  and  less  of  aluminum 
can  be  used  for  industrial  purposes,  the 
best  consisting  of  90  per  cent  of  copper  and 
10  of  aluminum.  The  hardness  of  this 
alloy  approaches  that  of  the  general 
bronzes,  whence  its  name.  It  can  be 
stretched  out  into  thin  sheets  between 
rollers,  worked  under  the  hammer,  and 
shaped  as  desired  by  beating  or  pressure, 
in  powerful  stamping  presses.  On  ac- 
count of  its  hardness  it  takes  a  fine  pol- 
ish, and  its  peculiar  greenish-gold  color 
resembles  that  of  gold  alloyed  with  cop- 
per and  silver  together. 

Alloys  with  a  still  greater  proportion  of 
copper  approach  this  metal  more  and 
more  nearly  in  their  character;  the  color 
of  an  alloy,  for  instance,  composed  of 
95  per  cent  of  copper  and  5  per  cent  of  alu- 
minum, can  be  distinguished  from  pure 
gold  only  by  direct  comparison,  and  the 
metal  is  very  hard,  and  also  very  mal- 

Electrical  Conductivity  of  Aluminum 
Alloys. — During  three  years'  exposure  to 
the  atmosphere,  copper-aluminum  alloys 
in  one  test  gradually  diminished  in  con- 
ductivity in  proportion  to  the  amount  of 
copper  they  contained.  The  nickel-copper 
aluminum  alloys,  which  show  such  re- 
markably increased  tensile  strength  as 
compared  with  good  commercial  alumi- 
num, considerably  diminished  in  total  con- 
ductivity. On  the  other  hand,  the  man- 
ganese-copper aluminum  alloys  suffered 
comparatively  little  diminution  in  total 
conductivity,  and  one  of  them  retained 
comparatively  high  tensile  strength.  It 
was  thought  that  an  examination  of 
the  structure  of  these  alloys  by  aid  of 
microphotography  might  throw  some 
light  on  the  great  difference  which  exists 
between  some  of  their  physical  proper- 
ties. For  instance,  a  nickel-copper  alu- 
minum alloy  has  1.6  times  the  tensile 
strength  of  ordinary  commercial  alumi- 
num. Under  a  magnification  of  800 
diameters  practically  no  structure  could 
be  discovered.  Considering  the  re- 
markable crystalline  structure  exhibited 
by  ordinary  commercial  aluminum  near 
the  surface  of  an  ingot,  when  allowed  to 
solidify  at  an  ordinary  rate,  the  want  of 
structure  in  these  alloys  must  be  attrib- 
uted to  the  process  of  drawing  down. 
The  inference  is  that  the  great  differ- 
ence which  exists  between  their  tensile 
strengths  and  other  qualities  is  not  due 
to  variation  in  structure. 

Colored  Alloys  of  Aluminum. — A  pur- 
ple scintillating  composition  is  produced 

by  an  alloyage  of  78  parts  of  gold  and  22 
parts  aluminum,  \\ith  platinum  a  gold- 
colored  alloy  is  obtained;  with  palladium 
a  copper-colored  one;  and  with  cobalt 
and  nickel  one  of  a  yellow  color.  Easily 
fusible  metals  of  the  color  of  aluminum 
give  white  alloys.  Metal  difficult  of 
fusion,  such  as  iridium,  osmium,  tita- 
nium, etc.,  appear  in  abnormal  tones  of 
color  through  such  alloyages. 

Aluminum -Brass. — Aluminum,  1  per 
cent;  specific  gravity,  8.35 ;  tensile  strength, 
40.  Aluminum,  3  per  cent;  specific  grav- 
ity, 8.33;  tensile  strength,  65.  The  last 
named  is  harder  than  the  first. 

Aluminum-Copper. —  Minikin  is  prin- 
cipally aluminum  with  a  small  percent- 
age of  copper  and  nickel.  It  is  alloyed 
by  mixing  the  aluminum  and  copper, 
then  adding  the  nickel.  It  resembles 
palladium  and  is  very  strong. 

Aluminum  -  Silver. — I. —  Silver,  3  per 
cent;  aluminum,  97  per  cent.  A  hand- 
some color. 

II. — A  silver  aluminum  that  is  easily 
worked  into  various  articles  contains 
about  one-fourth  silver  and  three-fourths 
of  aluminum. 

Aluminum -Tin. — Bourbon  metal  is 
composed  of  equal  parts  of  aluminum 
and  tin;  it  solders  readily. 

Aluminum -Tungsten. — A  new  metal 
alloy  consisting  of  aluminum  and  tung- 
sten is  used  of  late  in  France  in  the  (4m- 
struction  of  conveyances,  especially  (Car- 
riages, bicycles,  and  motor  vehicles. 
The  French  call  it  partinium;  the  com- 
position of  the  new  alloy  varies  according 
to  the  purposes  for  which  it  is  used.  It 
is  considerably  cheaper  than  aluminum, 
almost  as  light,  and  has  a  greater  resist- 
ance. The  strength  is  stated  at  32  to  37 
kilograms  per  square  millimeter. 

Aluminum-Zinc.  —  Zinc,  3  per  cent: 
aluminum,  97  per  cent.  Very  ductile, 
white,  and  harder  than  aluminum. 


See  Fusible  Alloys. 

Anti-Friction  Bearing  or  Babbitt  Met- 
als.— These  alloys  are  usually  supported  by 
bearings  of  brass,  into  which  it  is  poured 
after  they  have  been  tinned,  and  heated 
and  put  together  with  an  exact  model  of 
the  axle,  or  other  working  piece,  plastic 
clay  being  previously  applied,  in  the 
usual  manner,  as  a  lute  or  outer  mold. 
Soft  gun  metal  is  also  excellent,  and  is 
much  used  for  bearings.  They  all  be- 
come less  heated  in  working  than  the 



harder  metals,  and  less  grease  or  oil  is  con- 
sequently  required  when  they  are  used. 

I. — An  anti-friction  metal  of  excellent 
quality  and  one  that  has  been  used  with 
success  is  made  as  follows  :  17  parts 
zinc;  1  part  copper;  li  parts  antimony; 
prepared  in  the  following  way:  Melt  the 
copper  in  a  small  crucible,  then  add  the 
antimony,  and  lastly  the  zinc,  care  being 
taken  not  to  burn  the  zinc.  Burning 
can  be  prevented  by  allowing  the  copper 
and  antimony  to  cool  slightly  before  add- 
ing the  zinc.  This  metal  is  preferably 
cast  into  the  shape  desired  and  is  not 
used  as  a  lining  metal  because  it  requires 
too  great  a  heat  to  pour.  It  machines 
nicely  and  takes  a  fine  polish  on  bearing 
surfaces.  It  has  the  appearance  of 
aluminum  when  finished.  Use  a  lubri- 
cating oil  made  from  any  good  grade  of 
machine  oil  to  which  3  parts  of  kerosene 
have  been  added. 

II. — Copper,  6  parts;  tin,  12  parts; 
lead,  150  parts;  antimony,  30  parts; 
wrought  iron,  1  part;  cast  iron,  1  part. 
For  certain  purposes  the  composition  is 
modified  as  follows:  Copper,  16  parts; 
tin,  40  parts;  lead,  120  parts;  antimony, 
24  parts;  wrought  iron,  1  part;  cast  iron, 
1  part.  In  both  cases  the  wrought  iron 
is  cut  up  in  small  pieces,  and  in  this  state 
it  will  melt  readily  in  fused  copper  and 
cast  iron.  After  the  mixture  has  been 
well  stirred,  the  tin,  lead,. and  antimony 
are  added;  these  are  previously  melted  in 
separate  crucibles,  and  when  mingled  the 
whole  mass  is  again  stirred  thoroughly. 
The  product  may  then  be  run  into  ingots, 
to  be  employed  when  needed.  When 
run  into  the  molds  the  surface  should  be 
well  skimmed,  for  in  this  state  it  oxidizes 
rapidly.  The  proportions  may  be  varied 
without  materially  affecting  the  results. 

III.— From  tin,  16  to  20  parts;  anti- 
mony, 2  parts;  lead,  1  part;  fused  to- 
gether, and  then  blended  with  copper, 
80  parts.  Used  where  there  is  much 
friction  or  high  velocity. 

IV. — Zinc,  6  parts;  tin,  1  part;  cop- 
per, 20  parts.  Used  when  the  metal  is 
exposed  to  violent  shocks. 

V. — Lead,  1  part;  tin,  2  parts;  zinc, 
4  parts;  copper,  68  parts.  Used  when 
the  metal  is  exposed  to  heat. 

VI. — Tin,  48  to  50  parts;  antimony,  5 
parts;  copper,  1  part. 

VII.— (Fenton's.)  Tin,  with  some 
zinc,  and  a  little  copper. 

VIII.  — (Ordinary.)  Tin,  or  hard 
pewter,  with  or  without  a  small  portion 
of  antimony  or  copper.  Without  the 
last  it  is  apt  to  spread  out  under  the 
weight  of  heavy  machinery.  Used  for 
the  bearings  of  locomotives,  etc. 

The  following  two  compositions  are 
for  motor  and  dynamo  shafts:  100 
pounds  tin;  10  pounds  copper;  10  pounds 

83A-  pounds  tin;  8-J  pounds  antimony; 
8J  pounds  copper. 

IX.— Lead,  75  parts;  antimony,  23 
parts;  tin,  2  parts. 

X. — Magnolia  Metal. — This  is  com- 
posad  of  40  parts  of  lead,  7*  parts  of 
antimony,  2i  of  tin,  J  of  bismuth,  J  of 
aluminum,  and  J  of  graphite.  It  is  used 
as  an  anti-friction  metal,  and  takes  its 
name  from  its  manufacturer's  mark, 
a  magnolia  flower. 


See  German  Silver,  under  this  title. 


The  composition  of  bell  metal  raries 
considerably,  as  may  be  seen  below: 

I. — (Standard.)  Copper,  78  parts; 
tin,  22  parts;  fused  together  and  cast. 
The  most  sonorous  of  all  the  alloys  of 
copper  and  tin.  It  is  easily  fusible,  and 
has  a  fine  compact  grain,  and  a  vitreous 
conchoidal  and  yellowish-red  fracture. 
According  to  Klaproth,  the  finest-toned 
Indian  gongs  have  this  composition. 

II.  —  (Founder's  Standard.)  Copper, 
77  parts;  tin,  21  parts;  antimony,  2  parts. 
Slightly  paler  and  inferior  to  No.  I. 

III. — Copper,  80  parts;  tin,  20  parts. 
Very  deep-toned  and  sonorous.  Used 
in  China  and  India  for  the  larger  gongs, 
tam-tams, 'etc. 

IV.— Copper,  78  to  80  parts;  tin,  22  to 
20  parts.  Usual  composition  of  Chinese 
cymbals,  tam-tams,  etc. 

V.— Copper,  75  (=  3)  parts;  tin,  25 
(=1)  part.  Somewhat  brittle.  In  frac- 
ture, semivitreous  and  bluish-red.  Used 
for  church  and  other  large  bells. 

VI.— Copper,  80  parts;  tin,  10|  parts; 
zinc,  5 1  parts;  lead,  4J  parts.  English 
bell  metal,  according  to  Thomson.  In- 
ferior to  the  last;  the  lead  being  apt  to 
form  isolated  drops,  to  the  injury  of  the 
uniformity  of  the  alloy. 

VIL— Copper,  68  parts;  tin,  32  parts. 
Brittle;  fracture  conchoidal  and  ash- 

gray.  Best  proportions  for  house  bells, 
and  bells,  etc.;  for  which,  however,  2 
of  copper  and  1  of  tin  is  commonly 
substituted  by  the  founders. 

VIII.— Copper,  72  parts;  tin,  26*  parts; 
iron,  1 A  parts.  Used  by  the  Paris  houses 
for  the  bells  of  small  clocks. 

IX. — Copper,  72  parts;  tin,  26  parts; 
zinc,  2  parts.  Used,  like  the  last,  for 
very  small  bells. 

X.— Copper,  70  parts;  tin,  26  parts; 


zinc,  2  parts.  Used  for  the  bells  of  repeat- 
ing watches. 

XI. — Melt  together  copper,  100  parts; 
tin,  25  parts.  After  being  cast  into  the 
required  object,  it  should  be  made  red- 
hot,  and  then  plunged  immediately  into 
cold  water  in  order  to  impart  to  it  the 
requisite  degree  of  sonorousness.  For 
cymbals  and  gongs. 

XII. — Melt  together  copper,  80  parts; 
tin,  20  parts.  When  cold  it  has  to  be 
hammered  out  with  frequent  annealing. 

XIII. — Copper,  78  parts;  tin,  22  parts; 
This  is  superior  to  the  former,  and  it  can 
be  rolled  out.  For  tam-tams  and  gongs. 

XIV.— Melt  together  copper,  72  parts; 
tin,  26  to  56  parts;  iron  -fy  part.  Used 
in  making  the  bells  of  ornamental  French 

Castings  in  bell  metal  are  all  more  or 
less  brittle;  and,  when  recent,  have  a 
color  varying  from  a  dark  ash-gray  to 
grayish-white,  which  is  darkest  in  the 
more  cuprous  varieties,  in  which  it 
turns  somewhat  on  the  yellowish-red  or 
bluish-red.  The  larger  the  proportion 
of  copper  in  the  alloy,  the  deeper  and 
graver  the  tone  of  the  bells  formed  of 
it.  The  addition  of  tin,  iron,  or  zinc, 
causes  them  to  give  out  their  tones  sharp- 
er. Bismuth  and  lead  are  also  often 
used  to  modify  the  tone,  which  each 
metal  affects  differently.  The  addition 
of  antimony  and  bismuth  is  frequently 
made  by  the  founder  to  give  a  more  crys- 
talline grain  to  the  alloy.  All  these 
conditions  are,  however,  prejudicial  to 
the  sonorousness  of  bells,  and  of  very 
doubtful  utility.  Rapid  refrigeration 
increases  the  sonorousness  of  all  these 
alloys.  Hence  M.  D'Arcet  recommends 
that  the  "pieces"  be  heated  to  a  cherry- 
red  after  they  are  cast,  and  after  having 
been  suddenly  plunged  into  cold  water, 
that  they  be  submitted  to  well-regulated 
pressure  by  skillful  hammering,  until  they 
assume  their  proper  form ;  after  which  they 
are  to  be  again  heated  and  allowed  to  cool 
slowly  in  the  air.  This  is  the  method 
adopted  by  the  Chinese  with  their  gongs, 
etc.,  a  casing  of  sheet  iron  being  em- 
ployed by  them  to  support  and  protect 
the  pieces  during  the  exposure  to  heat. 
In  a  general  way,  however,  bells  are 
formed  and  completed  by  simple  casting. 
This  is  necessarily  the  case  with  all  very 
large  bells.  Where  the  quality  of  their 
tones  is  the  chief  object  sought  after,  the 
greatest  care  should  be  taken  to  use  com- 
mercially pure  copper.  The  presence 
of  a  very  little  lead  or  any  similar  metal 
greatly  lessens  the  sonorousness  of  this 
alloy;  while  that  of  silver  increases  it. 

The  specific  gravity  of  a  large  bell  is 

seldom  uniform  through  its  whole  sub- 
stance; nor  can  the  specific  gravity  from 
any  given  portion  of  its  constituent  met- 
als be  exactly  calculated  owing  to  the 
many  interfering  circumstances.  The 
nearer  this  uniformity  is  approached,  or, 
in  other  words,  chemical  combination  is 
complete,  the  more  durable  and  finer- 
toned  will  be  the  bell.  In  general,  it  is 
found  necessary  to  take  about  one-tenth 
more  metal  than  the  weight  of  the  in- 
tended bell,  or  bells,  in  order  to  allow  for 
waste  and  scorification  during  the  opera- 
tions of  fusing  and  casting. 


Bismuth  possesses  the  unusual  quality 
of  expanding  in  cooling.  It  is,  there- 
fore, introduced  in  many  alloys  to  reduce 
or  check  shrinkage  in  the  mold. 

For  delicate  castings,  and  for  taking 
impressions  from  dies,  medals,  etc.,  va- 
rious bismuth  alloys  are  in  use,  whose 
composition  corresponds  to  the  follow- 
ing figures: 

I      II     III    IV 

Bismuth 6       5        2        8 

Tin 3        2        1        3 

Lead 13       3       1       5 

V.— Cliche  Metal.— This  alloy  is  com- 
posed of  tin,  48  parts;  lead,  32.5;  bis- 
muth, 9;  and  antimony,  10.5.  It  is  es- 
pecially well  adapted  to  dabbing  rollers 
for  printing  cotton  goods,  and  as  it  pos- 
sesses a  considerable  degree  of  hardness, 
it  wears  well. 

VI. — For  filling  out  defective  places  in 
metallic  castings,  an  alloy  of  bismuth  1 
part,  antimony  3,  lead  8,  can  be  ad- 
vantageously used. 

VII.— For  Cementing  Glass.— Most 
of  the  cements  in  ordinary  use  are  dis- 
solved, or  at  least  softened,  by  petro- 
leum. An  alloy  of  lead  3  parts,  tin  2, 
bismuth  2.5,  melting  at  212°  F.,  is  not 
affected  by  petroleum,  and  is  therefore 
very  useful  for  cementing  lamps  made  of 
metal  and  glass  combined. 

See  Cadmium  Alloys. 


In  general  brass  is  composed  of  two- 
thirds  copper  and  one-third  zinc,  but  a 
little  lead  or  tin  is  sometimes  advanta- 
geous, as  the  following: 

I. — Red  copper,  66  parts;  zinc,  34 
parts;  lead,  1  part. 

II. — Copper,  66  parts;  zinc,  32  parts; 
tin,  1  part;  lead,  1  part. 

III.— Copper,  64.5  parts;  zinc,  33.5 
parts;  lead,  1.5  parts;  tin,  0.5  part. 

Brass -Aluminum. — A  small  addition  of 
aluminum  to  brass  (1.5  to  8  per  cent)  great- 



ly  increases  its  hardness  and  elasticity, 
and  this  alloy  is  also  easily  worked  for  any 
purpose.  Brass  containing  8  per  cent  of 
aluminum  has  the  valuable  property  of 
being  but  slightly  affected  by  acids  or  gases. 
A  larger  percentage  of  aluminum  makes 
the  brass  brittle.  It  is  to  be  noted  that 
aluminum  brass  decreases  very  materi- 
ally in  volume  in  casting,  and  the  casts 
must  be  copied  slowly  or  they  will  be 
brittle.  It  is  an  alloy  easily  made,  and 
its  low  price,  combined  with  its  excellent 
qualities,  would  seem  to  make  it  in  many 
cases  an  advantageous  substitute  for  the 
expensive  phosphorous  bronze. 

Bristol  Brass  (Prince's  Metal).— This 
alloy,  which  possesses  properties  similar 
to  those  of  French  brass,  is  prepared  in 
the  following  proportions: 

I  II         III 

Copper 75.7     67.2     60.8 

Zinc 24.3     32.8     39.2 

Particular  care  is  required  to  prevent 
the  zinc  from  evaporating  during  the  fus- 
ing, and  for  this  purpose  it  is  customary 
to  put  only  half  of  it  into  the  first  melting, 
and  to  add  the  remainder  when  the  first 
mass  is  liquefied. 

Brass -Iron  (Aich's  Metal).— This  is 
a  variety  of  brass  with  an  admixture  of 
iron,  which  gives  it  a  considerable  degree 
of  tenacity.  It  is  especially  adapted  for 
purposes  which  require  a  hard  and,  at 
the  same  time,  tenacious  metal.  Analyses 
of  the  various  kinds  of  this  metal  show 
considerable  variation  in  the  proportions. 
Even  the  amount  of  iron,  to  which  the 
hardening  effect  must  be  attributed,  may 
vary  within  wide  limits  without  materi- 
ally modifying  the  tenacity  which  is  the 
essential  characteristic  of  this  alloy. 

I. — The  best  variety  of  Aich's  metal 
consists  of  copper,  60  parts;  zinc,  38.2; 
iron,  1.8.  The  predominating  quality  of 
this  alloy  is  its  hardness,  which  is  claimed 
to  be  not  inferior  to  that  of  certain  kinds 
of  steel.  It  has  a  beautiful  golden-yellow 
color,  and  is  said  not  to  oxidize  easily,  a 
valuable  property  for  articles  exposed  to 
the  action  of  air  and  water. 

II. — Copper,  60.2  parts;  zinc,  38.2; 
iron,  1.6.  The  permissible  variations 
in  the  content  of  iron  are  from  0.4  to  3 
per  cent. 

Sterro  metal  may  properly  be  consid- 
ered in  connection  with  Aich's  metal, 
since  its  constituents  are  the  same  and 
its  properties  very  similar.  The  principal 
difference  between  the  two  metals  is 
that  sterro  metal  contains  a  much  larger 
amount  of  iron.  The  composition  of 
this  alloy  varies  considerably  with  dif- 
ferent manufacturers. 

III. — Two  varieties  of  excellent  qual- 
ity are  the  product  of  the  Rosthorn  fac- 
tory, in  Lower  Austria — copper,  55.33 
parts;  zinc,  41.80;  iron,  4.66.  Also 

IV. — English  sterro  metal  (Gedge's 
alloy  for  ship  sheathing),  copper,  60 
parts;  zinc,  38.125;  iron,  1.5. 

The  great  value  of  this  alloy  lies  in  its 
strength,  which  is  equaled  only  by  that 
of  the  best  steel.  As  an  illustration  of 
this,  a  wrought-iron  pipe  broke  with  a 
pressure  of  267  atmospheres,  while  a 
similar  pipe  of  sterro  metal  withstood  the 
enormous  pressure  of  763  atmospheres 
without  cracking.  Besides  its  remark- 
able strength,  it  possesses  a  high  degree 
of  elasticity,  and  is,  therefore,  particular- 
ly suitable  for  purposes  which  require 
the  combination  of  these  two  qualities, 
such  as  the  construction  of  hydraulic 
cylinders.  It  is  well  known  that  these 
cylinders,  at  a  certain  pressure,  begin  to 
sweat,  that  is,  the  interior  pressure  is  so 
great  that  the  water  permeates  through 
the  pores  of  the  steel.  With  a  sterro 
metal  cylinder,  the  pressure  can  be  con- 
siderably increased  without  any  mois- 
ture being  perceptible  on  the  outside  of 
the  cylinder. 

Sterro  metal  can  be  made  even  more 
hard  and  dense,  if  required  for  special 
purposes,  but  this  is  effected  rather  by 
mechanical  manipulation  than  by  any 
change  in  the  chemical  composition.  If 
rolled  or  hammered  in  heat,  its  strength 
is  increased,  and  it  acquires,  in  addition, 
an  exceedingly  high  degree  of  tenacity. 
Special  care  must  be  taken,  however,  in 
hammering  not  to  overheat  the  metal, 
as  in  this  case  it  would  become  brittle  and 
might  crack  under  the  hammer.  Sterro 
metal  is  especially  suitable  for  all  the 
purposes  for  which  the  so-called  red 
metal  has  been  in  the  past  almost  ex- 
clusively used.  Axle  bearings,  for  ex- 
ample, made  of  sterro  metal  have  such 
excellent  qualities  that  many  machine 
factories  are  now  using  this  material 
entirely  for  the  purpose. 

Cast  Brass. — The  various  articles  of 
bronze,  so  called,  statuettes,  clock  cases, 
etc.,  made  in  France,  where  this  industry 
has  attained  great  perfection  and  exten- 
sive proportions,  are  not,  in  many  cases^ 
genuine  bronze,  but  fine  cast  brass.  Fol- 
lowing are  the  compositions  of  a  few 
mixtures  of  metals  most  frequently  used 
by  French  manufacturers: 

Copper  Zinc  Tin  Lead 

1 63.70  33.55  2.50  0.25 

II 64.45  32.44  0.25  2.86 

HI 70.90  24.05  2.00  3.05 

IV..           .    72.43  22.75  1.87  2.95 


Their  special  advantage  is  that  they 
can  be  readily  cast,  worked  with  file  and 
chisel,  and  easily  gilded. 

To  Cast  Yellow  Brass. — If  good,  clean, 
yellow  brass  sand  castings  are  desired, 
the  brass  should  not  contain  over  30  per 
cent  of  zinc.  This  will  assure  an  alloy  of 
good  color  and  one  which  will  run  free 
and  clean.  Tin  or  lead  may  be  added 
without  affecting  the  property  of  casting 
clean.  A  mixture  of  7  pounds  of  copper, 
3  pounds  of  spelter,  4  ounces  of  tin,  and 
3  ounces  of  lead  makes  a  good  casting 
alloy  and  one  which  will  cut  free  and  is 
strong.  If  a  stronger  alloy  be  desired, 
more  tin  may  be  added,  but  4  ounces  is 
usually  sufficient.  If  the  alloy  be  too 
hard,  reduce  the  proportion  of  tin. 

Leaf  Brass. — This  alloy  is  also  called 
Dutch  gold,  or  imitation  gold  leaf.  It 
is  made  of  copper,  77.75  to  84.5  parts; 
zinc-,  15.5  to  22.25.  Its  color  is  pale  or 
bright  yellow  or  greenish,  according  to 
the  proportions  of  the  metals.  It  has  an 
unusual  degree  of  ductility. 

Malleable  Brass.— This  metal  is  af- 
fected less  by  sea  water  than  pure  copper, 
and  was  formerly  much  used  for  ship 
sheathing,  and  for  making  nails  and 
rivets  which  were  to  come  in  contact  with 
sea  water.  At  the  present  day  it  has 
lost  much  of  its  importance,  since  all  the 
larger  ships  are  made  of  steel.  It  is 
usually  composed  of  copper,  60  to  62 
parts;  and  zinc,  40  to  38  parts.  It  is 
sometimes  called  yellow  metal,  or  Miintz 
metal  (called  after  its  inventor),  and  is 
prepared  with  certain  precautions,  di- 
rected toward  obtaining  as  fine  a  grain 
as  possible,  experience  having  shown 
that  only  a  fine-grained  alloy  of  uniform 
density  can  resist  the  action  of  the  sea 
water  evenly.  A  metal  of  uneven  den- 
sity will  wear  in  holes.  To  obtain  as 
uniform  a  grain  as  possible,  small  sam- 
ples taken  from  the  fused  mass  are  cooled 
quickly  and  examined  as  to  fracture.  If 
tney  do  not  show  the  desired  uniform 
grain,  some  zinc  is  added  to  the  mass. 
After  it  has  permeated  the  whole  mass, 
a  fresh  sample  is  taken  and  tested,  this 
being  continued  until  the  desired  result 
is  reached.  It  is  scarcely  necessary  to 
remark  that  considerable  experience  is 
required  to  tell  the  correct  composition 
of  the  alloy  from  the  fracture.  The  mass 
is  finally  poured  into  molds  and  rolled 
cold.  Malleable  brass  can  be  worked 
warm,  like  iron,  being  ductile  in  heat,  a 
valuable  quality. 

Experiments  with  malleable  brass 
show  that  all  alloys  containing  up  to 
58.33  per  cent  of  copper  and  up  to  41.67 

per  cent  of  zinc  are  malleable.  There  is, 
in  addition,  a  second  group  of  such  al- 
loys, with  61.54  per  cent  of  copper  and 
38.46  per  cent  of  zinc,  which  are  also 
malleable  in  heat. 

The  preparation  of  these  alloys  re- 
quires considerable  experience,  and  is 
best  accomplished  by  melting  the  metals 
together  in  the  usual  manner,  and  heating 
the  fused  mass  as  strongly  as  possible. 
It  must  be  covered  with  a  layer  of  char- 
coal dust  to  prevent  oxidation  of  the  zinc. 
The  mass  becomes  thinly  fluid,  and  an 
intimate  mixture  of  the  constituents  is 
effected.  Small  pieces  of  the  same  alloy 
are  thrown  into  the  liquid  mass  until  it 
no  longer  shows  a  reflecting  surface, 
when  it  is  cast  into  ingots  in  iron  molds. 
The  ingots  are  plunged  into  water  while 
still  red-hot,  and  acquire  by  this  treat- 
ment a  very  high  degree  of  ductility.  The 
alloy,  properly  prepared,  has  a  fibrous 
fracture  and  a  reddish-yellow  color. 

Sheet  Brass  (For  Sheet  and  Wire).— 
In  the  preparation  of  brass  for  the  manu- 
facture of  wire,  an  especially  pure  qual- 
ity of  copper  must  be  used;  without  this, 
all  efforts  to  produce  a  suitable  quality  of 
brass  will  be  in  vain.  That  pure  copper 
is  indispensable  to  the  manufacture  of 
good,  ductile  brass  may  be  seen  from  the 
great  difference  in  the  composition  of  the 
various  kinds,  all  of  which  answer  their 
purpose,  but  contain  widely  varying 
quantities  of  copper  and  zinc.  The  fol- 
lowing table  shows  the  composition  of 
some  excellent  qualities  of  brass  suitable 
for  making  sheet  and  wire: 

Brass  Sheet  —  Source 











Rosthorn  (Vienna). 
Rosthorn  (Vienna). 
Rosthorn  (Vienna). 
Iserlohn  &  Romilly 
Heeermiihl.  . 





Brass  Wire  — 













(Good  quality)  .... 
For  wire  and  sheet. 







As  the  above  figures  show,  the  per- 
centage of  zinc  in  the  different  kinds  of 
brass  lies  between  27  and  34.  Recently, 
alloys  containing  a  somewhat  larger 
quantity  of  zinc  have  been  used,  it  hav- 
ing been  found  that  the  toughness  and 
ductility  of  the  brass  are  increased  there- 
by, without  injury  to  its  tenacity.  Al- 
loys containing  up  to  37  per  cent  of  zinc 
possess  a  high  degree  of  ductility  in  the 
cold,  and  are  well  adapted  for  wire  and 

Gilders'  Sheet  Brass. — Copper,  1  part; 
zinc,  1  part;  tin,  A  part;  lead,  -fa  part. 
Very  readily  fusible  and  very  dense. 

White  Brass. — Birmingham  platina  is 
an  alloy  of  a  pure  white,  almost  silver- 
white  color,  remaining  unaffected  by 
tolerably  long  exposure  to  the  atmos- 
phere. Unfortunately  this  alloy  is  so 
brittle  that  it  can  rarely  be  shaped  ex- 
cept by  casting.  It  is  used  only  in  the 
manufacture  of  buttons.  The  alloy  is 
poured  into  molds  giving  rather  sharp 
impressions  and  allowing  the  design  on 
the  button  (letters  or  coat  of  arms)  to 
stand  out  prominently  with  careful 
stamping.  The  composition  of  this 
alloy,  also  known  by  the  name  of  plati- 
num lead,  is  as  follows: 

I  II 

Copper 46.5        4 

Zinc 53.5      16 

III. — Zinc,  80  parts;  copper,  10  parts; 
iron,  10  parts. 


Britannia  metal  is  an  alloy  consisting 
principally  of  tin  and  antimony.  Many 
varieties  contain  only  these  two  metals, 
and  may  be  considered  simply  as  tin 
hardened  with  antimony,  while  others 
contain,  in  addition,  certain  quantities  of 
copper,  sometimes  lead,  and  occasion- 
ally, though  rarely  on  account  of  its  cost, 
bismuth.  Britannia  metal  is  always  of  a 
silvery-white  color,  with  a  bluish  tinge, 
and  its  hardness  makes  it  capable  of 
taking  a  high  polish,  which  is  not  lost 
through  exposure  to  the  air.  Ninety  per 
cent  of  tin  and  10  per  cent  of  antimony 
gives  a  composition  which  is  the  best  for 
many  purposes,  especially  for  casting,  as 
it  fills  out  the  molds  well,  and  is  readily 
fusible.  In  some  cases,  where  articles 
made  from  it  are  to  be  subjected  to  con- 
stant wear,  a  harder  alloy  is  required. 
In  the  proportions  given  above,  the  metal 
is  indeed  much  harder  than  tin,  but 
would  still  soon  give  way  under  usage. 

A  table  is  appended,  giving  the  com- 
position of  some  of  the  varieties  of  Bri- 
tannia metal  and  their  special  names. 







































Queen's  metal 














German   (for 






Malleable  (for 

casting)  .... 





Britannia  metal  is  prepared  by  melting 
the  copper  alone  first,  then  adding  a 
part  of  the  tin  and  the  whole  of  the  an- 
timony. The  heat  can  then  be  quickly 
moderated,  as  the  melting  point  of  the 
new  alloy  is  much  lower  than  that  of 
copper.  Finally,  the  rest  of  the  tin  is 
added,  and  the  mixture  stirred  constantly 
for  some  time  to  make  it  thoroughly 

An  alloy  which  bears  a  resemblance 
to  Britannia  metal  is  Ashberry  metal, 
for  which  there  are  two  formulas. 

Copper 2 

Tin. 8 

Antimony 14 

Zinc 1 

Nickel 2 






The  composition  of  bronze  must  be 
effected  immediately  before  the  casting, 
for  bronze  cannot  be  kept  in  store  ready 

Erepared.  In  forming  the  alloy,  the  re- 
-actory  compound,  copper,  is  first  melted 
separately,  the  other  metals,  tin,  zinc, 
etc.,  previously  heated,  being  then 
added;  the  whole  is  then  stirred  and  the 
casting  carried  out  without  loss  of  time. 
The  process  of  forming  the  alloy  must  be 
effected  quickly,  so  that  there  may  be  no 
loss  of  zinc,  tin,  or  lead  through  oxida- 
tion, and  also  no  interruption  to  the 
flow  of  metal,  as  metal  added  after  an 
interval  of  time  will  not  combine  per- 
fectly with  the  metal  already  poured  in. 
It  is  important,  therefore,  to  ascertain 
the  specific  weights  of  the  metals,  for 
the  heavier  metal  will  naturally  tend  to 
sink  to  the  bottom  and  the  lighter  to 
collect  at  the  top.  Only  in  this  way, 
and  by  vigorous  stirring,  can  the  com- 
plete blending  of  the  two  metals  be 
secured.  In  adding  the  zinc,  great  care 



must  be  taken  that  the  latter  sinks  at 
once  to  the  level  of  the  copper,  otherwise 
a  considerable  portion  will  be  volatilized 
before  reaching  the  copper.  When  the 
castings  are  made,  they  must  be  cooled 
as  quickly  as  possible,  for  the  compo- 
nents of  bronze  have  a  tendency  to  form 
separate  alloys  of  various  composition, 
thus  producing  the  so-called  tin  spots. 
This  is  much  more  likely  to  occur  with  a 
slow  than  with  a  sudden  cooling  of  the 

Annealing  Bronze. — This  process  is 
more  particularly  employed  in  the  prep- 
aration of  alloys  used  in  the  manufacture 
of  cymbals,  gongs,  bells,  etc.  The  alloy 
is  naturally  brittle,  and  acquires  the 
properties  essential  to  the  purpose  for 
which  it  is  intended  only  after  casting. 
The  instruments  are  plunged  into  cold 
water  while  red-hot,  hammered,  re- 
heated, and  slowly  cooled,  when  they 
become  soft  and  sonorous.  The  alloy 
of  copper  and  tin  has  the  peculiar  prop- 
erty that,  whereas  steel  becomes  hard 
through  cooling,  this  mixture,  when 
cooled  suddenly,  becomes  noticeably  soft 
and  more  malleable.  The  alloy  is 
heated  to  a  dark-red  heat,  or,  in  the  case 
of  thin  articles,  to  the  melting  point  of 
lead,  and  then  plunged  in  cold  water. 
The  alloy  may  be  hammered  without 
splitting  or  breaking. 

Aluminum  Bronze. — This  is  prepared 
by  melting  the  finest  copper  in  a  cruci- 
ble, and  adding  the  aluminum.  The 
copper  is  cooled  thereby  to  the  thickly 
fluid  point,  but  at  the  moment  of  the 
combination  of  the  two  metals,  so  much 
heat  is  released  that  the  alloy  becomes 
white  hot  and  thinly  fluid.  Aluminum 
bronze  thus  prepared  is  usually  brittle, 
and  acquires  its  best  qualities  only  after 
having  been  remelted  several  times.  It 
may  be  remarked  that,  in  order  to  obtain 
a  bronze  of  the  best  quality,  only  the  very 
purest  copper  must  be  used;  with  an  infe- 
rior quality  of  copper,  all  labor  is  wasted. 
Aluminum  bronze  is  not  affected  by  ex- 
posure to  the  air;  and  its  beautiful  color 
makes  it  very  suitable  for  manufactur- 
ing various  ornamental  articles,  includ- 
ing clock  cases,  door  knobs,  etc. 

Aluminum  bronze  wire  is  almost  as 
strong  as  good  steel  wire,  and  castings 
made  from  it  are  almost  as  hard  as  steely 
iron;  its  resistance  to  bending  or  sag- 
ging is  great. 

I. — A  good  formula  is  90  to  95  per  cent 
of  aluminum  and  5  to  10  per  cent  of  cop- 
per, of  golden  color,  which  keeps  well  in 
the  air,  without  soon  becoming  dull  and 
changing  color  like  pure  copper  and  its 

alloys  with  tin  and  zinc  (bronze,  brass, 
etc.).  It  can  be  cast  excellently,  can  be 
filed  well  and  turned,  possesses  an  ex- 
traordinary hardness  and  firmness,  and 
attains  a  high  degree  of  polish;  it  is 
malleable  and  forgeable.  On  the  latter 
quality  are  founded  applications  which 
were  formerly  never  thought  of,  viz.: 
forged  works  of  art  for  decorative  pur- 
poses. An  alloy  of  95  parts  aluminum 
and  5  parts  copper  is  used  here.  The 
technical  working  of  bronze  is  not  mate- 
rially different  from  that  of  iron.  The 
metal,  especially  in  a  hot  condition,  is 
worked  like  iron  on  the  anvil,  with  ham- 
mer and  chisel,  only  that  the  tempera- 
ture to  be  maintained  in  forging  lies 
between  dark  and  light  cherry  red.  If 
the  articles  are  not  forged  in  one  piece 
and  the  putting  together  of  the  separate 
parts  becomes  necessary,  riveting  or 
soldering  has  to  be  resorted  to.  Besides 
forging,  aluminum  bronze  is  well  suited 
for  embossing,  which  is  not  surprising  con- 
sidering the  high  percentage  of  copper. 
After  finishing  the  pieces,  the  metal  can 
be  toned  in  manifold  ways  by  treatment 
with  acid. 

II. — Copper,  89  to  98  per  cent;  alu- 
minum and  nickel,  1  to  2  per  cent.  Alu- 
minum and  nickel  change  in  the  opposite 
way,  that  is  to  say,  in  increasing  the  per- 
centage of  nickel  the  amount  of  alu- 
minum is  decreased  by  the  equal  quan- 
tity. It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  the 
best  ratio  is  aluminum,  9.5  per  cent; 
nickel,  1  to  1.5  per  cent  at  most.  In 
preparing  the  alloy  a  deoxidizing  agent 
is  added,  viz.,  phosphorus  to  0.5  per 
cent;  magnesium  to  1.5  per  cent.  The 
phosphorus  should  always  be  added  in 
the  form  of  phosphorous  copper  or  phos- 
phor aluminum  of  exactly  determined 
percentage.  It  is  first  added  to  the 
copper,  then  the  aluminum  and  the 
nickel,  and  finally  the  magnesium,  the 
last  named  at  the  moment  of  liquidity, 
are  admixed. 

III. — A  gold  bronze,  containing  3  to 
5  per  cent  aluminum;  specific  gravity. 
8.37  to  8.15.  Handsome  golden  color. 
This  alloy  oxidizes  less  on  heating  than 
copper  and  iron,  and  is  therefore  espe- 
cially adapted  for  locomotive  fireboxes 
and  spindles,  etc. 

IV. — A  steel  bronze  containing  on  an 
average  8.5  per  cent  aluminum  (includ- 
ing 1  per  cent  silicium);  specific  gravity, 
7.7.  Very  ductile  and  tough,  but  slightly 
elastic;  hence  its  use  is  excluded  where, 
with  large  demands  upon  tension  and 
pressure,  no  permanent  change  of  form 
must  ensue.  This  is  changed  by  work- 
ing, such  as  rolling,  drawing,  etc.  Es- 



pecially  useful  where  infrangibility  is  de- 
sired, as  in  machinery,  ordnance,  etc. 
At  high  temperature  this  bronze  loses  its 
elasticity  again. 

V. — This  contains  8.5  per  cent  alu- 
minum and  1 A  to  2  per  cent  silicium.  Its 
use  is  advisable  in  cases  where  the  metal 
is  to  possess  a  good  elasticity,  even  in 
the  cast  state,  and  to  retain  it  after 
being  worked  in  red  heat. 

VI. — An  acid  bronze,  containing  10 
per  cent  aluminum;  specific  gravity, 
7.65.  Especially  serviceable  to  resist 
oxidation  and  the  action  of  acids. 

VII. — Diamond     bronze,     containing 

10  per  cent  aluminum  and  2  per  cent 
silicium.      Specific    gravity,    7.3.      Very 
hard;  of  great  firmness,  but  brittle. 

Art  Bronzes.  (See  also  Aluminum 
Bronzes  and  Japanese  Bronzes  under 
this  title.) — I. — Copper,  84  parts;  zinc, 

11  parts;  tin,  5  parts. 

II. — Copper,  90  parts;  zinc,  6  parts; 
tin,  2  parts;  lead,  2  parts. 

III. — Copper,  65  parts;  zinc,  30  parts; 
tin,  5  parts. 

IV. — Copper,  90  parts;  tin,  5  parts;  zinc, 
4  parts;  lead,  1  part. 

V. — Copper,  85  parts;  zinc,  10  parts; 
tin,  3  parts;  lead,  2  parts. 

VI. — Copper,  72  parts;  zinc,  23  parts; 
tin,  3  parts;  lead,  2  parts. 

Statuary  Bronze. — Many  of  the  an- 
tique statues  were  made  of  genuine 
bronze,  which  has  advantages  for  this 
purpose,  but  has  been  superseded  in 
modern  times  by  mixtures  of  metals 
containing,  besides  copper  and  tin — the 
constituents  of  real  bronze — a  quantity 
of  zinc,  the  alloy  thus  formed  being 
really  an  intermediate  product  between 
bronze  and  brass.  The  reason  for  the 
use  of  such  mixtures  lies  partly  in  the 
comparative  cheapness  of  their  produc- 
tion as  compared  with  genuine  bronze, 
and  partly  in  the  purpose  for  which  the 
metal  is  to  be  used.  A  thoroughly  good 
statuary  bronze  must  become  thinly  fluid 
in  fusing,  fill  the  molds  out  sharply,  allow 
of  being  easily  worked  with  the  file,  and 
must  take  on  the  beautiful  green  coating 
called  patina,  after  being  exposed  to  the 
air  for  a  short  time. 

Genuine  bronze,  however  strongly 
heated,  does  not  become  thin  enough  to 
fill  out  the  molds  well,  and  it  is  also 
difficult  to  obtain  homogeneous  castings 
from  it.  Brass  alone  is  also  too  thickly 
fluid,  and  not  hard  enough  for  the  re- 
quired fine  chiseling  or  chasing  of  the 
finished  object.  Alloys  containing  zinc 
and  tin,  in  addition  to  copper,  can  be 
prepared  in  such  a  manner  that  they  will 

become  very  thinly  fluid,  and  will  give 
fine  castings  which  can  easily  be  worked 
with  the  file  and  chisel.  The  best  pro- 
portions seem  to  be  from  10  to  18  per 
cent  of  zinc  and  from  2  to  4  per  cent 
of  tin.  In  point  of  hardness,  statuary 
bronze  holds  an  intermediate  position 
between  genuine  bronze  and  brass, 
being  harder  and  tougher  than  the  latter, 
but  not  so  much  so  as  the  former. 

Since  statuary  bronze  is  used  prin- 
cipally for  artistic  purposes,  much  de- 
pends upon  the  color.  This  can  be  varied 
from  pale  yellow  to  orange  yellow  by 
slightly  varying  the  content  of  tin  or 
zinc,  which  must,  of  course,  still  be  kept 
between  the  limits  given  above.  Too 
much  tin  makes  the  alloy  brittle  and  dif- 
ficult to  chisel;  with  too  much  zinc,  on 
the  other  hand,  the  warm  tone  of  color  is 
lost,  and  the  bronze  does  not  acquire  a 
fine  patina. 

The  best  proportions  for  statuary 
bronze  are  very  definitely  known  at  the 
present  day;  yet  it  sometimes  happens 
that  large  castings  have  not  the  right 
character.  They  are  either  defective  in 
color,  or  they  dc  not  take  on  a  fine  patina, 
or  they  are  difficult  to  chisel.  These 
phenomena  may  be  due  to  the  use  of 
impure  metals — containing  oxides,  iron, 
lead,  etc. — or  to  improper  treatment  of 
the  alloy  in  melting.  With  the  most 
careful  work  possible,  there  is  a  consid- 
erable loss  in  melting — 3  per  cent  at  the 
very  least,  and. sometimes  as, much  as  10. 
This  is  due  to  the  large  proportion  of 
zinc,  and  it  is  evident  that,  in  conse- 
quence of  it,  the  nature  of  the  alloy  will 
be  different  from  what  might  be  expected 
from  the  quantities  of  metals  used  in  its 

It  has  been  remarked  that  slight  vari- 
ations in  composition  quickly  change 
the  color  of  the  alloy.  The  following 
table  gives  a  series  of  alloys  of  different 
colors,  suitable  for  statuary  bronze: 









Reddish  yellow 





Orange  red 





Orange  red 




Orange  red 



15.32  3.63  Orange  yellow 




4.00  Orange  yellow 




3.44  Orange  yellow 




Orange  yellow 

IX...  73.00 


Pale  orange 




Pale  yellow 




Pale  yellow 

XII...  65.95 



Pale  yellow 



Perhaps  the  most  satisfactory  bronze 
metal  is  the  alloy  used  in  France  for  more 
than  a  century.  It  contains  91.60  per 
cent  of  copper,  5.33  per  cent  of  zinc,  1.70 
per  cent  of  tin,  and  1.37  per  cent  of  lead. 
Somewhat  more  zinc  is  taken  for  articles 
to  be  gilded. 

Bismuth  Bronze. — Copper,  52  parts; 
nickel,  30  parts;  zinc,  12  parts;  lead,  5 
parts;  bismuth,  1  part.  For  metallic 
mirrors,  lamp  reflectors,  etc. 

Gun  Bronze. — See  Phosphor  Bronze 
under  this  title. 

Japanese  Bronzes. — The  formulas  given 
below  contain  a  large  percentage  of  lead, 
which  greatly  improves  the  patina.  The  in- 
gredients and  the  ratio  of  their  parts  for  sev- 
eral sorts  of  modern  Japanese  bronze  follow: 

I.— Copper,  81.62  per  cent;  tin,  4.61 
per  cent;  lead,  10.21  per  cent. 

II.— Copper,  76.60  per  cent;  tin,  4.38 
per  cent;  lead,  11.88  per  cent;  zinc,  6.53 
per  cent. 

III.— Copper,  88.55  per  cent;  tin,  2.42 
per  cent;  lead,  4.72  per  cent;  zinc,  3.20 
per  cent. 

Sometimes  a  little  antimony  is  added 
just  before  casting,  and  such  a  composi- 
tion would  be  represented  more  nearly 
by  this  formula: 

IV.— Copper,  68.25  per  cent;  tin,  5.47 
per  cent;  zinc,  8.88  per  cent;  lead,  17.06 
per  cent;  antimony,  0.34  per  cent. 

For  imitation  Japanese  bronze,  see 
Plating  under  Bronzing. 

Machine  Bronze. — I. — Copper,  89  per 
cent;  tin,  11  per  cent. 

II. — Copper,  80  per  cent;  tin,  16  per 

Phosphor  Bronze. — Phosphor  bronze 
is  bronze  containing  varying  amounts 
of  phosphorus,  from  a  few  hundredths 
of  1  per  cent  to  1  or  2  per  cent.  Bronze 
containing  simply  copper  and  tin  is  very 
liable  to  be  defective  from  the  presence 
of  oxygen,  sulphur,  or  occluded  gases. 
Oxvgen  causes  the  metal  to  be  spongy 
and  weak.  Sulphur  and  occluded  gases 
cause  porosity.  ^  Oxygen  gets "  into  the 
metal  by  absorption  from  the  air.  It  can 
be  eliminated  by  adding  to  the  metal 
something  which  combines  with  the  oxy- 
gen and  then  fluxes  off.  Such  deoxidizers 
are  zinc,  antimony,  aluminum,  man- 
ganese, silicon,  and  phosphorus.  Sul- 
phur and  occluded  gases  can  be  elimi- 
nated by  melting  the  metal,  exposing  it  to 
the  air,  and  letting  it  thus  absorb  some 
oxygen,  which  then  burns  the  sulphur 
and  gas.  The  oxygen  can  then  be  re- 
moved by  adding  one  of  the  above- 
mentioned  deoxidizers.  The  important 
use  of  phosphorus  in  bronze  is,  there- 

fore, to  remove  oxygen  and  also  indirect- 
ly to  destroy  occluded  gas  and  sulphur. 

A  bronze  is  sometimes  made  with  an 
extra  high  percentage  of  phosphorus, 
namely,  6  per  cent.  This  alloy  is  made 
so  as  to  have  phosphorus  in  convenient 
form  for  use,  and  the  process  of  manu- 
facture is  as  follows:  Ninety  pounds 
of  copper  are  melted  under  charcoal  in 
a  No.  70  crucible,  which  holds  about 
200  pounds  of  metal  when  full;  11 
pounds  of  tin  are  added  and  the  metal  is 
allowed  to  become  hot.  The  crucible  is 
then  removed  from  the  furnace  and  7 
pounds  of  phosphorus  are  introduced 
in  the  following  manner:  A  3-gallon 
stone  jar,  half  full  of  dilute  solution 
of  blue  vitriol,  is  weighed.  Then  the 
weights  are  increased  7  pounds,  and 
phosphorus  in  sticks  about  4  inches 
long  is  added  till  the  scales  balance 
again.  The  phosphorus  is  left  in  this 
solution  half  an  hour  or  longer,  the  phos- 
phorus being  given  a  coating  of  copper, 
so  that  it  may  be  dried  and  exposed  to 
the  air  without  igniting.  Have  ready 
a  pan  about  30  inches  square  and  6 
inches  deep,  containing  about  2  inches  of 
water.  Over  the  water  is  a  wire  netting, 
which  is  laid  loose  on  ledges  or  supports 
along  the  inner  sides  of  the  pan.  On  the 
netting  is  blotting  paper,  and  on  this  the 
phosphorus  is  laid  to  dry  when  taken 
out  of  the  blue-vitriol  solution..  The  pan 
also  has  a  lid  which  can  be  put  down  in 
case  of  ignition  of  the  phosphorus. 

The  phosphorus  is  now  ready  for 
introduction  into  the  metal.  This  is 
done  by  means  of  a  cup-shaped  instru- 
ment called  a  retort  or  phosphorizer. 
One  man  holds  the  retort  on  the  rim  of 
the  crucible  in  a  horizontal  position.  A 
second  man  takes  about  three  pieces  of 
phosphorus  and  throws  them  into  the 
retort.  The  first  man  then  immediately 
plunges  the  mouth  of  the  retort  below 
the  surface  of  the  metal  before  the  phos- 
phorus has  a  chance  to  fall  or  flow  out. 
Of  course  the  phosphorus  immediately 
melts  and  also  Tbegins  to  volatilize.  As 
the  phosphorus  comes  in  contact  with 
the  metal,  it  combines  with  it.  This 
process  is  continued  till  all  the  7  pounds 
of  phosphorus  has  been  put  into  the  metal. 
The  metal  is  then  poured  into  slabs  about 
3  inches  by  4  inches  by  1  inch  thick.  The 
metal  is  so  hard  that  a  greater  thickness 
would  make  it  difficult  to  break  it  up. 
When  finished,  the  metal  contains,  by 
analysis,  6  per  cent  of  phosphorus.  When 
phosphorus  is  to  be  added  to  metal,  a 
little  of  this  hardener  is  employed.  ^ 

Copper  is  a  soft,  ductile  metal,  with  its 
melting  point  at  about  2,000°  F.  Mol- 


ten  copper  has  the  marked  property  of 
absorbing  various  gases.  Jt  is  for  this 
reason  that  it  is  so  difficult  to  make  sound 
castings  of  clear  copper.  Molten  copper 
combines  readily  with  the  oxygen  of  the 
air,  forming  oxide  of  copper,  which  dis- 
solves in  the  copper  and  mixes  homo- 
geneously with  it. 

A  casting  made  from  such  metal  would 
be  very  spongy.  The  bad  effect  of  oxy- 
gen is  intended  to  be  overcome  by  adding 
zinc  to  the  extent  of  1  per  cent  or  more. 
This  result  can  be  much  more  effectively 
attained  by  the  use  of  aluminum,  man- 
ganese, or  phosphorus.  The  action  of 
these  substances  is  to  combine  with  the 
oxygen,  and  as  the  product  formed  sepa- 
rates and  goes  to  the  surface,  the  metal 
is  left  in  a  sound  condition.  Aluminum 
and  manganese  deoxidize  copper  and 
bronze  very  effectively,  and  the  oxide 
formed  goes  to  the  surface  as  a  scum. 
When  a  casting  is  made  from  such  metal, 
the  oxide  or  scum,  instead  of  freeing  it- 
self from  the  casting  perfectly,  generally 
remains  in  the  top  part  of  the  casting 
mixed  with  the  metal,  as  a  fractured 
surface  will  show.  Phosphorus  deox- 
idizes copper,  and  the  oxide  formed 
leaves  the  metal  in  the  form  of  a  gas,  so 
that  a  casting  made  from  such  metal 
shows  a  clean  fracture  throughout,  al- 
though the  metal  is  not  so  dense  as  when 
aluminum  or  manganese  is  used. 

Copper  also  has  the  property  of  ab- 
sorbing or  occluding  carbon  monoxide. 
But  the  carbonic  oxide  thus  absorbed 
is  in  a  different  condition  from  the  oxy- 
gen absorbed.  When  oxygen  is  ab- 
sorbed by  copper,  the  oxygen  combines 
chemically  with  the  copper  and  loses  its 
own  identity  as  a  gas.  But  when  coal 
gas  is  absorbed  by  the  copper,  it  keeps 
its  own  physical  identity  and  simply  ex- 
ists in  the  copper  in  a  state  of  solution. 
All  natural  waters,  such  as  lake  water, 
river  water,  spring  water,  etc.,  contain 
air  in  solution  or  occlusion.  When  such 
water  is  cooled  and  frozen,  just  at  the 
time  of  changing  from  the  liquid  to  the 
solid  state,  the  dissolved  gas  separates 
and  forms  air  bubbles,  which  remain 
entangled  in  the  ice.  The  carbonic 
oxide  which  is  dissolved  or  occluded  in 
copper  acts  in  exactly  the  same  way. 

Hydrogen  acts  in  exactly  the  same 
manner  as  carbonic  oxide.  Sulphur  also 
has  a  bad  effect  upon  copper  and  bronze. 
Sulphur  combines  with  copper  and  other 
metals,  forming  sulphide  of  copper,  etc. 
When  molten  copper  or  bronze  contain- 
ing sulphur  comes  in  contact  with  air  it 
absorbs  some  oxygen,  and  this  in  turn 
combines  with  the  sulphur  present, 

forming  sulphur  dioxide,  which  is  a  gas 
which  remains  occluded  in  the  metal. 

Tin  is  a  soft,  white  metal,  melting  at 
440°  F.  Toward  gases  it  acts  something 
like  copper,  but  not  in  so  marked  a  de- 
gree. Although^copper  and  tin  are  both 
soft,  vet  when  mixed  they  make  a  harder 
metal.  When  bronze  cools  from  the 
molten  state,  the  copper  and  the  copper- 
tin  alloy  tend  to  crystallize  by  themselves. 
The  quicker  the  cooling  occurs  the  less 
separation  will  there  be,  and  also  the 
fracture  will  be  more  homogeneous  in  ap- 

Gun  bronze  contains  copper  and  tin 
in  the  proportion  of  9  or  10  parts  of 
copper  to  1  of  tin.  This  is  the  metal 
used  when  an  ordinary  bronze  casting 
is  wanted.  A  harder  bronze  is  copper 
and  tin  in  the  ratio  of  6  to  1.  This  is 
often  used  as  a  bearing  metal.  When 
either  of  these  metals  is  to  be  turned  in 
the  machine  shop,  they  should  contain 
about  3  per  cent  of  lead,  which  will  make 
them  work  very  much  better,  but  it  also 
decreases  their  tensile  strength.  Bear- 
ing metal  now  generally  contains  about 
10  per  cent  of  lead,  with  copper  and  tin 
in  varying  ratios.  The  large  percentage 
of  lead  is  put  in  that  the  metal  may  wear 
away  slower.  Lead,  although  a  metal 
having  properties  similar  to  tin,  acts  en- 
tirely different  toward  copper.  Copper 
and  tin  have  a  good  deal  of  affinity  fo? 
each  other,  but  copper  and  lead  show 
no  attraction  at  all  for  each  other.  Cop- 
per and  tin  mix  in  all  proportions,  but 
copper  and  lead  mix  only  to  a  very  limit- 
ed extent.  About  3  per  cent  of  lead  can 
be  mixed  with  copper.  With  bronze 
about  15  per  cent  to  20  per  cent  of  lead 
can  be  mixed.  In  bearing  bronze  the 
lead  keeps  its  own  physical  properties, 
so  that  the  constituent  lead  melts  long 
before  the  metal  attains  a  red  heat.  It 
sometimes  happens  when  a  bearing  runs 
warm  that  the  lead  actually  sweats  out 
and  forms  pimples  on  the  metal.  Or, 
sometimes,  in  remelting  a  bearing  bronze 
casting  the  lead  may  be  seen  to  drop 
out  while  the  metal  is  warming  up.  All 
of  these  metals,  however,  should  contain 
something  to  flux  or  deoxidize  them, 
such  as  zinc,  manganese,  aluminum, 
silicon,  antimony,  or  phosphorus. 

The  phosphor  bronze  bearing  metal  in 
vogue  has  the  following  composition :  Cop- 
per, 79.7  per  cent;  tin,  10  per  cent;  lead, 
10  percent;  and  phosphorus,  0.3  per  cent. 

Melt  140  pounds  of  copper  in  a  No. 
70  pot,  covering  with  charcoal.  When 
copper  is  all  melted,  add  17i  pounds  of 
tin  to  17i  pounds  of  lead,  and  allow  the 
metal  to  become  sufficiently  warm,  but 



not  any  hotter  than  is  needed.  Then 
add  10  pounds  of  "hardener"  (made  as 
previously  described)  and  stir  well.  Re- 
move from  furnace,  skim  off  the  char- 
coal, cool  the  metal  with  gates  to  as  low 
a  temperature  as  is  consistent  with  get- 
ting a  good  casting,  stir  well  again,  and 
pour.  The  molds  for  this  kind  of  work 
are  faced  with  plumbago. 

There  are  several  firms  that  make 
phosphor-bronze  bearings  with  a  com- 
position similar  to  the  above  one,  and 
most  of  them,  or  perhaps  all,  make  it  by 
melting  the  metals  and  then  charging 
with  phosphorus  to  the  extent  of  0.7  to 
1  per  cent.  But  some  metal  from  all 
brands  contains  occluded  gas.  So  that 
after  such  metal  is  cast  (in  about  two 
minutes  or  so)  the  metal  will  ooze  or 
sweat  out  through  the  gate,  and  such  a 
casting  will  be  found  to  be  porous.  But 
not  one  such  experience  with  metal  made 
as  described  above  has  yet  been  found. 

This  practical  point  should  be  heeded, 
viz.,  that  pig  phosphor  bronze  should  be 
brought  to  the  specifications  that  the 
metal  should  have  shrunk  in  the  ingot 
mold  in  cooling,  as  shown  by  the  con- 
cave surface  of  the  upper  side,  and  that 
it  should  make  a  casting  in  a  sand  mold 
without  rising  in  the  gate  after  being 

In  bearing  metal,  occluded  gas  is  very 
objectionable,  because  the  gas,  in  trying 
to  free  itself,  shoves  the  very  hard  cop- 
per-tin compound  (which  has  a  low 
melting  point  and  remains  liquid  after 
the  copper  has  begun  to  set)  into  spots, 
and  thus  causes  hard  spots  in  the  metal. 

Phosphorus  is  very  dangerous  to  han- 
dle, and  there  is  great  risk  from  fire  with 
it,  so  that  many  would  not  care  to  handle 
the  phosphorus  itself.  But  phosphor 
copper  containing  5  per  cent  of  phos- 
phorus, and  phosphor  tin  containing  2  to 
7  per  cent  of  phosphorus,  and  several 
other  such  alloys  can  be  obtained  in  the 
market.  It  may  be  suggested  to  those 
who  wish  to  make  phosphor  bronze,  but 
do  not  want  to  handle  phosphorus  itself, 
to  make  it  by  using  the  proper  amounts 
of  one  of  these  high  phosphorus  alloys. 
In  using  phosphorus  it  is  only  necessary 
to  use  enough  to  thoroughly  deoxidize 
the  metal,  say  0.3  per  cent.  More  than 
this  will  make  the  metal  harder,  but  not 
any  sounder. 

Phosphor  bronze  is  not  a  special  kind 
of  alloy,  but  any  bronze  can  be  made 
into  phosphor  bronze;  it  is,  in  fact,  sim- 
ply a  -deoxidized  bronze,  produced  under 
treatment  with  phosphorus  compounds. 

Although  the  effect  of  phosphorus  in 
improving  the  quality  of  bronze  has  been 

known  for  more  than  fifty  years,  it  is  only 
of  late  that  the  mode  for  preparing  phos- 
phor bronze  has  been  perfected.  It  is 
now  manufactured  in  many  localities. 
Besides  its  action  in  reducing  the  oxides 
dissolved  in  the  alloy,  the  phosphorus 
exerts  another  very  material  influence 
upon  the  properties  of  the  bronze.  The 
ordinary  bronzes  consist  of  mixtures  in 
which  the  copper  is  really  the  only  crys- 
tallized constituent,  since  the  tin  crys- 
tallizes with  great  difficulty.  As  a  con- 
sequence of  this  dissimilarity  in  the  na- 
ture of  the  two  metals,  the  alloy  is  not 
so  solid  as  it  would  be  if  both  were  crys- 
tallized. The  phosphorus  causes  the 
tin  to  crystallize,  and  the  result  is  a  more 
homogeneous  mixture  of  the  two  metals. 

If  enough  phosphorus  is  added,  so 
that  its  presence  can  be  detected  in  the 
finished  bronze,  the  latter  may  be  con- 
sidered an  alloy  of  crystallized  phosphor 
tin  with  copper.  If  the  content  of  phos- 
phor is  still  more  increased,  a  part  of  the 
copper  combines  with  the  phosphorus, 
and  the  bronze  then  contains,  besides 
copper  and  tin,  compounds  of  crystal- 
lized copper  phosphide  with  phosphide 
of  tin.  The  strength  and  tenacity  of  the 
bronze  are  not  lessened  by  a  larger 
amount  of  phosphorus,  and  its  hardness 
is  considerably  increased.  Most  phos- 
phor bronzes  are  equal  in  this  respect  to 
the  best  steel,  and  some  even  surpass  it 
in  general  properties. 

The  phosphorus  is  added  to  the  bronze 
in  the  form  of  copper  phosphide  or  phos- 
phide of  tin,  the  two  being  sometimes 
used  together.  They  must  be  specially 
prepared  for  this  purpose,  and  the  best 
methods  will  be  here  given.  Copper 
phosphide  is  prepared  by  heating  a  mix- 
ture of  4  parts  of  superphosphate  of  lime, 
2  parts  of  granulated  copper,  and  1  part 
of  finely  pulverized  coal  in  a  crucible  at  a 
temperature  not  too  high.  The  melted 
copper  phosphide,  containing  14  per  cent 
of  phosphorus,  separates  on  the  bottom 
of  the  crucible. 

Tin  phosphide  is  prepared  as  follows: 
Place  a  bar  of  zinc  in  an  aqueous  solution 
of  tin  chloride.  The  tin  will  be  separated 
in  the  form  of  a  sponge-like  mass.  Col- 
lect it,  and  put  it  into  a  crucible,  upon 
the  bottom  of  which  sticks  of  phosphorus 
have  been  placed.  Press  the  tin  tightly 
into  the  crucible,  and  expose  to  a  gentle 
heat.  Continue  the  heating  until  flames 
of  burning  phosphorus  are  no  longer 
observed  on  the  crucible.  The  pure  tin 
phosphide,  in  the  form  of  a  coarsely 
crystalline  mass,  tin-white  in  color,  will 
be  found  on  the  bottom  of  the  crucible. 

To  prepare  the  phosphor  bronze,  the 



alloy  to  be  treated  is  melted  in  the  usual 
way,  and  small  pieces  of  the  copper  phos- 
phide and  tin  phosphide  are  added. 

Phosphor  bronze,  properly  prepared, 
has  nearly  the  same  melting  point  as  that 
of  ordinary  bronze.  In  cooling,  how- 
ever, it  has  the  peculiarity  of  passing 
directly  from  the  liquid  to  the  solid  state, 
without  first  becoming  thickly  fluid.  In 
a  melted  state  it  retains  a  perfectly  bright 
surface,  while  ordinary  bronze  in  this 
condition  is  always  covered  with  a  thin 
film  of  oxide. 

If  phosphor  bronze  is  kept  for  a  long 
time  at  the  melting  point,  there  is  not 
any  loss  of  tin,  but  the  amount  of  phos- 
phorus is  slightly  diminished. 

The  most  valuable  properties  of  phos- 
phor bronze  are  its  extraordinary  te- 
nacity and  strength.  It  can  be  rolled, 
hammered,  and  stretched  cold,  and  its 
strength  is  nearly  double  that  of  the  best 
ordinary  bronze.  It  is  principally  used 
in  cases  where  great  strength  and  power 
of  resistance  to  outward  influences  are  re- 
quired, as,  for  instance,  in  objects  which 
are  to  be  exposed  to  the  action  of  sea  water. 

Phosphor  bronze  containing  about  4 
per  cent  of  tin  is  excellently  well  adapted 
for  sheet  bronze.  With  not  more  than  5 
per  cent  of  tin,  it  can  be  used,  forged, 
for  firearms.  Seven  to  10  per  cent  of 
tin  gives  the  greatest  hardness,  and  such 
bronze  is  especially  suited  to  the  manu- 
facture of  axle  bearings,  cylinders  for 
steam  fire  engines,  cogwheels,  and,  in 
general,  for  parts  of  machines  where 
great  strength  and  hardness  are  required. 
Phosphor  bronze,  if  exposed  to  the  air, 
soon  becomes  covered  with  a  beautiful, 
closely  adhering  patina,  and  is  therefore 
well  adapted  to  purposes  of  art.  The 
amount  of  phosphorus  added  varies 
from  0.25  to  2.5  per  cent,  according  to 
the  purpose  of  the  bronze.  The  com- 

position  of  a  number  of  kinds  of  phos- 
phor bronze  is  given  below: 

















I  for  axle  bearings,  II  and  III  for 
harder  and  softer  axle  bearings,  IV  to 
VIII  for  railroad  purposes,  IV  especially 
for  valves  of  locomotives,  V  and  VI  axle 
bearings  for  wagons,  VII  for  connecting 
rods,  VIII  for  piston  rods  in  hydraulic 

Steel  Bronze.— Copper,  60;  ferro- 
manganese  (containing  70  to  80  per  cent 
manganese),  40;  zinc,  15. 

Silicon  Bronze. — Silicon,  similarly  to 
phosphorus,  acts  as  a  deoxidizing  agent, 
and  the  bronzes  produced  under  its 
influence  are  very  ductile  and  elastic,  do 
not  rust,  and  are  very  strong.  On  ac- 
count of  these  qualities  silicon  bronze 
is  much  used  for  telegraph  and  telephone 
wires.  The  process  of  manufacture  is 
similar  to  that  of  phosphor  bronze;  the 
silicon  is  used  in  the  form  of  copper  sili- 
cide.  Some  good  silicon  bronzes  are 
as  follows: 

I  II 

Copper 97.12      97.37 

Tin 1.14         1.32 

Zinc         1.27 

Silicon 0.05        0.07 

Sun  Bronze.— The  alloy  called  sun 
bronze  contains  10  parts  of  aluminum, 
30  to  50  parts  of  copper,  and  40  to  60 
parts  of  cobalt.  The  mixture  known  by 
the  name  of  metalline  has  25  per  cent  of 
aluminum,  30  of  copper,  10  of  iron,  and 
35  of  cobalt.  These  alloys  melt  at  a  point 
approaching  the  melting  point  of  copper, 
are  tenacious,  ductile,  and  very  hard. 

Tobin  Bronze.— This  alloy  is  nearly 
similar  in  composition  and  properties  to 
Delta  metal. 









Copper. .  .  61.203 

Zinc 27.440 

Tin 0.906 

Iron 0.180 

Lead 0.359 


Phospho-  ) 
rus       $ 

The  alloy  marked  IV  is  sometimes 
called  deoxidized  bronze. 

Violet-colored  bronze  is  50  parts  cop- 
per and  50  parts  antimony. 


See  also  Fusible  Alloys. 

Lipowitz's  Alloy. — I. — This  alloy  is 
composed  of  cadmium,  3  parts;  tin,  4; 
bismuth,  15;  and  lead,  8.  The  simplest 
method  of  preparation  is  to  heat  the 
metals,  in  small  pieces,  in  a  crucible, 
stirring  constantly,  as  soon  as  fusion 


begins,  with  a  stick  of  hard  wood.  The 
stirring  is  important,  in  order  to  prevent 
the  metals,  whose  specific  gravity  varies 
considerably,  from  being  deposited  in 
layers.  The  alloy  softens  at  140°  F.  and 
melts  completely  at  158°  P.  The  color 
is  silvery  white,  with  a  luster  like  polished 
silver,  and  the  metal  can  be  bent,  ham- 
mered, and  turned.  These  properties 
would  make  it  valuable  for  many  pur- 
poses where  a  beautiful  appearance  is  of 
special  importance,  but  on  account  of 
the  considerable  amount  of  cadmium 
and  bismuth  which  it  contains,  it  is 
rather  expensive,  and  therefore  limited 
in  use.  Casts  of  small  animals,  insects, 
lizards,  etc.,  have  been  prepared  from 
it,  which  were  equal  in  sharpness  to 
the  best  galvanoplastic  work.  Plaster  of 
Paris  is  poured  over  the  animal  to  be 
cast,  and  after  sharp  drying,  the  animal 
is  removed  and  the  mold  filled  up  with 
Lipowitz's  metal.  The  mold  is  placed 
in  a  vessel  of  water,  and  by  heating  to 
the  boiling  point  the  metal  is  melted  and 
deposited  in  the  finest  impressions  of  the 

This  alloy  is  most  excellent  for  solder- 
ing tin,  lead,  Britannia  metal,  and  nickel, 
being  especially  adapted  to  the  last  two 
metals  on  account  of  its  silver-white 
color.  But  here  again  its  costliness  pre- 
vents its  general  use,  and  cheaper  alloys 
possessing  the  same  properties  have  been 
sought.  In  cases  where  the  silver-white 
color  and  the  low  melting  point  are  not 
of  the  first  importance,  the  alloys  given 
below  may  very  well  be  used  in  the  place 
of  it. 

II. — Cadmium  alloy  (melting  point, 
170°  P.):  Cadmium,  2  parts;  tin,  3;  lead, 
11;  bismuth,  16. 

III. — Cadmium  alloy  (melting  point, 
167°  F.):  Cadmium,  10  parts;  tin,  3;  lead, 
8;  bismuth,  8. 

Cadmium  alloys  (melting  point,  203° 

IV  V  VI 

Cadmium 1     1     1  parts 

Tin 231" 

Bismuth 35     2     " 

VII. — A  very  fusible  alloy,  melting  at 
150°  F.,  is  composed  of  tin,  1  or  2  parts; 
lead,  2  or  3;  bismuth,  4  or  15;  cadmium, 
1  or  2. 

VIII.— Wood's  alloy  melts  between 
140°  and  161.5°  F.  It  is  composed  of 
lead,  4  parts;  tin,  2;  bismuth,  5  to  8; 
cadmium,  1  to  2.  In  color  it  resembles 
platinum,  and  is  malleable  to  a  certain 

IX. — Cadmium  alloy  (melting  point, 
179.5°  F.):  Cadmium,  1  part;  lead,  6 

parts;  bismuth,  7.  This,  like  the  pre- 
ceding, can  be  used  for  soldering  in  hot 

X. — Cadmium  alloy  (melting  point, 
300°  F.):8  Cadmiiim,  2  parts;  tin,  4;  lead, 
2.  This  is  an  excellent  soft  solder,  with  a 
melting  point  about  86  degrees  below  that 
of  lead  and  tin  alone. 

Cadmium  Alloys  with  Gold,  Silver,  and 
Copper.— I.— Gold,  750  parts;  silver,  166 
parts;  cadmium,  84  parts.  A  malleable 
and  ductile  alloy  of  green  color. 

II. — Gold,  750  parts;  silver,  125  parts; 
and  cadmium,  125  parts.  Malleable  and 
ductile  alloy  of  yellowish-green  hue. 

III. —Gold,  746  parts;  silver,  ^  114 
parts;  copper,  97  parts;  and  cadmium, 
43  parts.  Likewise  a  malleable  and 
ductile  alloy  of  a  peculiar  green  shade. 
All  these  alloys  are  suitable  for  plating. 
As  regards  their  production,  each  must 
be  carefully  melted  together  from  its 
ingredients  in  a  covered  crucible  lined 
with  coal  dust,  or  in  a  graphite  crucible. 
Next,  the  alloy  has  to  be  remelted  in  a 
graphite  crucible  with  charcoal  (or  rosin 
powder)  and  borax.  If,  in  spite  thereof, 
a  considerable  portion  of  the  cadmium 
should  have  evaporated,  the  alloy  must 
be  re-fused  once  more  with  an  addition  of 


Alloys  which  fulfill  the  requirements  of 
the  medalist,  and  capable,  therefore,  of 
reproducing  all  details,  are  the  following: 
I      II 

Tin 3       6  parts 

Lead 13       8     " 

Bismuth 6     14     " 

III. — A  soft  alloy  suitable  to  take  im- 
pressions of  woodcuts,  coins,  metals,  en- 
gravings, etc.,  and  which  must  melt  at 
a  low  degree  of  heat,  is  made  out  of  bis- 
muth, 3  parts;  tin,  li  parts;  lead,  2^ 
parts;  and  worn-out  type,  1  part. 

Acid-proof  Alloy. — This  alloy  is  char- 
acterized by  its  power,  of  resisting  the 
action  of  acids,  and  is  therefore  especially 
adapted  to  making  cocks,  pipes,  etc., 
which  are  to  come  in  contact  with  acid 
fluids.  It  is  composed  of  copper,  zinc, 
lead,  tin,  iron,  nickel,  cobalt,  and  an- 
timony, in  the  following  proportions: 

Copper 74.75  parts 

Zinc 0.61     " 

Lead 16.35     " 

Tin 0.91     " 

Iron 0.43     " 

Nickel    )  0  24     " 

Cobalt  f   °'24 

Antimony 6.78     " 



Albata  Metal. — Copper,  40  parts;  zinc, 
32  parts;  and  nickel,  8  parts. 

Alfenide  Metal. — Copper,  60  parts; 
zinc,  30;  nickel,  10;  traces  of  iron. 

Bath  Metal.— This"  alloy  is  used  es- 
pecially in  England  for  the  manufacture 
of  teapots,  and  is  very  popular  owing  to 
the  fine  white  color  it  possesses.  It 
takes  a  ^  high  polish,  and  articles  made 
from  this  alloy  acquire  in  the  course  of 
time,  upon  only  being  rubbed  with  a 
white  cloth,  a  permanent  silver  luster. 
The  composition  of  Bath  metal  is  cop- 
per, 55  parts;  zinc,  45  parts* 

Baudoin  Metal. — This  is  composed  of 
72  parts  of  copper,  16.6  of  nickel,  1.8  of 
cobalt,  1  of  zinc;  J  per  cent  of  aluminum 
may  be  added. 


Macht's  Yellow  Metal.— I. —This  alloy 
consists  of  33  parts  of  copper  and  25  of 
zinc.  It  has  a  dark  golden-yellow  color, 
great  tenacity,  and  can  be  forged  at  a 
red  heat,  properties  which  make  it  es- 
pecially suitable  for  fine  castings. 

II. — Yellow. — Copper,  67  to  70  parts; 
zinc,  33  to  30  parts. 

III.— Red.— Copper,  82  parts;  zinc, 
18  parts. 

Copper  Arsenic. — Arsenic  imparts  to 
copper  a  very  fine  white  color,  and  makes 
it  very  hard  and  brittle.  Before  Ger- 
man silver  was  known,  these  alloys  were 
sometimes  used  for  the  manufacture  of 
such  cast  articles  as  were  not  to  come  in 
contact  with  iron.  When  exposed  to  the 
air,  they  soon  lose  their  whiteness  and 
take  on  a  brownish  shade.  On  account 
of  this,  as  well  as  the  poisonous  character 
of  tne  arsenic,  they  are  very  little  used 
at  the  present  time.  Alloys  of  copper 
and  arsenic  are  best  prepared  by  pressing 
firmly  into  a  crucible  a  mixture  of  70 
parts  of  copper  and  30  of  arsenic  (the 
copper  to  be  used  in  the  form  of  fine 
shavings)  and  fusing  this  mixture  in  a 
furnace  with  a  good  draught,  under  a 
cover  of  glass. 

Copper  Iron. — The  alloys  of  copper 
and  iron  are  little  used  in  the  industries 
of  the  present  day,  but  it  would  seem 
that  in  earlier  times  they  were  frequently 
prepared  for  the  purpose  of  giving  a  con- 
siderable degree  of  hardness  to  copper; 
for  in  antique  casts,  consisting  princi- 
pally of  copper,  we  regularly  find  large 
quantities  of  iron,  which  leads  to  the  sup- 
position that  they  were  added  intention- 

These  alloys,  when  of  a  certain  com- 

position, have  considerable  strength  and 
hardness.  With  an  increase  in  the  quan- 
tity of  "the  iron  the  hardness  increases, 
but  the  solidity  is  lessened.  A  copper 
and  iron  alloy  of  considerable  strength, 
and  at  .the  same  time  very  hard,  is 
made  of  copper,  66  parts;  iron,  34. 
These  alloys  acquire,  on  exposure  to  air, 
an  ugly  color  inclining  toward  black, 
and  are  therefore  not  adapted  for  arti- 
cles of  art. 

Copper  Nickel.— A.  Morrell,  of  New 
York,  has  obtained  a  patent  on  a  nickel- 
copper  alloy  which  he  claims  is  valu- 
able on  account  of  its  noncorrosive 
qualities,  therefore  making  it  desirable 
for  ships,  boiler  tubes,  and  other  uses 
where  the  metal  comes  much  in  contact 
with  water.  The  process  of  making  the 
metal  is  by  smelting  ore  containing  sul- 
phide of  nickel  and  copper,  and  besem- 
erizing  the  resultant  matter.  This  is 
calcined  in  order  to  obtain  the  nickel 
and  copper  in  the  form  of  oxides.  The 
latter  are  reduced  in  reverberating  fur- 
nace with  carbon,  or  the  like,  so  as  to 
produce  an  alloy  which  preferably  con- 
tains 2  parts  of  nickel  and  1  part  of 

Delta  Metal. — An  alloy  widely  used  for 
making  parts  of  machinery,  and  also 
for  artistic  purposes,  is  the  so-called 
Delta  metal.  This  is  a  variety  of  brass 
hardened  with  iron;  some  manufacturers 
add  small  quantities  of  tin  and  lead; 
also,  in  some  cases,  nickel.  The  follow- 
ing analysis  of  Delta  metal  (from  the  fac- 
tory at  Diisseldorf)  will  show  its  usual 






Copper.  .  .  . 











Iron.  .  .  . 



I  is  cast,  II  hammered,  III  rolled, 
and  IV  hot-stamped  metal.  Delta 
metal  is  produced  by  heating  zinc  very 
strongly  in  crucibles  (to  about  1600°  F.), 
and  adding  ferromanganese  or  "spiegel- 
eisen,"  producing  an  alloy  of  95  per  cent 
zinc  and  5  per  cent  of  iron.  Copper  and 
brass  and  a  very  small  amount  of  copper 
phosphate  are  also  added. 


Gong  Metal. — A  sonorous  metal  for 
cymbals,  gongs,  and  tam-tams  consists 
of  100  parts  of  copper  with  25  parts  tin. 
Ignite  the  piece  after  it  is  cast  and  plunge 
it  into  cold  water  immediately. 

Production  of  Minargent. — This  alloy 
consists  of  copper,  500  parts;  nickel, 
350;  tungsten,  25,  and  aluminum,  5.  The 
metal  obtained  possesses  a  handsome 
white  color  and  greatly  resembles  silver. 

Minofor. — The  so-called  Minofor  metal 
is  composed  of  copper,  tin,  antimony,  zinc, 
and  iron  in  the  following  proportions: 

I          II 

Copper 3.26       4 

Tin 67.53     66 

Antimony 17.00     20 

Zinc 8.94        9 

Iron 1 

Minargent  and  Minofor  are  sometimes 
used  in  England  for  purposes  in  which  the 
ordinary  Britannia  metal,  2  parts  tin  and 
1  part  antimony,  might  equally  well  be 
employed;  the  latter  surpasses  both  of 
them  in  beauty  of  color,  but  they  are,  on 
the  other  hand,  harder. 

Retz  Alloy. — This  alloy,  which  resists 
the  corrosive  action  of  alkalies  and  acids, 
is  composed  of  15  parts  of  copper,  2.34 
of  tin,  1.82  of  lead,  and  1  of  antimony. 
It  can  be  utilized  in  the  manufacture  of 
receivers,  for  which  porcelain  and  ebo- 
nite are  usually  employed. 

Ruoltz  Metal.  —  This  comprises  20 
parts  of  silver,  50  of  copper,  30  of  nickel. 
These  proportions  may,  however,  vary. 

Tissier's  Metal. — This  alloy  contains 
arsenic,  is  of  a  beautiful  tombac  red 
color,  and  very  hard.  Its  composition 
varies  a  great  deal,  but  the  peculiar  alloy 
which  gives  the  name  is  composed  of 
copper,  97  parts;  zinc,  2  parts;  arsenic, 
1  or  2.  It  may  be  considered  a  brass 
with  a  very  high  percentage  of  copper, 
and  hardened  by  the  addition  of  arsenic. 
It  is  sometimes  used  for  axle  bearings, 
but  other  alloys  are  equally  suitable  for 
this  purpose,  and  are  to  be  preferred  on 
account  of  the  absence  of  arsenic,  which 
is  always  dangerous. 

FILE  ALLOYS. — Many  copper-tin  al- 
loys are  employed  for  the  making  of  files 
which,  in  distinction  from  the  steel  files, 
are  designated  composition  files.  Such 
alloys  have  the  following  compositions: 
Geneva  Composition  Files. — 

I  II 

Copper 64.4        62 

Tin 18.0       20 

Zinc 10.0        10 

Lead 7.6         8 

VogePs  Composition  Files. — 

III      IV       V 

Copper 57.0    61.5    73.0 

Tin 28.5    31.0    19.0 

Zinc 78.0    ....       8,0 

Lead 7.0      8.5      8.0 

VI. — Another  alloy  for  composition 
files  is  copper,  8  parts;  tin,  2;  zinc,  l,and 
lead,  1 — fused  under  a  cover  of  borax. 


(These  have  a  fusing  point  usually 
below  300°  F.) 

(See  also  Solders.) 

I.  Rose's  Alloy.  —  Bismuth,   2   parts; 
lead,  1  part;  tin,  1  part.      Melting  point, 
200°  F. 

II.  Darcet  Alloy. — This  is  composed  of 
8  parts  of  bismuth,  5  of  lead,  and  3  of  tin. 
It  melts  at  176°  F.     To  impart  greater 
fusibility,  -fo  part  of  mercury  is  added; 
the  fusing  is  then  lowered  to  149°  F. 

III.— Newton  alloy  melt3  at  212°  F., 
and  is  composed  of  5  parts  of  bismuth,  2 
of  lead,  and  3  of  tin. 
IV.— Wood's  Metal.— 

Tin 2  parts 

Lead 4  parts 

Bismuth 5  to  8  parts 

This  silvery,  fine-grained  alloy  fuses 
between  151°  and  162°  F.,  and  is  ex- 
cellently adapted  to  soldering. 

V. — Bismuth,   7   parts;  lead,   6  parts; 

cadmium,  1  part.     Melting  point,  180°  F. 

VI.— Bismuth,  7  to  8  parts;  lead,  4; 

tin,  2;  cadmium,  1  to  2.      Melting  point, 

149°  to  160°  F. 

Other  easily  fusible  alloys : 

VII          VIII 

1  2 

1  2 

1  1 

258°  F.      283° 






Melting  Point. . . 

Fusible  Alloys  for  Electric  Installa- 
tions.— These  alloys  are  employed  in 
electric  installations  as  current  inter- 
rupters. Serving  as  conductors  on  a 
short  length  of  circuit,  they  melt  as  soon 
as  the  current  becomes  too  strong.  Fol- 
lowing is  the  composition  of  some  of 
these  alloys. 







203°  F. 





193°  F. 





168°  F. 






153°  F. 

260|      148 




150°  F. 






145°  F. 







These  alloys  are  prepared  by  melting 
the  lead  in  a  stearine  bath  and  adding 
successively,  and  during  the  cooling, 
first,  the  cadmium;  second,  the  bismuth; 
third,  the  tin.  It  is  absolutely  necessary 
to  proceed  in  this  manner,  since  these 
metals  fuse  at  temperatures  ranging 
from  850°  F.  (for  lead),  to  551°  F.  (for 

Fusible  Safety  Alloys  for  Steam 










212°  F. 






235°  F 

1   5 





253°  F 


IV.    . 




266°  F 

2  5 





270°  F. 






280°  F. 






285°  F. 






309°  F. 






320°  F. 






330°  F. 






340°  F. 


Lipowitz  Metal. — This  amalgam  is  pre- 
pared as  follows:  Melt  in  a  dish,  cad- 
mium, 3  parts,  by  weight;  tin,  4  parts; 
bismuth,  15  parts;  and  lead,  8  parts, 
adding  to  the  alloy,  while  still  in  fusion, 
2  parts  of  quicksilver  previously  heated 
to  about  212°  F.  The  amalgamation 
proceeds  easily  and  smoothly.  The 
liquid  mass  in  the  dish,  which  should 
be  taken  from  the  fire  immediately  upon 
the  introduction  of  the  mercury,  is  stirred 
until  the  contents  solidify.  While  Lipo- 
witz alloy  softens  already  at  140°  F.  and 
fuses  perfectly  at  158°,  the  amalgam  has 
a  still  lower  fusing  point,  which  lies 
around  143|°  F. 

This  amalgam  is  excellently  adapted 
for  the  production  of  impressions  of 
various  objects  of  nature,  direct  im- 
pressions of  leaves,  and  other  delicate 
parts  of  plants  having  been  made  with  its 
aid  which,  in  point  of  sharpness,  are 
equal  to  the  best  plaster  casts  and  have 
a  very  pleasing  appearance.  The  amal- 
gam has  a  silver- white  color  and  a 
fine  gloss.  It  is  perfectly  constant 
to  atmospheric  influences.  This  amal- 
gam has  also  been  used  with  good  suc- 
cess for  the  making  of  small  statuettes 
and  busts,  which  are  hollow  and  can  be 
readily  gilt  or  bronzed  by  electro-depo- 
sition. The  production  of  small  statues 
is  successfully  carried  out  by  making  a 
hollow  gypsum  mold  of  the  articles  to 
be  cast  and  heating  the  mold  evenly  to 

about  140°  F.  A  corresponding  quan- 
tity of  the  molten  amalgam  is  then  poured 
in  and  the  mold  moved  rapidly  to  and 
fro,  so  that  the  alloy  is  thrown  against  the 
sides  all  over.  The  shaking  should  be 
continued  until  it  is  certain  that  the  amal- 
gam has  solidified.  When  the  mold 
has  cooled  off  it  is  taken  apart  and 
the  seams  removed  by  means  of  a  sharp 
knife.  If  the  operation  is  carried  on 
correctly,  a  chasing  of  the  cast  mass  be- 
comes unnecessary,  since  the  alloy  fills 
out  the  finest  depressions  of  the  mold 
with  the  greatest  sharpness. 

Amalgam  for  Plaster. — Tin,  1  part; 
bismuth,  1  part;  mercury,  1  part.  Melt 
the  bismuth  and  the  tin  together,  and 
when  the  two  metals  are  in  fusion  add 
the  mercury  while  stirring.  For  use, 
rub  up  the  amalgam  with  a  little  white  of 
egg  and  brush  like  a  varnish  on  the 
plaster  articles. 

Plastic  Metal  Composition. — I.  Copper 
oxide  is  reduced  by  means  of  hydrogen 
or  copper  sulphate  by  boiling  a  solution 
of  the  same  in  water  with  some  zinc  filings 
in  order  to  obtain  entirely  pure  copper. 
Of  the  copper  powder  obtained  in  this  man- 
ner, 20,  30,  or  36  parts,  by  weight,  accord- 
ing to  the  degree  of  hardness  desired  for 
the  composition  (the  greater  the  quantity 
of  copper  used  the  harder  will  the  composi- 
tion become),  are  thoroughly  moistened 
in  a  cast-iron  or  porcelain  mortar  with 
sulphuric  acid  of  1.85  specific  gravity; 
70  parts,  by  weight,  of  mercury  are  then 
added  to  this  paste,  the  whole  being  con- 
stantly stirred.  When  all  the  copper 
has  been  thoroughly  amalgamated  with 
the  mercury,  the  sulphuric  acid  is  washed 
out  again  with  boiling  water,  and  in  12 
hours  after  it  has  become  cold  the  com- 
position will  be  so  hard  that  it  can  be 
polished.  It  is  impervious  to  the  action 
of  dilute  acids,  alcohol,  ether,  and  boil- 
ing water.  It  contains  the  same  specific 
gravity,  alike  in  the  soft  or  the  hard  con- 
dition. When  used  as  a  cement,  it  can 
at  any  time  be  rendered  soft  and  plastic 
in  the  following  manner:  If  applied 
while  hot  and  plastic  to  the  deoxidized 
surfaces  of  two  pieces  of  metal,  these 
latter  will  unite  so  firmly  that  in  about  10 
or  12  hours  the  metal  may  be  subjected 
to  any  mechanical  process.  The  prop- 
erties of  this  composition  render  it 
very  useful  for  various  purposes,  and  it 
forms  a  most  effective  cement  for  fine 
metal  articles  which  cannot  be  soldered 
in  fire. 

II. — Bismuth,  5.5  parts;  lead,  3;  tin, 

III.     Alloy     d'Homburg.  —  Bismuth, 



3  parts;  lead,  3;  tin,   3.     This  alloy  is 
fusible  at  251°   F.,   and  is   of  a  silvery 
white.     It  is  employed  for  reproductions 
of  medals. 

IV.  Alloy  Valentine  Rose.— Bismuth, 

4  to  6  parts;  lead,  2  parts;  tin,  2  to  3  parts. 
This  alloy  fuses  at  212°  to  250°  F. 

V.  Alloy     Rose    pere.  —  Bismuth,     2 
parts;  lead,  2;  tin,  2.     This  alloy  fuses 
at  199°  F. 

The  remainder  are  plastic  alloys  for 
reproducing  cuts,  medals,  coins,  etc.: 

VI. — Bismuth,  4  parts;  lead,  2  parts; 
tin,  1  part. 

VII. — Bismuth,  3  parts;  lead,  3  parts; 
tin,  2  parts. 

VIII.  —  Bismuth,  4  parts;  lead,  2  parts; 
tin,  2  parts. 

IX. — Bismuth,  5  parts;  lead,  2  parts; 
tin,  3  parts. 

X. — Bismuth,  2  parts;  lead,  2  parts; 
tin,  2  parts. 

Quick -Water.  —  That  the  amalgam 
may  easily  take  hold  of  bronze  objects 
and  remain  there,  it  is  customary  to 
coyer  the  perfectly  cleansed  and  shining 
article  with  a  thin  coat  of  mercury,  which 
is  usually  accomplished  by  dipping  it  into 
a  so-called  quick-water  bath. 

In  the  form  of  minute  globules  the 
mercury  immediately  separates  itself 
from  the  solution  and  clings  to  the  bronze 
object,  which  thereupon  presents  the 
appearance  of  being  plated  with  silver. 
After  it  has  been  well  rinsed  in  clean 
water,  the  amalgam  may  be  evenly  and 
without  difficulty  applied  with  the 
scratch  brush. 

This  quick- water  (in  reality  a  solution 
of  mercurous  nitrate),  is  made  in  the  sim- 
plest manner  by  taking  10  parts  of  mer- 
cury and  pouring  over  it  11  parts  of 
nitric  acid  of  a  specific  gravity  equal  to 
1.33;  now  let  it  stand  until  every  part 
of  the  mercury  is  dissolved;  then,  while 
stirring  vigorously,  add  540  parts  of 
water.  This  solution  must  be  kept  in 
closed  flasks  or  bottles  to  prevent  im- 
purities, such  as  dust,  etc.,  from  falling 
into  it. 

The  preparatory  work  on  the  object 
to  be  gilded  consists  mainly  in  cleansing 
it  from  every  trace  of  oxidation.  First, 
it  must  be  well  annealed  by  placing  it  in 
a  bed  of  glowing  coal,  care  being  exer- 
cised that  the  heating  be  uniform. 
When  cooled,  this  piece  is  plunged  into 
a  highly  diluted  sulphuric-acid  bath  in 
order  to  dissolve  in  a  measure  the  oxide. 
Next  it  is  dipped  in  a  36°  nitric-acid  bath, 
of  a  specific  gravity  equal  to  1.33,  and 
brushed  off  with  a  long  brush;  it  is  now 
dipped  into  nitric  acid  into  which  a  little 

lampblack  and  table  salt  have  been 
thrown.  It  is  now  ready  for  washing 
in  clean  water  and  drying  in  unsoiled 
sawdust.  It  is  of  the  greatest  importance 
that  the  surface  to  be  gilded  should  ap- 
pear of  a  pale  yellow  tint  all  over.  If  it 
be  too  smooth  the  gold  will  not  take  hold 
easily,  and  if  it  be  too  dull  it  will  require 
too  much  gold  to  cover  it. 


Colored  Gold  Alloys.— The  alloys  of 
gold  with  copper  have  a  reddish  tinge; 
those  of  gold  with  silver  are  whiter,  and 
an  alloy  of  gold,  silver,  and  copper  to- 
gether is  distinguished  by  a  greenish 
tone.  Manufacturers  of  gold  ware 
make  use  of  these  different  colors,  one 
piece  being  frequently  composed  of 
several  pieces  of  varying  color.  Below 
are  given  some  of  these  alloys,  with  their 
























2  0 










































1   3 

1   0 

Nos.  I,  II,  III,  and  IV  are  green  gold; 
No.  Vis  pale  yellow;  Nos.  VI,  VII,  and 
VIII  bright  yellow;  Nos.  IX  and  X  pale 
red;  Nos.  XI  and  XII  bright  red;  Nos. 
XIII,  XIV,  and  XV  gray;  while  No. 
XVI  exhibits  a  bluish  tint.  The  finished 
gold  ware,  before  being  put  upon  the 
market,  is  subjected  to  a  special  treat- 
ment, consisting  either  in  the  simple 
pickling  or  in  the  so-called  coloring, 
which  operation  is  conducted  especially 
with  alloys  of  low  degree  of  fineness,  the 
object  being  to  give  the  layers  a  super- 
ficial layer  of  pure  gold. 

The  presence  of  silver  considerably 
modifies  the  color  of  gold,  and  the  jewel- 
er makes  use  of  this  property  to  obtain 
alloys  of  various  shades.  The  following 
proportions  are  to  be  observed,  viz.: 



Gold    Silver  Copper 
Color  of  Gold  per        per        per 

1,000     1,000    1,000 

I.   Green 750  250  .  .  . 

II.   Dead  leaves..  ..  700  300  ... 

III.  Sea  green GOO  400  ... 

IV.  Pink 750  200  50 

V.   English  yellow..  750  125  125 

VI.   English  white.  ..  750  150      100 

VII.   Whiter 750  170        80 

VIII.   Less  white 750  190        60 

IX.  Red 750      ...      250 

Other  colored  gold  alloys  are  the  fol- 

X.  Blue. — Fine  gold,  75;  iron,  25. 

XI.  Dark     Gray.  —  Fine     gold,     94; 
iron,  6. 

XII.  Pale    Gray. —  Fine    gold,     191; 
iron,  9. 

XIII.  Cassel  Yellow.  —  Fine  gold,  75; 
fine  silver,  12A;  rose  copper,  12^. 

The  above  figures  are  understood  to 
be  by  weight. 

The  gold  solders,  known  in  France 
under  the  names  of  soudures  au  quart 
(13  i  carat),  au  tiers  (12  carat),  and  au 
deux  (9  carai),  are  composed  of  3,  2,  or 
1  part  of  gold  respectively,  with  1  part  of 
an  alloy  consisting  of  two-thirds  silver  and 
one-third  copper.  Gold  also  forms  with 
aluminum  a  series  of  alloys  of  greatly  vary- 
ing coloration,  the  most  curious  of  them, 
composed  of  22  parts  of  aluminum  for  88 
parts  of  gold,  possessing  a  pretty  purple 
shade.  But  all  these  alloys,  of  a  highly 
crystalline  base,  are  very  brittle  and  can- 
not be  worked,  for  which  reason  their 
handsome  colorings  have  not  yet  been 
capable  of  being  utilized. 

Enameling  Alloys. —  I.  Transparent. 
—This  alloy  should  possess  the  property 
of  transmitting  rays  of  light  so  as  to  give 
the  highest  possible  effect  to  the  enamel. 
The  alloy  of  gold  for  transparent  green 
should  be  pale;  a  red  or  copper  alloy 
does  not  do  for  green  enamel,  the  copper 
has  a  tendency  to  darken  the  color  and 
thus  take  away  a  part  of  its  brilliancy. 
The  following  alloy  for  transparent 
green  possesses  about  the  nearest  print, 
in  color,  to  the  enamel — which  should 
represent,  as  near  as  possible,  the  color 
and  brilliancy  of  the  emerald — that  can 
be  arrived  at: 

ozs.  dwts.    grs. 

Fine  gold 0     18        8 

Fine  silver 0        1        6 

Fine  copper 0       0     10 

No  borax  must  be  used  in  the  melting 
of  this  alloy,  it  being  of  a  more  fusible 
nature  than  the  ordinary  alloy,  and  will 
not  take  so  high  a  heat  in  enameling. 

II.  Fed  Enamel. — The  enamel  which 
forms  this  color  being  of  a  higher  fusing 

point,  if  proper  care  be  not  taken,  the 
gold  will  melt  first,  and  the  work  become 
ruined.  In  the  preparation  of  red  enam- 
el, the  coloring  matter  is  usually  an  oxide 
of  gold,  and  this  so  raises  the  tempera- 
ture at  which  it  melts  that,  in  order  to 
prevent  any  mishap,  the  gold  to  be  enam- 
eled on  should  be  what  is  called  a  22- 
carat  red,  that  is,  it  should  contain  a 
preponderance  of  copper  in  the  alloying 
mixture  so  as  to  raise  the  fusing  point  of 
the  gold.  The  formula  is: 

ozs.  dwts.  grs. 

Fine  gold 0      18        8 

Fine  silver 0        0      10 

Fine  copper 0        1        6 

Gold-leaf  Alloys. — All  gold  made  into 
leaf  is  more  or  less  alloyed.  The  gold 
used  by  the  goldbeater  is  alloyed  ac- 
cording to  the  variety  of  color  required. 
Fine  gold  is  commonly  supposed  to  be  in- 
capable of  being  reduced  to  thin  leaves. 
This,  however,  is  not  the  case,  although 
its  use  for  ordinary  purposes  is  unde- 
sirable on  account  of  its  greater  cost.  It 
also  adheres  by  contact  of  one  leaf  with 
another,  thus  causing  spoiled  material 
and  wasted  labor;  but  for  work  exposed 
to  the  weather  it  is  much  preferable,  as 
it  is  more  durable  and  does  not  tarnish 
or  change  color. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  principal 
classes  of  leaf  recognized  and  ordinarily 
prepared  by  beaters  with  the  proportion 
of  alloy  they  contain: 

Gold         Silver  Copper 
grs.  grs.       grs. 

I.  Red  gold...  456-460  ...    20-24 

II.  Pale  red.  ..        464  ...           16 

III.  Extra  deep.        456  12          12 

IV.  Deep 444  24          12 

V.  Citron 440  30          10 

VI.  Yellow 408  72      

VII.  Pale  yellow  384  96      

VIII.  Lemon..  ..  360  120 

IX.  Green  or  pale  312  168  .... 

X.  White 240  240  .... 

Gold-Plate  Alloys.— Gold,  92  parts; 
copper,  8  parts. 

II. — Gold,  84  parts;  copper,  16  parts. 
III. — Gold,  75  parts;  copper,  25  parts. 


I. — One  hundred  parts,  by  weight,  of 
copper  of  the  purest  quality;  14  of  zinc 
or  tin;  6  of  magnesia;  |  of  sal  ammoniac, 
limestone,  and  cream  of  tartar.  The 
copper  is  first  melted,  then  the  magnesia, 
sal  ammoniac,  limestone,  and  cream  of 
tartar  in  powder  are  added  separately 
and  gradually.  The  whole  mass  is  kept 
stirred  for  a  half  hour,  the  zinc  or  tin 
being  dropped  in  piece  by  piece,  the  stir- 



ring  being  kept  up  till  they  melt.  Fi- 
nally the  crucible  is  covered  and  the  mass 
is  kept  in  fusion  35  minutes  and,  the  same 
being  removed,  the  metal  is  poured  into 
molds,  and  is  then  ready  for  use.  The 
alloy  thus  made  is  said  to  be  fine-grained, 
malleable,  takes  a  high  polish,  and  does 
not  easily  oxidize. 

II. — An  invention,  patented  in  Ger- 
many, covers  a  metallic  alloy,  to  take 
the  place  of  gold,  which,  even  if  exposed 
for  some  time  to  the  action  of  ammonia- 
cal  and  acid  vapors,  does  not  oxidize  or 
lose  its  gold  color.  It  can  be  rolled  and 
worked  Tike  gold  and  has  the  appearance 
of  genuine  gold  without  containing  the 
slightest  admixture  of  that  metal.  The 
alloy  consists  of  copper  and  antimony  in 
the  approximate  ratio  of  100  to  6,  and  is 
produced  by  adding  to  molten  copper, 
as  soon  as  it  has  reached  a  certain  degree 
of  heat,  the  said  percentage  of  antimony. 
When  the  antimony  has  likewise  melted 
and  entered  into  intimate  union  with  the 
copper,  some  charcoal  ashes,  magne- 
sium, and  lime  spar  are  added  to  the  mass 
when  the  latter  is  still  in  the  crucible. 

III.  Aluminum  Gold.  —  This  alloy, 
called  Nuremberg  gold,  is  used  for  mak- 
ing cheap  gold  ware,  and  is  excellent  for 
this  purpose,  as  its  color  is  exactly  that  of 
pure  gold,  and  does  not  change  in  the  air. 
Articles  made  of  Nuremberg  gold  need 
no  gilding,  and  retain  their  color  under 
the  hardest  usage;  even  the  fracture  of 
this  alloy  shows  the  pure  gold  color.  The 
composition  is  usually  90  parts  of  cop- 
per, 2.5  of  gold,  and  7.5  of  aluminum. 

IV. — Imitation  gold,  capable  of  being 
worked  and  drawn  into  wire,  consists  of 
950  parts  copper,  45  aluminum,  and  2  to 
5  of  silver. 

V. — Chrysochalk  is  similar  in  com- 
position to  Mannheim  gold: 

I       II 

Copper 90.5    58.68 

Zinc 7.9    40.22 

Lead 1.6      1.90 

In  color  it  resembles  gold,  but  quickly 
loses  its  beauty  if  exposed  to  the  air,  on 
account  of  the  oxidation  of  the  copper. 
It  can,  however,  be  kept  bright  for  a  long 
time  by  a  coating  of  colorless  varnish, 
which  excludes  the  air  and  prevents 
oxidation.  Chrysochalk  is  used  for 
most  of  the  ordinary  imitations  of  gold. 
Cheap  watch  chains  and  jewelry  are 
manufactured  from  it,  and  it  is  widely 
used  by  the  manufacturers  of  imitation 
bronze  ornaments. 

Mannheim  Gold  or  Similor. — Mann- 
heim gold  is  composed  of  copper,  zinc, 
and  tin,  in  proportions  about  as  follows: 

I          II 

Copper 83.7      89.8 

Zinc 9.3        9.9 

Tin 7.0        0.6 

It  has  a  fine  yellow  color,  and  was 
formerly  much  used  in  making  buttons 
and  pressed  articles  resembling  gold. 
Later  alloys,  however,  surpass  it  in  color, 
and  it  has  fallen  somewhat  into  disuse. 
One  variety  of  Mannheim  gold,  so 
called,  contains  1.40  parts  of  brass 
(composition  3  Cu2 1  Zn)  to  10  of  copper 
and  0.1  of  zinc. 

Mosaic  Gold. — This  is  an  alloy  com- 
posed— with  slight  deviations — of  100 
parts  of  copper  and  50  to  55  of  zinc.  It 
has  a  beautiful  color,  closely  resembling 
that  of  gold,  and  is  distinguished  by  a 
very  fine  grain,  which  makes  it  especially 
suitable  for  the  manufacture  of  castings 
which  are  afterwards  to  be  gilded.  The 
best  method  of  obtaining  a  thoroughly 
homogeneous  mixture  of  the  two  metals 
is  first  to  put  into  the  crucible  one-half 
of  the  zinc  to  be  used,  place  the  cover 
upon  it,  and  fuse  the  mixture  under  a 
cover  of  borax  at  as  low  a  temperature 
as  possible.  Have  ready  the  other  half 
of  the  zinc,  cut  into  small  pieces  and 
heated  almost  to  melting,  and  when  the 
contents  of  the  crucible  are  liquid  throw 
it  in,  a  small  portion  at  a  time,  stirring 
constantly  to  effect  as  intimate  a  mixture 
of  the  metals  as  possible. 

Oreiide  or  Oroide  (French  Gold).— The 
so-called  French  gold,  when  polished,  so 
closely  resembles  genuine  gold  in  color 
that  it  can  scarcely  be  distinguished  from 
it.  Besides  its  beautiful  color,  it  has  the 
valuable  properties  of  being  very  ductile 
and  tenacious,  so  that  it  can  easily  be 
stamped  into  any  desired  shape;  it  also 
takes  a  high  polish.  It  is  frequently 
used  for  the  manufacture  of  spoons, 
forks,  etc.,  but  is  unsuitable  for  this  pur- 
pose on  account  of  the  large  amount  of 
copper  contained  in  it,  rendering  it  in- 
jurious to  health.  The  directions  for 
preparing  this  alloy  vary  greatly.  The 
products  of  some  Paris  factories  show 
the  following  composition: 

I       II        III 

Copper 90    80.5    86.21 

Zinc 10    14.5    31.52 

Tin 0.48 

Iron 0.24 

A  special  receipt  for  orei'de  is  the  fol- 

IV. — Melt    100   parts  of  copper  and 

add,   with  constant  stirring,   6  parts   of 

magnesia,    3.6    of   sal  ammoniac,  1.8  of 

j  lime,  and  9  of  crude  tartar.     Stir  again 


thoroughly,  and  add  17  parts  of  granu- 
lated zinc,  and  after  mixing  it  with  the 
copper  by  vigorous  stirring  keep  the 
alloy  liquid  for  one  hour.  Then  care- 
fully remove  the  scum  and  pour  off  the 

Pinchbeck. — This  was  first  manufac- 
tured in  England.  Its  dark  gold  color 
is  the  best  imitation  of  gold  alloyed  with 
copper.  Being  very  ductile,  it  can  easily 
be  rolled  out  into  thin  plates,  which  can 
be  given  any  desired  shape  by  stamping. 
It  does  not  readily  oxidize,  and  thus 
fulfills  all  the  requirements  for  making 
cheap  jewelry,  which  is  its  principal  use. 

Copper 88.8    93.6 

Zinc 11.2      6.4 


Copper 2.1    1.28 

Zinc 0.7 

Brass 1.0      0.7 

Palladium.  Gold. — Alloys  of  gold,  cop- 
per, silver,  and  palladium  have  a  brown- 
ish-red color  and  are  nearly  as  hard  as  iron. 
They  are  sometimes  (although  rarely) 
used  for  the  bearings  for  the  axles  of  the 
wheels  of  fine  watches,  as  they  invite  little 
friction  and  do  not  rust  in  the  air.  The 
composition  used  in  the  Swiss  and  Eng- 
lish watch  factories  consists  usually  of 
gold  18  parts,  copper  13  parts,  silver  11, 
and  palladium  6. 

Talmi  Gold. — The  name  of  talmi  gold 
was  first  applied  to  articles  of  jewelry, 
chains,  earrings,  bracelets,  etc.,  brought 
from  Paris,  and  distinguished  by  beau- 
tiful workmanship,  a  low  price,  and 
great  durability.  Later,  when  this  al- 
loy had  acquired  a  considerable  reputa- 
tion, articles  were  introduced  under  the 
same  name,  but  which  were  really  made 
of  other  metals,  and  which  retained  their 
beautiful  gold  color  only  as  long  as  they 
were  not  used.  The  fine  varieties  of  talmi 
gold  are  manufactured  from  brass,  cop- 
per, or  tombac,  covered  with  a  thin  plate 
of  gold,  combined  with  the  base  by  roll- 
ing, under  strong  pressure.  The  plates 
are  then  rolled  out  by  passing  through 
rollers,  and  the  coating  not  only  acquires 
considerable  density,  but  adheres  so 
closely  to  the  base  that  the  metal  will 
keep  its  beautiful  appearance  for  years. 
Of  late,  many  articles  of  talmi  gold 
have  been  introduced  whose  gold  coat- 
ing is  produced  by  electroplating,  and 
is  in  many  cases  so  thin  that  hard 
rubbing  will  bring  through  the  color  of 
the  base.  Such  articles,  of  course,  are 
not  durable.  In  genuine  talmi  gold,  the 
coating,  even  though  it  may  be  thin,  ad- 
heres very  closely  to  the  base,  for  the  rea- 

son that  the  two  metals  are  actually 
welded  by  the  rolling,  and  also  because 
alloyed  gold  is  always  used,  which  is 
much  harder  than  pure  gold.  The  pure 
gold  of  electroplating  is  very  soft.  The 
composition  of  some  varieties  of  talmi 
gold  are  here  given.  It  will  be  seen  that 
the  content  of  gold  varies  greatly,  and 
the  durability  of  the  alloy  will,  of  course, 
correspond  to  this.  The  alloys  I,  II,  III 
are  genuine  Paris  talmi  gold;  IV,  V,  and 

VI  are    electroplated    imitations;    and 

VII  is  an  alloy  of  a  wrong  composition, 
to  which  the  gold  does  not  adhere  firmly: 






89.0  i 
12.4  i 
17.0  ' 
6.6  ' 

Tin         Iron 





1.1       0.3 

Japanese  Alloys. — In  Japan  some 
specialties  in  metallic  alloys  are  in  use  of 
which  the  composition  is  as  follows: 

Shadke  consists  of  copper  with  from  1  to 
10  per  cent  of  gold.  Articles  made  from 
this  alloy  are  laid  in  a  pickle  of  blue 
vitriol,  alum,  and  verdigris,  until  they 
acquire  a  bluish-black  color. 

Gui-shi-bu-ichi  is  an  alloy  of  copper 
containing  30  to  50  per  cent  of  silver.  It 
possesses  a  peculiar  gray  shade. 

Mokume  consists  of  several  composi- 
tions. Thus,  about  30  gold  foils  (gen- 
uine) are  welded  together  with  shadke, 
copper,  silver,  and  gui-shi-bu-ichi  and 
pierced.  The  pierced  holes  are,  after 
firmly  hammering  together  the  plates, 
filled  up  with  the  above-named  pickle. 

The  finest  Japanese  brass  consists  of 
10  parts  copper  and  8  parts  zinc,  and  is 
called  siachu.  The  bell  metal  kara  kane 
is  composed  of  copper  10  parts,  tin  10 
parts,  iron  0.5  part,  and  zinc  1.5  parts. 
The  copper  is  first  fused,  then  tne  re- 
maining metals  are  added  in  rotation. 


The  composition  of  this  alloy  varies 
considerably,  but  from  the  adjoined  fig- 
ures an  average  may  be  found,  whicn 
will  represent,  approximately,  the  normal 

Copper 50  to  66  parts 

Zinc 19  to  31  parts 

Nickel 13  to  18  parts 

The  properties  of  the  different  kinds, 
such  as  their  color,  ductility,  fusibility, 



etc.,  vary  with  the  proportions  of  the 
single  metals.  For  making  spoons,  forks, 
cups,  candlesticks,  etc.,  the  most  suitable 
proportions  are  50  parts  of  copper,  25  of 
zinc,  and  25  of  nickel.  This  metal  has 
a  beautiful  blue-white  color,  and  does 
not  tarnish  easily. 

German  silver  is  sometimes  so  brittle 
that  a  spoon,  if  allowed  to  fall  upon  the 
floor,  will  break;  this,  of  course,  indicates 
faulty  composition.  But  the  following 
table  will  snow  how  the  character  of  the 
alloy  changes  with  the  varying  percent- 
age of  the  metals  composing  it: 









Finest  quality. 





Beautiful,    but 







readily    fus- 






First  quality. 
Second  quality. 





Third  quality. 

The  following  analyses  give  further 
particulars  in  regard  to  different  kinds 
of  German  silver: 

For  sheet 






(French)  .... 




(French)  .... 




(French)  .... 



































.  .  . 





.  .  . 

.  .  . 
























Castings  J48.5 




.  . 












'.  '.  '. 






In  some  kinds  of  German  silver  are 
found  varying  quantities  of  iron,  man- 
ganese, tin,  and  very  frequently  lead, 
added  for  the  purpose  of  changing  the 
properties  of  the  alloy  or  cheapening  the 
cost  of  production.  But  all  these  metals 
have  a  detrimental  rather  than  a  bene- 
ficial effect  upon  the  general  character  of 
the  alloy,  and  especially  lessen  its  power 

of  resistance  to  the  action  of  dilute  acids, 
one  of  its  most  valuable  properties. 
Lead  makes  it  more  fusible;  tin  acts 
somewhat  as  in  bronze,  making  it  denser 
and  more  resonant,  and  enabling  it  to 
take  a  higher  polish.  With  iron  or  man- 
ganese the  alloy  is  whiter,  but  it  be- 
comes at  the  same  time  more  refractory 
a-nd  its  tendency  toward  brittleness  is 


There  are  many  formulas  for  alloys 
which  claim  to  be  substitutes  for  Ger- 
man silver;  but  no  one  of  them  has  yet 
become  an  article  of  general  commerce. 
It  will  be  sufficient  to  note  these  ma- 
terials briefly,  giving  the  composition  of 
the  most  important. 

Nickel  Bronze. — This  is  prepared  by 
fusing  together  very  highly  purified 
nickel  (99.5  per  cent)  with  copper,  tin, 
arid  zinc.  A  bronze  is  produced  contain- 
ing 20  per  cent  of  nickel,  light-colored 
and  very  hard. 

Bismuth  Bronze. — 

I        II      III     IV 

Copper 25.0    45.0    69.0    47.0 

Nickel 24.0    32.5    10.0    30.9 

Antimony 50.0      

Bismuth 1.0      1.0      1.0      0.1 

Tin 16.0    15.0      1.0 

Zinc 21.5    20.0    21.0 

Aluminum 1.0      ... 

I  is  hard  and  very  lustrous,  suitable 
for  lamp  reflectors  and  axle  bearings;  II 
is  hard,  resonant,  and  not  affected  by 
sea  water,  for  parts  of  ships,  pipes,  tele- 
graph wires,  and  piano  strings;  III  and 
IV  are  for  cups,  spoons,  etc. 

Manganese  Argentan. — 

Copper 52  to  50  parts 

Nickel 17  to  15     " 

Zinc 5  to  10  •    " 

Manganese 1  to    5     " 

Copper,  with  15  per 

cent  phosphorus .      3  to    5     ** 

Readily  cast  for  objects  of  art. 


Iron 66  parts 

Nickel 23     " 

Tungsten 4     ** 

Copper 5 

Arguzoid. — 

Copper 55 . 78    parts 

Zinc 23.198     " 

Nickel 13.406     " 

Tin 4.035     " 

Lead 3.544     " 

Silver  white,  almost  ductile,  suited  for 
artistic  purposes. 



Ferro  -  Argentan.  — 

Copper 70 . 0  parts 

Nickel 20.0     « 

Zinc 5.5     " 

Cadmium 4.5     " 

Resembles  silver;  worked  like  German 

Silver  Bronze. — Manganese,  18  per 
cent;  aluminum,  1.2  per  cent;  silicium, 
5  per  cent;  zinc,  13  per  cent;  copper,  67.5 
per  cent.  The  electric  resistance  of  sil- 
ver bronze  is  greater  than  that  of  Ger- 
man silver,  hence  it  ought  to  be  highly 
suitable  for  rheostats. 

Instrument  Alloys.  —  The  following 
are  suitable  for  physical  and  optical  in- 
struments, metallic  mirrors,  telescopes, 

I. — Copper,  62  parts;  tin,  33  parts; 
lead,  5  parts. 

II. — Copper,  80;  antimony,  11 ;  lead,  9. 

III.— Copper,  10;  tin,  10;  antimony, 
10;  lead,  4C. 

IV.— Copper,  30;  tin,  50;  silver,  2; 
arsenic,  1. 

V.— Copper,  66;  tin,  33. 

VI.— Copper,  64;  tin,  26. 

VII.— Steel,  90';  nickel,  10. 

VIII.— Platinum,  60;  copper,  40. 

IX.— Platinum,  45;  steel,  55. 

X. — Platinum,  55;  iron,  45. 

XI.— Platinum,  15;  steel,  85. 

XII. — Platinum,  20;  copper,  79;  ar- 
senic, 1. 

XIII.— Platinum,  62;  iron,  28;  gold, 

XIV.— Gold,  48;  zinc,  52. 

XV.— Steel,  50;  rhodium,  50. 

XVI.— Platinum,  12;  iridium,  88. 

XVII.— Copper,  89.5;  tin,  8,5;  zinc,  2. 


The  following  alloys,  principally  lead, 
are  used  for  various  purposes: 

Bibra  Alloy.— This  contains  8  parts  of 
bismuth,  9  of  tin,  and  38  to  40  of  lead. 

Metallic  Coffins.— Tin,  40  parts;  lead, 
45  parts;  copper,  15  parts. 

Plates  for  Engraving.— I.— Lead,  84 
parts;  antimony,  16  parts. 

II. — Lead,  86  parts;  antimony,  14 

III. — Lead,  87  parts;  antimony,  12 
parts;  copper,  1  part. 

IV.— Lead,  81  parts;  antimony,  14 
parts;  tin,  5  parts. 

V.— Lead,  73  parts;  antimony,  17 
parts;  zinc,  10  parts. 

VI.— Tin,  53  parts;  lead,  43  parts; 
antimony,  4  parts. 

Hard  lead  is  made  of  lead,  84  parts; 
antimony,  16  parts. 

Sheet  Metal  Alloy.— 

Tin 35       parts 

Lead 250       parts 

Copper 2.5  parts 

Zinc 0.5  part 

This  alloy  has  a  fine  white  color,  and 
can  be  readily  rolled  into  thin  sheets. 
For  that  reason  it  is  well  adapted  for 
lining  tea  chests  and  for  the  production 
of  tobacco  and  chocolate  wrappers.  The 
copper  and  zinc  are  used  in  the  form 
of  fine  shavings.  The  alloy  should  be 
immediately  cast  into  thin  plates,  which 
can  then  be  passed  through  rolls. 


Alloys  which  can  be  magnetized  most 
strongly  are  composed  of  copper,  man- 
ganese, and  aluminum,  the  quantities  of 
manganese  and  aluminum  being  pro- 
portional to  their  atomic  weights  (55.0  to 
27.1,  or  about  2  to  1).  The  maximum 
magnetization  increases  rapidly  with 
increase  of  manganese,  but  alloys  con- 
taining much  manganese  are  exceedingly 
brittle  and  cannot  be  wrought.  The 
highest  practicable  proportion  of  man- 
ganese at  present  is  24  per  cent. 

These  magnetic  alloys  were  studied  by 
Hensler,  Haupt,  and  Starck,  and  Gum- 
lich  has  recently  examined  them  at  the 
Physikalisch  -  technische  Reichsanstalt, 
with  very  remarkable  and  interesting  re- 

The  two  alloys  examined  were  com- 
posed as  follows: 

Alloy  I. — Copper,  61.5  per  cent;  man- 
ganese, 23.5  per  cent;  aluminum,  15  per 
cent;  lead,  0.1  per  cent,  with  traces  of  iron 
and  silicon. 

Alloy  II. — Copper,  67.7  per  cent; 
manganese,  20.5  per  cent;  aluminum, 
10.7  per  cent;  lead,  1.2  per  cent,  with 
traces  of  iron  and  silicon. 

Alloy  II  could  be  worked  without  dif- 
ficulty, but  alloy  I  was  so  brittle  that  it 
broke  under  the  hammer.  A  bar  7  inches 
long  and  I  inch  thick  was  obtained  by 
grinding.  This  broke  in  two  during  the 
measurements,  but,  fortunately,  without 
invalidating  them.  Such  a  material  is 
evidently  unsuited  to  practical  uses. 

The  behavior  of  magnetic  alloys  at 
high  temperatures  is  very  peculiar.  Al- 
loy I  is  indifferent  to  temperature  chan- 
ges, which  scarcely  affect  its  magnetic 
properties,  but  the  behavior  of  alloy  II  is 
very  different.  Prolonged  heating  to  230° 
F.  produces  a  great  increase  in  its  capa- 
bility of  magnetization,  which,  after  544 
hours'  heating,  rises  from  1.9  to  3.2  kilo- 


fauss,  approaching  the  strength  of  alloy 
.  But  when  alloy  II  is  heated  to  329° 
F.,  its  capability  of  magnetization  fails 
again  and  the  material  suffers  permanent 
injury,  which  can  be  partly,  but  not 
wholly,  cured  by  prolonged  heating. 

Another  singular  phenomenon  was 
exhibited  by  both  of  these  alloys.  When 
a  bar  of  iron  is  magnetized  by  an  electric 
current,  it  acquires  its  full  magnetic 
strength  almost  instantaneously  on  the 
closure  of  the  circuit.  The  magnetic 
alloys,  on  the  contrary,  do  not  attain 
their  full  magnetization  for  several  min- 
utes. In  some  of  the  experiments  a 
gradual  increase  was  observed  even  after 
the  current  had  been  flowing  five  minutes. 
In  magnetic  strength  alloy  I  proved 
far  superior  to  alloy  II,  which  con- 
tained smaller  proportions  of  manga- 
nese and  aluminum.  Alloy  I  showed 
magnetic  strengths  up  to  4.5  kilogauss, 
while  the  highest  magnetization  ob- 
tained with  alloy  II  was  only  1.9  kilo- 
gauss.  But  even  alloy  II  may  be  called 
strongly  magnetic,  for  its  maximum  mag- 
netization is  about  one-tenth  that  of  good 
wrought  iron  (18  to  20  kilogauss),  or 
one-sixth  that  of  cast  iron  (10  to  12 
kilogauss).  Alloy  I  is  nearly  equal  in 
magnetic  properties  to  nickel,  which  can 
be  magnetized  up  to  about  5  kilogauss. 


Manganese  bronze  is  a  bronze  de- 
prived of  its  oxide  by  an  admixture  of 
manganese.  The  manganese  is  used  as 
copper  manganese  containing  10  to  30 
per  cent  manganese  and  added  to  the 
bronze  to  the  amount  of  0.5  to  2  per  cent. 

Manganese  Copper. — The  alloys  of 
copper  with  manganese  have  a  beauti- 
ful silvery  color,  considerable  ductility, 
great  hardness  and  tenacity,  and  'are 
more  readily  fusible  than  ordinary 
bronze.  A  special  characteristic  is  that 
they  exactly  fill  out  the  molds,  with- 
out the  formation  of  blowholes,  and  pre- 
sent no  difficulties  in  casting. 

Cupromanganese  is  suitable  for  many 
purposes  for  which  nothing  else  but 
bronze  can  advantageously  be  used,  and 
the  cost  of  its  production  is  no  greater 
than  that  of  genuine  bronze.  In  pre- 
paring the  alloy,  the  copper  is  used  in  the 
form  of  fine  grains,  obtained  by  pouring 
melted  copper  into  cold  water.  These 
copper  grains  are  mixed  with  the  dry 
oxide  of  manganese,  and  the  mixture  put 
into  a  crucible  holding  about  66  pounds. 
Enough  space  must  be  left  in  the  cruci- 
ble to  allow  a  thick  cover  of  charcoal, 
as  the  manganese  oxidizes  easily.  The 
crucible  is  placed  in  a  well-drawing 

wind  furnace  and  subjected  to  a  strong 
white  heat.  The  oxide  of  manganese  is 
completely  reduced  to  manganese,  which 
at  once  combines  with  the  copper  to  form 
an  alloy.  In  order  to  prevent,  as  far  as 
possible,  the  access  of  air  to  the  fusing 
mass,  it  is  advisable  to  cover  the  crucible 
with  a  lid  which  has  an  aperture  in  the 
center  for  the  escape  of  the  carbonic 
oxide  formed  during  the  reduction. 

When  the  reduction  is  complete  and 
the  metals  fused,  the  lid  is  removed  and 
the  contents  of  the  crucible  stirred  with 
an  iron  rod,  in  order  to  make  the  alloy 
as  homogeneous  as  possible.  By  re- 
peated remelting  of  the  cupromanganese 
a  considerable  quantity  of  the  man- 
ganese is  reconverted  into  oxide;  it  is, 
therefore,  advisable  to  make  the  casts 
directly  from  the  crucible.  When  poured 
out,  the  alloy  rapidly  solidifies,  and  re- 
sembles in  appearance  good  German 
silver.  Another  reason  for  avoiding  re- 
melting  is  that  the  crucible  is  strongly 
attacked  by  the  cupromanganese,  and 
can  be  used  but  a  few  times. 

The  best  kinds  of  cupromanganese 
contain  between  10  and  30  per  cent  of 
manganese.  They  have  a  beautiful 
white  color,  are  hard,  tougher  than  cop- 
per, and  can  be  worked  under  the  ham- 
mer or  with  rolls.  Some  varieties  of 
cupromanganese  which  are  especially 
valuable  for  technical  purposes  are  given 

I      II     III  IV 

Copper 75     60     65     60 

Manganese.      25     25     20     20 

Zinc 15        5      .. 

Tin 10 

Nickel 10     10 

Manganin. — This  is  an  alloy  of  copper, 
nickel,  and  manganese  for  electric  re- 


Amalgams  for  Mirrors. — I. — Tin,  70 
parts;  mercury,  30  parts. 

II. — For  curved  mirrors.  Tin,  1  part; 
lead,  1  part;  bismuth,  1  part;  mercury,  9 

III.— For  glass  balls.  Tin,  80  parts; 
mercury,  20  parts. 

IV. — Metallic  cement.  Copper,  30 
parts;  mercury,  70  parts. 

V. — Mirror  metal. — Copper,  100  parts; 
tin,  50  parts;  Chinese  copper,  8  parts; 
lead,  1  part;  antimony,  I  part. 

Reflector  Metals.  —  I.  —  (Cooper's.) 
Copper,  35  parts;  platinum,  6;  zinc,  2; 
tin,  16.5;  arsenic,  1.  On  account  of  the 
hardness  of  this  alloy,  it  takes  a  very 
high  polish;  it  is  impervious  to  the  effects 
of  the  weather,  and  is  therefore  remark- 


ably  well  adapted  to  the  manufacture 
of  mirrors  for  fine  optical  instruments. 

II.  —  (Duppler's.)  Zinc,  20  parts;  sil- 
ver, 80  parts. 

III.— Copper,  66.22  parts;  tin,  33.11 
parts;  arsenic,  0.67  part. 

IV. — Copper,  64  parts;  tin,  32  parts; 
arsenic,  4  parts. 

V.— Copper,  82.18  parts;  lead,  9.22 
parts;  antimony,  8.60  parts. 

VI.  — (Little's.)  Copper,  69.01  parts; 
tin,  30.82  parts;  zinc,  2.44  parts;  arsenic, 
1.83  parts. 

Speculum  Metal. — Alloys  consisting 
of  2  parts  of  copper  and  1  of  tin  can 
be  very  brilliantly  polished,  and  will 
serve  for  mirrors.  Good  speculum  metal 
should  have  a  very  fine-grained  fracture, 
should  be  white  and  very  hard,  the  high- 
est degree  of  polish  depending  upon  these 
qualities.  A  composition  to  meet  these 
requirements  must  contain  at  least  35  to 
36  per  cent  of  copper.  Attempts  have 
frequently  been  made  to  increase  the 
hardness  of  speculum  metal  by  additions 
of  nickel,  antimony,  and  arsenic.  With 
the  exception  of  nickel,  these  substances 
have  the  effect  of  causing  the  metal  to 
lose  its  high  luster  easily,  any  consid- 
erable quantity  of  arsenic  in  particular 
having  this  effect. 

The  real  speculum  metal  seems  to  be 
a  combination  of  the  formula  Cu4Sn, 
composed  of  copper  68.21  per  cent,  tin 
31.7.  An  alloy  of  this  nature  is  some- 
times separated  from  ordnance  bronze 
by  incorrect  treatment,  causing  the  so- 
called  tin  spots;  but  this  has  not  the  pure 
white  color  which  distinguishes  the  spec- 
ulum metal  containing  31.5  per  cent  of  tin. 
By  increasing  the  percentage  of  copper 
the  color  gradually  shades  into  yellow; 
with  a  larger  amount  of  tin  into  blue.  It 
is  dangerous  to  increase  the  tin  too  much, 
as  this  changes  the  other  properties  of  the 
alloy,  and  it  becomes  too  brittle  to  be 
worked.  Below  is  a  table  showing  differ- 
ent compositions  of  speculum  metal.  The 
standard  alloy  is  undoubtedly  the  best. 

Arse-     Sil- 

Copper     Tin       Zinc       nic      ver 

alloy 68.21    31.7 


alloy 68.5      31.5      


son's  alloy  65.3      30.0    0.7      2.        2. 
Sollit's     al- 
loy  64.6      31.3    4.1  Nickel 

metal.  ..  80.83  .  ...  8.5  Anti- 

OldRoman  63.39  19.05 

17.29  Lead 


I. — An  alloy  of  palladium  24  parts, 
gold  80,  is  white,  hard  as  steel,  unchange- 
able in  the  air,  and  can,  like  the  other 
alloys  of  palladium,  be  used  for  dental 

II.— Palladium  6  parts,  gold  18,  sil- 
ver 11,  and  copper  13,  gives  a  reddish- 
brown,  hard,  and  very  fine-grained 
alloy,  suitable  for  the  bearings  of  pivots 
in  clock  works. 

The  alloys  of  most  of  the  other  plati- 
num metals,  so  called,  are  little  used  on 
account  of  their  rarity  and  costliness. 
Iridium  and  rhodium  give  great  hardness 
to  steel,  but  the  commercial  rhodium 
and  iridium  steel,  so  called,  frequently 
contains  not  a  trace  of  either.  The  alloy 
of  iridium  with  osmium  has  great  hard- 
ness and  resistance  and  is  recommended 
for  pivots,  fine  instruments,  and  points 
of  ship  compasses. 

Palladium  Silver. — This  alloy,  com- 
posed of  9  parts  of  palladium  and  1  of 
silver,  is  used  almost  exclusively  for  den- 
tal purposes,  and  is  well  suited  to  the 
manufacture  of  artificial  teeth,  as  it  does 
not  oxidize.  An  alloy  even  more  fre- 
quently used  than  this  consists  of  plati- 
num 10  parts,  palladium  8,  and  gold  6. 

Palladium  Bearing  Metal. — This  alloy 
is  extremely  hard,  and  is  used  instead  of 
jewel  bearings  in  watches.  It  is  com- 
posed of  palladium  24  parts,  gold  72, 
silver  44,  copper  92. 


Platinum  has  usually  been  alloyed 
with  silver  in  goldsmith's  work,  2  parts 
silver  to  1  of  platinum  being  taken  to 
form  the  favorite  "platinum  silver." 
The  object  has  been  to  produce  an  alloy 
having  a  white  appearance,  which  can  be 
polished,  and  at  the  same  time  has  a 
low  melting  point.  In  addition  to  this 

Elatinum  alloy  the  following  are  well 

I. — A  mixture  of  7  parts  platinum  with 
3  parts  iridium.  This  gives  to  platinum 
the  hardness  of  steel,  which  can  be  still 
further  increased  by  taking  4  parts  of 

II. — An  alloy  of  9  parts  platinum  and 
1  part  iridium  is  used  by  the  French  in 
the  manufacture  of  measuring  instru- 
ments of  great  resisting  power. 

Compounds  of  copper,  nickel,  cad- 
mium, and  tungsten  are  also  used  in  the 
construction  of  parts  of  watches;  the  lat- 
ter acquire  considerable  hardness  with- 
out becoming  magnetic  or  rusting  like 

III. — For  this  purpose  a  compound  of 


62.75  parts  platinum,  18  parts  copper, 
1.25  parts  cadmium,  and  18  parts  nickel 
is  much  recommended. 

IV.  —  Very    ductile    platinum -copper 
alloys  have  also  been  made,  e.  g.,  the  so- 
called  Cooper  gold,  consisting  of  3  parts 
platinum  and  13  parts  copper,  which  is 
almost  equal  to  18-carat  gold  in  regard 
to  color,  finish,  and  ductility.     If  4  per 
cent  of   platinum  is  taken,  these  latter 
alloys  acquire  a  rose-red  color,  while  a 
golden-yellow  color  can  be  produced  by 
further  adding  from  1  to  2  per  cent  (in 
all  5  to  6  per  cent)  of  platinum.     The 
last-named  alloy  is  extensively  used  for 
ornaments,  likewise  alloy  V. 

V.  — ^?en     parts    platinum,    60    parts 
nickel,  and  220  parts  brass,  or  2  parts 
platinum,    1    part  nickel    and  silver  re- 
spectively,  2    parts    brass,   and   5    parts 
copper;  this  also  gives  a  golden-yellow 

VI. — Fqr  table  utensils  a  favorite  alloy 
is  composed  of  1  part  platinum,  100  parts 
nickel,  and  10  parts  tin.  Articles  made 
of  the  latter  alloy  are  impervious  to  at- 
mospheric action  and  keep  their  polish 
for  a  long  time.  Pure  white  platinum 
alloys  have  for  some  time  been  used  in 
dental  work,  and  they  have  also  proved 
serviceable  for  jewelry. 

VII. — A  mixture  of  30  parts  platinum, 
10  parts  gold,  and  3  parts  silver,  or  7 
parts  platinum,  2  parts  gold,  and  3  parts 

VIII. — For  enameled  articles:  Plati- 
num, 35  parts;  silver,  65  parts.  First 
fuse  the  silver,  then  add  the  platinum 
in  the  spongy  form.  A  good  solder  for 
this  is  platinum  80  parts,  copper  20 

IX. — For  pens:  Platinum,  4  parts; 
silver,  3  parts;  copper,  1  part. 

Platinum  Gold. — Small  quantities  of 
platinum  change  the  characteristics  of 
gold  in  many  respects.  With  a  small 
percentage  the  color  is  noticeably  lighter 
than  that  of  pure  gold,  and  the  alloys  are 
extremely  elastic;  alloys  containing  more 
than  20  per  cent  of  platinum,  however, 
almost  entirely  lose  their  elasticity.  The 
melting  point  of  the  platinum-gold  alloy 
is  high,  and  alloys  containing  70  per  cent 
of  platinum  can  be  fused  only  in  the 
flame  of  oxyhydrogen  gas,  like  platinum 
itself.  Alloys  with  a  smaller  percentage 
of  platinum  can  be  prepared  in  furnaces, 
but  require  the  strongest  white  heat. 
In  order  to  avoid  the  chance  of  an  im- 
perfect alloy  from  too  low  a  temperature, 
it  is  always  safer  to  fuse  them  with  the 
oxyhydrogen  flame.  The  alloys  of  plat- 
inum and  gold  have  a  somewhat  lim- 

ited application.  Those  which  contain 
from  5  to  10  per  cent  of  platinum  are 
used  for  sheet  and  wire  in  the  manu- 
facture of  artificial  teeth. 

Platinum-Gold  Alloys  for  Dental  Pur- 

I      II    III 

Platinum 6     14      10 

Gold 246 

Silver 1        6 

Palladium ....        8 

Platinum  Silver. — An  addition  of  plat- 
inum to  silver  makes  it  harder,  but  also 
more  brittle,  and  changes  the  white  color 
to  gray.  An  alloy  which  contains  only 
a  very  small  percentage  of  platinum  is 
noticeably  darker  in  color  than  pure 
silver.  Such  alloys  are  prepared  under 
the  name  of  platine  au  titre,  containing 
between  17  and  35  per  cent  of  plati- 
num. They  are  almost  exclusively  used 
for  dental  purposes. 

Imitation  Platinum. — I. — Brass,  100 
parts;  zinc,  65  parts. 

II. — Brass,  120  parts;  zinc,  75  parts. 

III. — Copper,  5  parts;  nickel,  4  parts; 
zinc,  li  parts;  antimony,  1  part;  lead,  1 
part;  iron,  1  part;  tin,  1  part. 

Cooper's  Pen  Metal.— This  alloy  is 
especially  well  adapted  to  the  manufac- 
ture of  pens,  on  account  of  its  great  hard- 
ness, elasticity,  and  power  of  resistance 
to  atmospheric  influences,  and  would 
certainly  have  superseded  steel  if  it  were 
possible  to  produce  it  more  cheaply  than 
is  the  case.  The  compositions  most  fre- 
quently used  for  pen  metal  are  copper 
1  part,  platinum  4,  and  silver  3;  or, 
copper  21,  platinum  50,  and  silver  36. 

Pens  have  been  manufactured,  con- 
sisting of  several  sections,  each  of  a  dif- 
ferent alloy,  suited  to  the  special  purpose 
of  the  part.  Thus,  for  instance,  the 
sides  of  the  pen  are  made  of  the  elastic 
composition  just  described;  the  upper 
part  is  of  an  alloy  of  silver  and  platinum; 
and  the  point  is  made  either  of  minute  cut 
rubies  or  of  an  extremely  hard  alloy  of 
osmium  and  iridium,  joined  to  the  body 
of  the  pen  by  melting  in  the  flame  of 
the  oxyhydrogen  blowpipe.  The  price  of 
such  pens,  made  of  expensive  materials 
and  at  the  cost  of  great  labor,  is  of  course 
exceedingly  high,  but  their  excellent 
qualities  repay  the  extra  expense.  They 
are  not  in  the  least  affected  by  any  kind 
of  ink,  are  most  durable,  and  can  be  used 
constantly  for  years  without  showing  any 
signs  of  wear. 

The  great  hardness  and  resistance  to 
the  atmosphere  of  Cooper's  alloys  make 
them  very  suitable  for  manufacturing; 


mathematical  instruments  where  great 
precision  is  required.  It  can  scarcely 
be  calculated  how  long  a  chronometer, 
for  instance,  whose  wheels  are  construct- 
ed of  this  alloy,  will  run  before  showing 
any  irregularities  due  to  wear.  In  the 
construction  of  such  instruments,  the 
price  of  the  material  is  not  to  be  taken 
into  account,  since  the  cost  of  the  labor 
in  their  manufacture  so  far  exceeds  this. 


This  is  an  alloy  of  tin  and  lead  only, 
or  of  tin  with  antimony  and  copper. 
The  first  is  properly  called  pewter. 
Three  varieties  are  known  in  trade: 

I  (Plate   Pewter).— From  tin,  79   per 
cent;  antimony,  7  per  cent;  bismuth  and 
copper,    of   each   2   per   cent;   fused   to- 
gether.     Used  to  make  plates,  teapots, 
etc.     Takes  a  fine  polish. 

II  (Triple    Pewter).— From    tin,     79 
per  cent;  antimony,   15   per  cent;  lead, 
6  per  cent;  as  the  last.     Used  for  msxior 
articles,  syringes,  toys,  etc. 

III  (Ley     Pewter). — From     tin,     80 
per  cent;  lead,  20  per  cent.     Used  for 
measures,  inkstands,  etc. 

According  to  the  report  of  a  P^rench 
commission,  pewter  containing  more 
than  18  parts  of  lead  to  82  parts  of  tin  is 
unsafe  for  measures  for  wine  and  similar 
liquors,  and,  indeed,  for  any  other  uten- 
sils exposed  to  contact  with  food  or 
beverages.  The  legal  specific  gravity 
of  pewter  in  France  is  7.764;  if  it  be 
greater,  it  contains  an  excess  of  lead, 
and  is  liable  to  prove  poisonous.  The 
proportions  of  these  metals  may  be  ap- 
proximately determined  from  the  specific 
gravity;  but  correctly  only  by  an  assay 
for  the  purpose. 


Aluminum  Silver. — Aluminum  and 
silver  form  beautiful  white  alloys  which 
are  considerably  harder  than  pure  alu- 
minum, and  take  a  very  high  polish.  They 
have  the  advantage  over  copper  alloys 
of  being  unchanged  by  exposure  to  the 
air,  and  of  retaining  their  white  color. 

The  properties  of  aluminum  and  silver 
alloys  vary  considerably  according  to 
the  percentage  of  aluminum. 

I. — An  alloy  of  100  parts  of  aluminum 
and  5  parts  of  silver  is  very  similar  to 
pure  aluminum,  but  is  harder  and  takes 
a  finer  polish. 

II. — One  hundred  and  sixty-nine  parts 
of  aluminum  and  5  of  silver  make  an 
elastic  alloy,  recommended  for  watch 
springs  and  dessert  knives. 

III. — An  alloy  of  equal  parts  of  silver 
and  aluminum  is  as  hard  as  bronze. 

IV. — Five  parts  of  aluminum  and  1 
part  of  silver  make  an  alloy  that  is  eas- 
ily worked. 

V. — Also  aluminum,  3  parts,  and  sil- 
ver, 1  part. 

VI.  Tiers -Argent. —This  alloy  is  pre- 
pared chiefly  in  Paris,  and  used  for  the 
manufacture  of  various  utensils.  As  in- 
dicated by  its  name  (one-third  silver), 
it  consists  of  33.33  parts  of  silver  and 
66.66  parts  of  aluminum.  Its  advan- 
tages over  silver  consist  in  its  lower  price 
and  greater  hardness;  it  can  also  be 
stamped  and  engraved  more  easily  than 
the  alloys  of  copper  and  silver. 

VII. — This  is  a  hard  alloy  which  has 
been  found  very  useful  for  the  operating 
levers  of  certain  machines,  such  as  the 
spacing  lever  of  a  typewriter.  The  metal 
now  generally  used  for  this  purpose  by 
the  various  typewriter  companies  is  "alu- 
minum silver,"  or  "silver  metal."  The 
proportions  are  given  as  follows: 

Copper 57 . 00 

Nickel 20 . 00 

Zinc.. 20.00 

Aluminum 3.00 

This  alloy  when  used  on  typewriting 
machines  is  nickel-plated  for  the  sake  of 
the  first  appearance,  but  so  far  as  corro- 
sion is  concerned,  nickeling  is  unneces- 
sary. The  alloy  is  stiff  and  strong  and 
cannot  be  bent  to  any  extent  without 
breaking,  especially  if  the  percentage  of 
aluminum  is  increased  to  3.5  per  cent; 
it  casts  free  from  pinholes  and  blow» 
holes;  the  liquid  metal  completely  fills 
the  mold,  giving  sharp,  clean  castings, 
true  to  pattern;  its  cost  is  not  greater 
than  brass;  its  color  is  silver  white, 
and  its  hardness  makes  it  susceptible  to 
a  high  polish. 

Arsenic. — Alloys  which  contain  small 
quantities  of  arsenic  are  very  ductile, 
have  a  beautiful  white  color,  and  were 
formerly  used  in  England  in  the  man- 
ufacture of  tableware.  They  are  not, 
however,  suitable  for  this  purpose,  on 
account  of  the  poisonous  character  of 
the  arsenic.  They  are  composed  usually 
of  49  parts  of  silver,  49  of  copper,  and  2 
of  arsenic. 

China  Silver. — Copper,  65.24  per  cent; 
tin,  19.52  per  cent;  nickel,  13.00  per  cent; 
silver,  2.05  per  cent. 

Copper -Silver. — When  silver  is  alloyed 
with  copper  only  one  proportion  is  known 
which  will  give  a  uniform  casting.  The 
proportion  is  72  per  cent  silver  to  28  per 
cent  copper.  With  more  silver  than  72 
per  cent  the  center  of  a  cast  bar  will  be 


richer  than  the  outside,  which  chills 
first;  while  with  a  less  percentage  than 
72  per  cent  the  center  of  the  bar  will  be 
poorer  and  the  outside  richer  than  the 
average.  This  characteristic  of  silver- 
copper  alloys  is  known  to  metallurgists 
as  "segregation." 

When  nickel  is  added  to  the  silver  and 
copper,  several  good  alloys  may  be 
formed,  as  the  following  French  com- 


Silver 33  40  20 

Copper.  .  .  .  37-42  30-40  45-55 
Nickel 25-30  20-30  25-35 

The  whitening  of  alloys  of  silver  and 
copper  is  best  accomplished  by  anneal- 
ing the  alloy  until  it  turns  black  on  the 
surface.  Cool  in  a  mixture  of  20  parts,  by 
weight,  of  concentrated  sulphuric  acid  to 
1,000  parts  of  distilled  water  and  leave 
therein  for  some  time.  In  place  of  the 
sulphuric  acid,  40  parts  of  potassium 
bisulphate  may  be  used  per  1,000  parts 
of  liquid.  Repeat  the  process  if  neces- 

Copper,  Silver,  and  Cadmium  Alloys. 
— Cadmium  added  to  silver  alloys  gives 
great  flexibility  and  ductility,  without 
affecting  the  white  color;  these  proper- 
ties are  valuable  in  the  manufacture  of 
silver-plated  ware  and  wire.  The  pro- 
portions of  the  metals  vary  in  these  al- 
loys. Some  of  the  most  important  vari- 
eties are  given  below. 

Silver     Copper   Cadmium 

1 980          15  5 

II 950          15  35 

III 900          18  82 

IV 860          20          180 

V 666         25         309 

VI 667         50         284 

VII 500         50         450 

In  preparing  these  alloys,  the  great 
volatility  of  cadmium  must  be  taken 
into  account.  It  is  customary  to  pre- 
pare first  the  alloy  of  silver  and  copper, 
and  add  the  cadmium,  which,  as  in  the 
case  of  the  alloys  of  silver  and  zinc,  must 
be  wrapped  in  paper.  After  putting  it 
in,  the  mass  is  quickly  stirred,  and  the 
alloy  poured  immediately  into  the  molds. 
This  is  the  surest  way  to  prevent  the 
volatilization  of  the  cadmium. 

Silver,  Copper,  Nickel,  and  Zinc  Alloys. 
— These  alloys,  from  the  metals  con- 
tained in  them,  may  be  characterized  as 
argentan  or  German  silver  with  a  cer- 
tain percentage  of  silver.  They  have 
been  used  for  making  small  coins,  as  in 
the  older  coins  of  Switzerland.  Being 
quite  hard,  they  have  the  advantage  of 

wearing  well,  but  soon  lose  their  beau- 
tiful white  color  and  take  on  a  disagree- 
able shade  of  yellow,  like  poor  brass. 
The  silver  contained  in  them  can  be 
regained  only  by  a  laborious  process, 
which  is  a  great  drawback  to  their  use 
in  coinage.  The  composition  of  the 
Swiss  fractional  coins  is  as  follows: 

20  cen-      10  cen-         5  cen- 
times        times  times 

Silver 15  10  5 

Copper 50  55  ,        60 

Nickel.... 25  25  25 

Zinc 10  10  10 

Mousset's  Alloy.— Copper,  59.06;  sil- 
ver, 27.56;  zinc,  9.57;  nickel,  3.42.  This 
alloy  is  yellowish  with  a  reddish  tinge, 
but  white  on  the  fractured  surface.  It 
ranks  next  after  Argent- Ruolz,  which 
also  contains  sometimes  certain  quanti- 
ties of  zinc,  and  in  this  case  may  be 
classed  together  with  the  alloy  just  de- 
scribed. The  following  alloys  can  be 
rolled  into  sheet  or  drawn  into  wire: 

Silver 33.3 

Copper 41.8 

Nickel 8.6 

Zinc..             .  16.3 











Japanese  (Gray)  Silver. — An  alloy  is 
prepared  in  Japan  which  consists  of 
equal  parts  of  copper  and  silver,  and 
which  is  given  a  beautiful  gray  color  by 
boiling  in  a  solution  of  alum,  to  which 
copper  sulphate  and  verdigris  are  added. 
The  so-called  "mokum,"  also  a  Japanese 
alloy,  is  prepared  by  placing  thin  plates 
of  gold,  silver,  copper,  and  the  alloy  just 
described  over  each  other  and  stretch- 
ing them  under  the  hammer.  The  cross 
sections  of  the  thin  plates  obtained  in 
this  way  show  the  colors  of  the  different 
metals,  which  give  them  a  peculiar 
striped  appearance.  Mokum  is  prin- 
cipally used  for  decorations  upon  gold 
and  silver  articles. 

Silver-Zinc. — Silver  and  zinc  have 
great  affinity  for  each  other,  and  alloys 
of  these  two  metals  are  therefore  easily 
made.  The  required  quantity  of  zinc, 
wrapped  in  paper,  is  thrown  into  the 
melted  and  strongly  heated  silver,  the 
mass  is  thoroughly  stirred  with  an  iron 
rod,  and  at  once  poured  out  into  molds. 
Alloys  of  silver  and  zinc  can  be  obtained 
which  are  both  ductile  and  flexible.  An 
alloy  consisting  of  2  parts  of  zinc  and  1 
of  silver  closely  resembles  silver  in  color, 
and  is  quite  ductile.  With  a  larger  pro- 
portion of  zinc  the  alloy  becomes  brittle. 
In  preparing  the  alloy,  a  somewhat  larger 
quantity  of  zinc  must  be  taken  than  the 



finished  alloy  is  intended  to  contain,  as  a 
small  amount  always  volatilizes. 

Imitation  Silver  Alloys. — There  are  a 
number  of  alloys,  composed  of  different 
metals,  which  resemble  silver,  and  may 
be  briefly  mentioned  here. 

I. — Warne's  metal  is  composed  of  tin 
10  parts,  bismuth  7,  and  cobalt  3.  It 
is  white,  fine-grained,  but  quite  difficult 
to  fuse. 

II. — Tonca's  metal  contains  coppei  5 
parts,  nickel  4,  tin  1,  lead  1,  iron  1, 
zinc  1,  antimony  1.  It  is  hard,  difficult 
to  fuse,  not  very  ductile,  and  cannot  be 

III. — Trabuk  metal  contains  tin  87.5, 
nickel  5.5,  antimony  5,  bismuth  5. 

IV. — Tourun-Leonard's  metal  is  com- 
posed of  500  parts  of  tin  and  64  of  bell 

V. — Silveroid  is  an  alloy  of  copper, 
nickel,  tin,  zinc,  and  lead. 

VI.— Minargent.  Copper,  100  parts; 
nickel,  70  parts;  tungsten,  5  parts;  alu- 
minum, 1  part. 

VII. — Nickel,  23  parts;  aluminum, 
5  parts;  copper,  5  parts;  iron,  65  parts; 
tungsten,  4  parts. 

VIII.— Argasoid.  Tin,  4.035;  lead, 
3.544;  copper,  55.780;  nickel,  13.406; 
zinc,  23.198;  iron,  trace. 


See  Solders. 


See  also  Steel. 

For  Locomotive  Cylinders. — This  mix- 
ture consists  of  20  per  cent  steel  castings, 
old  steel,  springs,  etc.;  20  per  cent  No.  2 
coke  iron,  and  60  per  cent  scrap.  From 
this  it  is  stated  a  good  solid  metal  can  be 
obtained,  the  castings  being  free  from 
honeycombing,  and  finishing  better  than 
the  ordinary  cast-iron  mixture,  over  which 
it  has  the  advantage  of  24  per  cent  great- 
er strength.  Its  constituents  are:  Sili- 
con, 1.51;  manganese,  0.33;  phosphorus, 
0.65;  sulphur,  0.068;  combined  carbon, 
0.62;  graphite,  2.45. 

Nickel  steel  is  composed  of  nickel  36 
per  cent,  steel  64  per  cent. 

Tungsten  steel  is  crucible  steel  with 
5  to  12  per  cent  tungsten. 


>     Lead 2  parts 

Tin 3  parts 

Bismuth 5  parts 

The  melting  point  of  this  alloy  is  196° 
F.  The  alloy  is  rather  costly  because 
of  the  amount  of  bismuth  which  it 
contains.  The  following  mixtures  are 

Tin  ........ 

Lead  ....... 

Bismuth  ____ 


I     II  III 

1       5     1.5 





Alloys  for  Dentists'  Molds  and  Dies. 
—I.  —  Very  hard.  Tin,  16  parts;  anti- 
mony, 1  part;  zinc,  1  part. 

II.—  Softer  than  the  former.  Tin,  8 
parts;  zinc,  1  part;  antimony,  1  part. 

III.  —  Very  hard.  Tin,  12  parts;  an- 
timony, 2  parts;  copper,  1  part. 

Cadmium  Alloy,  about  the  Hardness 
of  Zinc.  —  Tin,  10  parts;  antimony,  1  part; 
cadmium,  1  part. 

Tin-Lead.  —  Tin  is  one  of  those  metals 
which   is    not   at  all   susceptible   to   the 
action  of  acids,  while  lead,  on  the  other 
hand,  is  very  easily  attacked  by  them. 
In  such   alloys,    consequently,    used  for 
cooking    utensils,    the    amount    of    lead 
must  be  limited,  and  should  properly  not 
exceed  10  or  15  per  cent;  but  cases  have 
been  known  in  which  the  so-called  tin  con- 
tained a  third  part,  by  weight,  of  lead. 

Alloys  containing  from   10  to  15  per 
cent  of  lead  have  a  beautiful  white  color, 
are  considerably  harder  than  pure  tin, 
and  much  cheaper.      Many  alloys  of  tin 
and  lead  are  very  lustrous,  and  are  used 
for  stage  jewelry  and  mirrors  for  reflect- 
ing the  light  of  lamps,  etc.      An  especially 
brilliant    alloy   is    called    "Fahlun    bril- 
liants."    It  is  used  for  stage  jewelry,  and 
consists  of  29  parts  of  tin  and  19  of  lead. 
It  is  poured  into  molds    faceted   in   the 
same  way  as  diamonds,  and  when  seen 
by  artificial  light,  the  effect  is  that  of  dia- 
monds.     Other  alloys  of  tin  and  lead  are 
employed  in  the   manufacture   of  toys. 
These    must   fill    the    molds    well,   and 
must   also   be   cheap,    and   therefore   as 
much   as   50   per  cent   of  lead  is   used. 
Toys  can  also  be  made  from  type  metal, 
which  is   even  cheaper  than  the  alloys 
of  tin  and  lead,  but  has  the  disadvantage 
of   readily   breaking   if   the   articles   are 
sharply    bent.     The    alloys    of    tin    and 
lead  give  very  good  castings,  if  sharp  iron 
or  brass  molds  are  used. 

Lead  ...............    19  parts 

Tin  ................    29  parts 

This  alloy  is  very  bright  and  possesses 
a  permanent  sheen.  It  is  well  adapted 
for  the  making  of  artificial  gems  for 
stage  use.  It  is  customary  in  carrying 
out  the  process  to  start  with  two  parts  of 
tin  and  one  part  of  lead.  Tin  is  added 
until  a  sample  drop  which  is  allowed  to 
fall  upon  an  iron  plate  forms  a  mirror. 
The  artificial  gems  are  produced  by 



dipping  into  the  molten  alloy  pieces  of 
glass  cut  to  the  proper  shape.  The  tin 
coating  of  metal  which  adheres  to  the 
glass  cools  rapidly  and  adheres  tena- 
ciously. Outwardly  these  artificial  gems 
appear  rough  and  gray,  but  inwardly  they 
are  highly  reflective  and  quite  deceptive 
when  seen  in  artificial  light. 

If  the  reflective  surfaces  be  coated 
with  red,  blue,  or  green  aniline,  various 
colored  effects  can  be  obtained.  In- 
stead of  fragile  glass  the  gems  may  be 
produced  by  means  of  well-polished 
pieces  of  steel  or  bronze. 

Other  Tin-Lead   Alloys. —  Percentage 
of  lead  and  specific  gravity. 
P.O.  S.G.     P.O.  S.  G. 

0 7.290     28 8.105 

1 7.316     29 8.137 

2 7.342     30 8.169 

3 7.369     31 8.202 

4 7.396     32 8.235 

5 7.423     33 8.268 

6 7.450     34 8.302 

7 7.477     35 8.336 

8 7.505     36 8.379 

9 7.533     37 8.405 

10 7.562     38 8.440 

11 7.590     39 8.476 

12 7.619     40 8.512 

13 7.648     41 8.548 

14 7.677     42 8.584 

15 7.706     43 8.621 

16 7.735     44 8.658 

17 7.764     45 8.695 

18 7.794     46 8.732 

19 7.824     47 8.770 

20 7.854     48 8.808 

21 7.885     49 8.846 

22 7.916     50 8.884 

23 7.947     60 9.299 

24 7.978     70 9.736 

25 8.009     80 10.225 

26 8.041      90 10.767 

27 8.073   100 11.370 

Tin  Statuettes,  Buttons,  etc.— 

I.— Tin 4  parts 

Lead 3  parts 

This  is  a  very  soft  solder  which  sharp- 
ly reproduces  all  details. 

Another  easily  fusible  alloy  but  some- 
what harder,  is  the  following: 

II.— Tin 8  parts 

Lead 6  parts 

Antimony 0.5  part 

Miscellaneous  Tin  Alloys. — I. — Alger 

Metal. — Tin,    90    parts;    antimony,    10 

parts.  This  alloy  is  suitable  as  a  protector. 

II.  Argentine  Metal. — Tin,  85.5  per  cent; 

antimony,  14.5  per  cent. 

III. — Ashberry  metal  is  composed  of 
78  to  82  parts  of  tin,  16  to  20  of  antimony, 
2  to  3  of  copper. 

IV.  Quen's  Metal.— Tin,  9  parts;  lead, 
1  part;  antimony,  1  part;  bismuth,  1  part. 

Type  Metal. — An  alloy  which  is  to 
serve  for  type  metal  must  be  readily 
cast,  fill  out  the  molds  sharply,  and 
be  as  hard  as  possible.  It  is  difficult  to 
satisfy  all  these  requirements,  but  an 
alloy  of  antimony  and  lead  answers  the 
purpose  best.  At  the  present  day  there 
are  a  great  many  formulas  for  type 
metal  in  which  other  metals  besides 
lead  and  antimony  are  used,  either  to 
make  the  alloy  more  readily  fusible,  as 
in  the  case  of  additions  of  bismuth,  or 
to  give  it  greater  power  of  resistance, 
the  latter  being  of  especial  importance 
for  types  that  are  subjected  to  constant 
use.  Copper  and  iron  have  been  rec- 
ommended for  this  purpose,  but  the 
fusibility  of  the  alloys  is  greatly  im- 
paired by  these,  and  the  manufacture  of 
the  types  is  consequently  more  difficult 
than  with  an  alloy  of  lead  and  antimony 
alone.  In  the  following  table  some  al- 
loys suitable  for  casting  type  are  given: 

T_OJ  Anti-  Cop-  Bis-  y.         rr.-     Nick- 

Lead  mony  per  muth Zmc    Tm      el 

I       3  1        ..       ..       

II       5  1         

III  10  1        

IV  10  2        ..        1 

V     70  18  2      ..      ..      10      .. 

VI     60       20        ....      . .      20 

VII     55       25        20      .. 

VIII     55       30        15      .. 

IX   100       30         8       2      ..      20        8 
X       6        ..          4      ..      90      .... 

The  French  and  English  types  contain 
a  certain  amount  of  tin,  as  shown  by  the 
following  analyses: 

English  Types  '       Drench 
I  II          III 

Lead 69.2     61.3     55.0       55 

Antimony...      19.5      18.8     22.7       30 

Tin 9.1     20.2     22.1       15 

Copper 1.7      

Ledebur  gives  the  composition  of  type 
metal  as  follows: 

I          II         III         IV 

Lead 75         60         80         82 

Antimony...      23          25          20          14.8 

Tin 22          15          ..  3.2 


See  Watchmakers'  Formulas. 

The  so-called  white  metals  are  em- 
ployed almost  exclusively  for  bearings. 
(See  Anti-friction  Metals  under  Alloys.) 
In  the  technology  of  mechanics  an  ac- 
curate distinction  is  made  between  the 
different  kinds  of  metals  for  bearings; 
and  they  may  be  classed  in  two  groups, 
red  brass  and  white  metal.  The  red- 



brass  bearings  are  characterized  by  great 
hardness  and  power  of  resistance,  and 
are  principally  used  for  bearings  of  heav- 
ily loaded  and  rapidly  revolving  axles. 
For  the  axles  of  large  and  heavy  fly- 
wheels, revolving  at  great  speed,  bearings 
of  red  brass  are  preferable  to  white  metal, 
though  more  expensive. 

In  recent  years  many  machinists  have 
found  it  advantageous  to  substitute  for 
the  soft  alloys  generally  in  use  for  bear- 
ings a  metal  almost  as  hard  as  the  axle 
itself.  Phosphor  bronze  (q.  v.)  is  fre- 
quently employed  for  this  purpose,  as  it 
can  easily  be  made  as  hard  as  wrought 
or  cast  steel.  In  this  case  the  metal  is 
used  in  a  thin  layer,  and  serves  only, 
as  it  were,  to  fill  out  the  small  interstices 
caused  by  wear  on  the  axle  and  bearing, 
the  latter  being  usually  made  of  some 
rather  easily  fusible  alloy  of  lead  and  tin. 
Such  bearings  are  very  durable,  but  ex- 
pensive, and  can  only  be  used  for  large 
machines.  For  small  machines,  ?*ȣ- 
ning  gently  and  uniformly,  wrhite-metal 
bearings  are  preferred,  and  do  excellent 
work,  if  the  axle  is  not  too  heavily  loaded. 
For  axles  which  have  a  high  rate  of  revo- 
lution, bearings  made  of  quite  hard 
metals  are  chosen,  and  with  proper  care 
— which,  indeed,  must  be  given  to  bear- 
ings of  any  material — they  will  last  for  a 
long  time  without  needing  repair. 

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Other  white  bearing  metals  are: 

XXI. — Tin,  8.5;  antimony,  10;  cop- 
per, 5  parts. 

XXII.— Tin,  42;  antimony,  16;  lead, 
42  parts. 

XXIII. — Tin,  72;  antimony,  26;  cop- 
per, 2  parts. 

XXIV. —Tin,  81;  antimony,  12.5; 
copper,  6.5  parts. 

White    Metals    Based    on    Copper.  — 

I. — Copper,  65  parts;  arsenic,  55  parts. 

II. — Copper,  64  parts;  arsenic,  50 

III. — Copper,  10  parts;  zinc,  20  parts; 
nickel,  30  parts. 

IV.— Nickel,  70  parts;  copper,  30 
parts;  zinc,  20  parts. 

V. — Nickel,  60  parts;  copper,  30  parts; 
zinc,  30  parts, 

VI. — Copper,  8  parts;  nickel,  4  parts; 
zinc,  4  parts. 

VII. — Copper,  10  parts;  nickel,  5 
parts;  zinc,  5  parts. 

VIII.— Copper,  8  parts;  nickel,  3 
parts;  zinc,  4  parts. 

IX. — Copper,  50  parts;  nickel,  25 
parts;  zinc,  25  parts. 

X. — Copper,  55  parts;  nickel,  24 
parts;  zinc,  21  parts. 

XI. — Copper,  55  parts;  nickel,  24  parts; 
zinc,  16  parts;  iron,  2  parts;  tin,  3  parts. 

IX,  X,  and  XI  are  suitable  for  table- 

XII. — Copper,  67  parts,  and  arsenic, 
53  parts. 

XIII. — Copper,  63  parts,  and  arsenic, 
57  parts. 

XII  and  XIII  are  bright  gray,  un- 
affected by  the  temperature  of  boiling  wa- 
ter; they  are  fusible  at  red  heat. 

White  Metals  Based  on  Platinum.— 

I. — Platinum,  1  part;  copper,  4  parts; 
or  platinum,  1*  parts;  copper,  3£  parts. 

II. — Platinum,  10  parts;  tin,  90  parts; 
or  platinum,  8  parts;  tin,  92  parts. 

III. — Platinum,  7  parts;  copper,  13 
parts;  tin,  80  parts. 

IV.— Platinum,  2  parts;  steel,  98  parts. 

V.— Platinum,  2.5  parts;  steel,  97.5 

IV  and  V  are  for  gun  metal. 

Miscellaneous  White-Metal  Alloys. — 

I. — For  lining  cross-head  slides:  Lead, 
65  parts;  antimony,  25  parts;  copper, 
10  parts.  Some  object  to  white  metal 
containing  lead  or  zinc.  It  has  been 
found,  however,  that  lead  and  zinc 
have  properties  of  great  use  in  these 

II. — Tin,  85  parts;  antimony,  7£ 
parts;  copper,  7i  parts. 

III. — Tin,  90  parts;  copper,  3  parts; 
antimony,  7  parts. 




Bidery  Metal.  —  This  is  sometimes 
composed  of  31  parts  of  zinc,  2  parts  of 
copper,  and  2  parts  of  lead;  the  whole  is 
melted  on  a  layer  of  rosin  or  wax  to  avoid 
oxidation.  This  metal  is  very  resistive; 
it  does  not  oxidize  in  air  or  moisture.  It 
takes  its  name  from  the  town  of  Bider, 
near  Hyderabad  (India),  where  it  was 
prepared  for  the  first  time  industrially 
for  the  manufacture  of  different  utensils. 

Other  compositions  of  Indian  Bidery 
metal  (frequently  imitated  in  England) 
are  about  as  follows: 

Copper. . .      3.5 

Zinc 93.4 


Lead..  3.1 










Erhardt  recommends  the  following  as 
being  both  ductile  and  hard: 

Zinc 89  to  93 

Tin 9  to    6 

Lead 2  to    4 

Copper 2  to    4 

The  tin  is  first  melted,  and  the  lead, 
zinc,  and  copper  added  successively. 

Zinc -Nickel. —Zinc,  90  parts;  nickel, 
10  parts.  Used  in  powder  form  for 
painting  and  cloth  printing  purposes. 

Platine  for  Dress  Buttons. — Copper, 
43  parts;  zinc,  57  parts. 


Alloys  for  Drawing  Colors  on  Steel. — 
Alloys  of  various  composition  are  suc- 
cessfully used  for  drawing  colors  on  steel. 
To  draw  to  a  straw  color  use  2  parts  of 
lead  and  1  part  of  tin,  and  melt  in  an 
iron  ladle.  Hold  the  steel  piece  to  be 
drawn  in  the  alloy  as  it  melts  and  it  will 
turn  to  straw  color.  This  mixture  melts 
at  a  temperature  of  about  437°  F.  For 
darker  yellow  use  9  parts  of  lead  to  4 
parts  of  tin,  which  melts  at  458°  F.  For 
purple,  use  3  parts  of  lead  to  1  part 
of  tin,  the  melting  temperature  being 
482°  F.  For  violet,  use  9  parts  of  lead 
to  2  parts  of  tin,  which  melts  at  494°  F. 
Lead  without  any  alloy  will  draw  steel 
to  a  dark  blue.  The  above  apply  to 
steel  only  since  iron  requires  a  somewhat 
greater  neat  and  is  more  or  less  uncer- 
tain in  handling. 

Alloy  for  Pattern  Letters  and  Figures. 
— A  good  alloy  for  casting  pattern  letters 
and  figures  and  similar  small  parts  of 
brass,  iron,  or  plaster  molds,  is  made  of 
lead  80  parts,  and  antimony  20  parts. 
A  better  alloy  will  be  lead  70  parts,  an- 

timony and  bismuth  each  15  parts.  To 
insure  perfect  work  the  molds  should 
be  quite  hot  by  placing  them  over  a  Bun- 
sen  burner. 

Alloy  for  Caliper  and  Gage -Rod  Cast- 
ings.— A  mixture  of  30  parts  zinc  to  70 
parts  aluminum  gives  a  light  and  durable 
alloy  for  gage  rods  and  caliper  legs;  the 
gage  rods  must  be  steel  tipped,  for  the 
alloy  is  soft  and  wears  away  too  rapidly 
for  gage  points. 

Alloys  for  Small  Casting  Molds.— Tin, 
75  parts,  and  lead,  22  parts;  or  75  parts 
of  zinc  and  25  parts  of  tin;  or  30  parts  of 
tin  and  70  parts  of  lead;  or  60  parts  of 
lead  and  40  parts  of  bismuth. 

See  Metal  Foil. 

See   Cosmetics. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 


Burnt  Alum. — I. — Heat  the  alum  in  a 
porcelain  dish  or  other  suitable  vessel 
till  it  liquefies,  then  raise  and  continue 
the  heat,  not  allowing  it  to  exceed  400°, 
till  aqueous  vapor  ceases  to  be  disen- 
gaged, and  the  salt  has  lost  47  per  cent  of 
its  weight.  Reduce  the  residue  to  pow- 
der, and  preserve  it  in  a  well-stoppered 
bottle.  — Cooley. 

II. — Heat  ordinary  alum  (alumina 
alum)  with  constant  stirring  in  an  iron 
pan  in  which  it  will  first  melt  quietly, 
and  then  commence  to  form  blisters. 
Continue  heating  until  a  dry  white  mass 
of  a  loose  character  remains,  which  is 
powdered  and  kept  in  well-closed  glasses. 

See  Photography. 

Aluminum  and  its  Treatment 


Blanching  of  Aluminum. — Aluminum 
is  one  of  the  metals  most  inalterable  by 
air;  nevertheless,  the  objects  of  aluminum 
tarnish  quickly  enough  without  being 



Altered.  They  may  be  restored  to  their 
mat  whiteness  in  the  following  manner: 
Immerse  the  aluminum  articles  in  a 
boiling  bath  of  caustic  potash;  next 
plunge  them  quickly  into  nitric  acid, 
rinse  and  let  dry.  It  must  be  under- 
stood that  this  method  is  applicable  only 
to  pieces  entirely  of  aluminum. 

Decolorized  Aluminum. — Gray  or  un- 
sightly aluminum  may  be  restored  to  its 
white  color  by  washing  with  a  mixture 
of  30  parts  of  borax  dissolved  in  1,000 
parts  of  water,  with  a  few  drops  of  am- 
monia added. 

Mat  Aluminum. — In  order  to  impart 
to  aluminum  the  appearance  of  mat 
silver,  plunge  the  article  into  a  hot  bath 
composed  of  a  10-per-cent  solution  of 
caustic  soda  saturated  with  kitchen  salt. 
Leave  it  in  the  bath  for  15  to  20  seconds, 
then  wash  and  brush;  put  back  into  the 
bath  for  half  a  minute,  wash  anew  and 
dry  in  sawdust. 

To  Blacken  Aluminum. — I. — The  sur- 
face of  the  sheet  to  be  colored  is  polished 
with  very  fine  emery  powder  or  finest 
emery  cloth.  After  polishing  pour  a 
thin  layer  of  olive  oil  over  the  surface 
and  heat  slowly  over  an  alcohol  flame. 
Large  sheets  must,  of  course,  be  heated 
in  the  drying  oven.  After  a  short  while 
pour  on  oil  again,  in  order  to  obtain  ab- 
solute uniformity  of  the  coating,  and  heat 
the  plate  once  more.  Under  the  action 
of  the  heat  the  plate  turns  first  brown, 
then  black,  according  to  the  degrees  of 
heat.  When  the  desired  coloration  has 
been  attained,  the  plate  is  polished  over 
again,  after  cooling,  with  a  woolen  rag 
or  soft  leather. 

II.— White  arsenic 1  ounce 

Sulphate  of  iron  ....      1  ounce 
Hydrochloric  acid  .  .    12  ounces 

Water 12  ounces 

When  the  arsenic  and  iron  are  dis- 
solved by  the  acid  add  the  water.  The 
aluminum  to  be  blackened  should  be 
well  cleaned  with  fine  emery  powder 
and  washed  before  immersing  in  the 
blackening  solution.  When  the  deposit 
of  black  is  deep  enough  dry  off  with  fine 
sawdust  and  lacquer. 

Decorating  Aluminum.— A  process  for 
decorating  aluminum,  patented  in  Ger- 
many, prescribes  that  the  objects  be  first 
corroded,  which  is  usually  done  with 
caustic  soda  lye,  or,  better  still,  by  a  new 
method  which  consists  in  heating  3  parts 
of  sulphuric  acid  with  1  part  of  water  to 
140°  to  158°  F.,  in  an  enameled  vessel. 
Into  this  liquid  dip  the  aluminum  arti- 

cles, rinsing  them  off  clean  and  then  dry- 
ing them  well.  The  corroded  articles 
are  now  placed  in  a  bath  consisting  of 
1,000  parts  of  alcohol  (90  per  cent), 
1.50  parts  of  antimony,  250  parts  of 
chemically  pure  hydrochloric  acid,  100 
parts  of  manganous  nitrate,  and  20  parts 
of  purified  and  finally  elutriated  graph- 
ite. In  this  bath,  which  is  heated  to 
86°-95°  F.,  the  objects  are  left  until 
fumes  develop  around  them,  which  takes 
place  in  a  few  seconds.  Now  they  are 
put  over  a  coal  fire  or  similar  arrange- 
ment until  the  alcohol  is  burned  up  and 
there  is  no  more  smoke.  After  they  are 
somewhat  cooled  off,  they  are  laid  into 
cold  water  and  worked  with  a  brush,  then 
rinsed  with  water  and  well  dried.  The 
pieces  are  now  provided  with  a  gray  me- 
tallic coating,  consisting  mainly  of  anti- 
mony, manganese,  and  graphite.  This 
metallic  layer  renders  them  capable  of  re- 
ceiving a  lacquer  which  is  best  prepared 
from  1,000  parts  of  alcohol  (90  per  cent), 
50  parts  of  sandarac,  100  parts  of  shellac, 
and  100  parts  of  nigrosine  (black  aniline 
color).  Then  the  articles  are  quickly 
but  thoroughly  rinsed  off,  dried  in 
warmed  air  for  a  few  minutes,  and  baked 
in  ovens  or  over  a  moderate  coal  fire 
until  they  do  not  smoke  any  more  and  no 
more  gloss  can  be  seen.  Finally  they 
are  rubbed  with  a  cotton  rag  saturated 
with  thin  linseed-oil  varnish,  and  the  ob- 
jects thus  treated  now  appear  dull  black, 
like  velvet.  The  covering  withstands  all 
action  of  the  weather,  so  that  cooking 
vessels  coated  with  this  varnish  on  the 
outside  can  be  placed  on  the  fire  without 
injury  to  the  coating.  If  the  articles  are 
engraved,  the  aluminum  appears  almost 
glossy  white  under  the  black  layer  at  the 
engraved  places.  When  the  pieces  have 
been  provided  with  the  gray  metallic 
coating,  colored  lacquer  may  also  be 
applied  with  the  brush.  In  this  manner 
paintings,  etc.,  may  be  done  on  alu- 
minum, while  not  possible  on  unprepared 
aluminum  surfaces,  which  will  not  retain 

Making  Castings  in  Aluminum. — The 
method  adopted  in  preparing  molds 
and  cores  for  aluminum  work  is  neces- 
sarily somewhat  the  same  as  for  brass, 
but  there  are  particular  points  which 
need  attention  to  insure  successful  work. 
Both  in  the  sand  and  the  making  of  the 
molds  there  are  some  small  differences 
which  make  considerable  variation  in 
the  results,  and  the  temperature  at  which 
the  metal  is  poured  is  a  consideration  of 
some  importance. 

In  selecting  the  sand,   which  should 


not  have  been  previously  used,  that  of  a 
fine  grain  should  be  chosen,  but  it  should 
not  have  any  excess  of  aluminous  matter, 
or  it  will  not  permit  of  the  free  escape 
of  gases  and  air,  this  being  an  important 
matter.  Besides  this,  the  sand  must  be 
used  as  dry  as  possible  consistent  with  its 
holding  against  the  flow  of  the  metal, 
and  having  only  moderate  compression 
in  ramming. 

In  making  the  molds  it  is  necessary 
to  remember  that  aluminum  has  a  large 
contraction  in  cooling,  and  also  that'  at 
certain  temperatures  it  is  very  weak  and 
tears  readily,  while  all  metals  shrink 
away  from  the  mold  when  this  is 
wholly  outside  the  casting,  but  they 
shrink  on  to  cores  or  portions  of  the 
mold  partly  inclosed  by  metal.  Thus, 
if  casting  a  plate  or  bar  of  metal,  it  will 
shrink  away  from  the  mold  in  all  direc- 
tions; but  if  casting  a  square  frame,  it 
shrinks  away  from  the  outside  only, 
while  it  shrinks  on  to  the  central  part 
or  core.  With  brass,  or  iron,  or  such 
metals,  this  is  not  of  much  importance, 
but  with  some  others,  including  alumi- 
num, it  is  of  great  importance,  because 
if  the  core  or  inclosed  sand  will  not  give 
somewhat  with  the  contraction  of  the 
metal,  torn  or  fractured  castings  will  be 
the  result.  Both  for  outside  and  inside 
molds,  and  with  cores  used  with  alu- 
minum, the  sand  should  be  compressed 
as  little  as  possible,  and  hard  ramming 
must  in  every  case  be  avoided,  particu- 
larly where  the  metal  surrounds  the  sand. 
The  molds  must  be  very  freely  vented, 
and  not  only  at  the  joint  of  the  mold, 
but  by  using  the  vent  wire  freely  through 
the  body  of  the  mold  itself;  in  fact,  for 
brass  the  venting  would  be  considered 
excessive.  With  aluminum  it  is,  how- 
ever, necessary  to  get  the  air  off  as  rapid- 
ly as  possible,  because  the  metal  soon 
gets  sluggish  in  the  mold,  and  unless  it 
runs  up  quickly  it  runs  faint  at  the  edges. 
The  ingates  should  be  wide  and  of  fair 
area,  but  need  careful  making  to  prevent 
their  drawing  where  they  enter  the  cast- 
ing, the  method  of  doing  this  being 
known  to  most  molders. 

If  it  is  considered  desirable  to  use  a 
specially  made-up  facing  sand  for  the 
molds  where  the  metal  is  of  some  thick- 
ness, the  use  of  a  little  pea  or  bean  meal 
will  be  all  that  is  necessary.  To  use  this, 
first  dry  as  much  sand  as  may  be  re- 
quired and  pass  through  a  20-mesh  sieve, 
and  to  each  bushel  of  the  fine  sand  rub 
in  about  4  quarts  of  meal,  afterwards 
again  passing  through  the  sieve  to  insure 
regular  mixing.  This  sand  should  then 
be  damped  as  required,  being  careful 

that  all  parts  are  equally  moist,  rubbing 
on  a  board  being  a  good  way  to  get  it 
tough,  and  in  good  condition,  with  the 
minimum  of  moisture. 

The  molds  should  not  be  sleeked  with 
tools,  but  they  may  be  dusted  over  with 
plumbago  or  steatite,  smoothing  with 
a  camel's-hair  brush,  in  cases  in  which  a 
very  smooth  face  is  required  on  the 
castings.  Preferably,  however,  the  use 
of  the  brush  even  should  be  avoided. 
Patterns  for  aluminum  should  be  kept 
smooth  and  well  varnished. 

In  melting  the  metal  it  is  necessary  to 
use  a  plumbago  crucible  which  is  clean 
and  wnich  has  not  been  used  for  other 
metals.  Clay  or  silica  crucibles  are  not 
good  for  this  metal,  especially  silica,  on 
account  of  the  metal  absorbing  silicon 
and  becoming  hard  under  some  condi- 
tions of  melting.  A  steady  fire  is  neces- 
sary, and  the  fuel  should  reach  only 
about  halfway  up  the  crucible,  as  it  is 
not  desirable  to  overheat  the  crucible  or 
metal.  The  metal  absorbs  heat  for 
some  time  and  then  fuses  with  some  ra- 
pidity, hence  the  desirability  of  a  steady 
heat;  and  as  the  metal  should  be  poured 
when  of  a  claret  color  under  the  film  of 
oxide  which  forms  on  the  surface,  too 
rapid  a  heating  is  not  advisable.  The 
molding  should  always  be  well  in  ad- 
vance of  the  pouring,  because  the  metal 
should  be  used  as  soon  as  it  is  ready;  for 
not  only  is  waste  caused,  but  the  metal 
loses  condition  if  kept  in  a  molten  state 
for  long  periods.  The  metal  should  be 
poured  rapidly,  but  steadily,  and  when 
cast  up  there  should  not  be  a  large  head 
of  metal  left  on  top  of  the  runner.  In 
fact,  it  is  rather  a  disadvantage  to  leave 
a  large  head,  as  this  tends  to  draw  rather 
than  to  feed  the  casting. 

With  properly  prepared  molds,  and 
careful  melting,  fluxes  are  not  required, 
but  ground  cryolite — a  fluoride  of  sodium 
and  aluminum — is  sometimes  used  to 
increase  the  fluidity  of  the  metal.  In 
using  this,  a  few  ounces  according  to 
the  bulk  of  metal  to  be  treated  is  put 
into  the  molten  metal  before  it  is  taken 
from  the  furnace,  and  well  stirred  in, 
and  as  soon  as  the  reaction  apparently 
ceases  the  pot  is  lifted  and  the  metal  at 
once  skimmed  and  poured.  The  use  of 
sodium  in  any  form  with  aluminum  is 
very  undesirable,  however,  and  should 
be  avoided,  and  the  same  remark  applies 
to  tin,  but  there  is  no  objection  to  alloy- 
ing with  zinc,  when  the  metal  thus  pro- 
duced is  sold  as  an  alloy. 

Aluminum  also  casts  very  well  in  molds 
of  plaster  of  Paris  and  crushed  bath 
brick  when  such  molds  are  perfectly  dry 


and  well  vented,  smoothness  being  se- 
cured by  brushing  over  with  dry  stea- 
tite or  plumbago.  When  casting  in 
metal  molds,  these  should  be  well 
brushed  out  with  steatite  or  plumbago, 
and  made  fairly  hot  before  pouring,  as  in 
cold  molds  the  metal  curdles  and  be- 
comes sluggish,  with  the  result  that  the 
castings  run  up  faint. 

To  Increase  the  Toughness,  Density, 
and  Tenacity  of  Aluminum. — For  the 
purpose  of  improving  aluminum,  with- 
out increasing  its  specific  gravity,  the 
aluminum  is  mixed  with  4  to  7  per  cent 
of  phosphorus,  whereby  the  density,  te- 
nacity, and  especially  the  toughness  are 
said  to  be  enhanced. 

The  great  secret,  if  there  is  any,  in 
working  aluminum,  either  pure  or  al- 
loyed, consists  in  the  proper  lubricant 
and  the  shape  of  the  tool.  Another 
great  disadvantage  in  the  proper  working 
of  the  metal  is  that,  when  a  manufac- 
turer desires  to  make  up  an  article,  he 
will  procure  the  pure  metal  in  order  to 
make  his  samples,  which,  of  course,  is 
harder  to  work  than  the  alloy.  But  the 
different  grades  of  aluminum  sheet  which 
are  on  the  market  are  so  numerous  for 
different  classes  of  work  that  it  might 
be  advisable  to  consider  them  for  a  mo- 
ment before  passing  to  the  method  of 
working  them. 

The  pure  metal,  to  begin  with,  can 
be  purchased  of  all  degrees  of  hardness, 
from  the  annealed,  or  what  is  known  as 
the  "dead  soft"  stock,  to  the  pure  alumi- 
num hard  rolled.  Then  comes  a  harder 
grade  of  alloys,  running  from  "dead 
soft"  metal,  which  will  draw  up  hard,  to 
the  same  metal  hard  rolled;  and,  still 
again,  another  set  of  alloys  which,  per- 
haps, are  a  little  harder  still  when  hard 
rolled,  and  will,  when  starting  with  the 
"dead  soft,"  spin  up  into  a  utensil  which, 
when  finished,  will  probably  be  as  stiff  as 
brass.  These  latter  alloys  are  finding 
a  large  sale  for  replacing  brass  used  in  all 
classes  of  manufactured  articles. 

To  start  with  lathe  work  on  aluminum, 
probably  more  difficulty  has  been  found 
nere,  especially  in  working  pure  metal, 
and  more  complaints  are  heard  from 
this  source  than  from  any  other.  As 
stated  before,  however,  these  difficulties 
can  all  be  readily  overcome,  if  the  proper 
tools  and  the  proper  lubricants  are  used, 
as  automatic  screw  machines  are  now 
made  so  that  they  can  be  operated  when 
working  aluminum  just  as  readily  as 
when  they  are  working  brass,  and  in 
some  cases  more  readily.  To  start  with 

the  question  of  the  tool,  this  should  be 
made  as  what  is  known  as  a  "shearing 
tool,"  that  is,  instead  of  a  short,  stubby 
point,  such  as  would  be  used  in  turning 
brass,  the  point  should  be  lengthened 
out  and  a  lot  of  clearance  provided  on 
the  inside  of  the  tool,  so  as  to  give  the 
chips  of  the  metal  a  good  chance  to  free 
themselves  and  not  cause  a  clogging 
around  the  point  of  the  tool — a  simi- 
lar tool,  for  instance,  to  what  would  be 
used  for  turning  wood. 

The  best  lubricant  to  be  used  would 
be  coal  oil  or  water,  and  plenty  of  it.  The 
latter  is  almost  as  good  as  coal  oil  if 
enough  of  it  is  used,  and  with  either  of 
these  lubricants  and  a  tool  properly 
made,  there  should  be  no  difficulty  what- 
soever in  the  rapid  working  of  aluminum, 
either  on  the  lathe  or  on  automatic  screw 

To  go  from  the  lathe  to  the  drawing 
press,  the  same  tools  here  would  be  used 
in  drawing  up  shapes  of  aluminum  as 
are  used  for  drawing  up  brass  or  other 
metals;  the  only  precaution  necessary 
in  this  instance  being  to  use  a  proper 
lubricant,  which  in  this  case  is  a  cheap 
grade  of  vaseline,  or  in  some  cases  lard 
oil,  but  in  the  majority  of  instances  better 
results  will  be  secured  by  the  use  of 
vaseline.  Aluminum  is  probably  sus- 
ceptible of  deeper  drawing  with  less 
occasion  to  anneal  than  any  of  the  other 
commercial  metals.  It  requires  but 
one-third  or  one-fourth  of  as  much  an- 
nealing as  brass  or  copper.  For  in-- 
stance,  an  article  which  is  now  manu- 
factured in  brass,  requiring,  say,  three  or 
four  operations  before  the  article  is  fin- 
ished, would  probably  have  to  be  an- 
nealed after  every  operation.  With 
aluminum,  however,  if  the  proper  grade 
is  used,  it  is  generally  possible  to  perform 
these  three  operations  without  annealing 
the  metal  at  all,  and  at  the  same  time  to 
produce  a  finished  article  which,  to  all 
intents  and  purposes,  is  as  stiff  as  an 
article  made  of  sheet  brass. 

Too  much  stress  cannot  be  laid  on  the 
fact  of  starting  with  the  proper  grade  of 
metal,  for  either  through  ignorance  or 
by  not  observing  this  point  is  the  founda- 
tion of  the  majority  of  the  complaints 
that  aluminum  "has  been  tried  and  found 
wanting."  If,  however,  it  should  be 
found  necessary  to  anneal  aluminum, 
this  can  be  readily  accomplished  by 
heating  it  in  an  ordinary  muffle,  being 
careful  that  the  temperature  shall  not 
be  too  high— about  650°  or  700°  F.  The 
best  test  as  to  when  the  metal  has 
reached  the  proper  temperature  is  to  take 
a  soft  pine  stick  and  draw  it  across  the 



metal.  If  it  chars  the  stick  and  leaves 
a  black  mark  on  the  metal,  it  is  suffi- 
ciently annealed  and  is  in  a  proper  con- 
dition to  proceed  with  further  opera- 

Next  taking  up  the  question  of  spin- 
ning aluminum,  success  again  depends 
particularly  on  starting  with  the  proper 
metal.  The  most  satisfactory  speed 
for  articles  from  5  to  8  inches  in  diam- 
eter is  about  2,600  revolutions  a  minute, 
and  for  larger  or  smaller  diameters  the 
speed  should  be  so  regulated  as  to  give 
tne  same  velocity  at  the  circumference. 
Aluminum  is  a  very  easy  metal  to  spin 
and  no  difficulty  should  be  found  at  all 
in  spinning  the  proper  grades  of  sheets. 
Several  factories  that  are  using  large 
quantities  of  aluminum  now,  both  for 
spinning  and  stamping,  are  paying  their 
men  by  the  piece  the  same  amount  that 
they  formerly  paid  on  brass  and  tin  work, 
and  it  is  stated  that  the  men  working  on 
this  basis  make  anywhere  from  10  to 
20  per  cent  more  wages  by  working  alu- 

After  aluminum  has  been  manufac- 
tured into  the  shape  of  an  article,  the  next 
process  is  the  finishing  of  it.  The  best 
polish  can  be  obtained  by  first  cutting 
down  the  metal  with  an  ordinary  rag  buff 
on  which  use  tripoli,  and  then  finish  it 
with  a  dry  red  rouge  which  comes  in  the 
lump  form,  or  that  which  is  known  as 
"White  Diamond  Rouge."  One  point, 
however,  that  it  is  necessary  to  observe 
carefully  is  that  both  the  tripoli  and  the 
rouge  should  be  procured  ground  as  fine 
as  it  is  possible  to  grind  them;  for,  if  this 
is  not  done,  the  metal  will  have  little  fine 
scratches  all  over  it,  and  will  not  appear 
as  bright  and  as  handsome  as  it  other- 
wise would. 

If  it  is  desired  to  put  on  a  frosted  ap- 
pearance, this  can  either  be  done  by 
scratch  brushing  or  sand  blasting.  A 
brass  wire  scratch  brush,  made  of 
crimped  wire  of  No.  32  to  No.  36  B.  & 
S.  gage,  with  three  or  four  rows  of  bris- 
tles, will  probably  give  the  best  results. 
This  work  of  scratch  brushing  can  be 
somewhat  lessened,  however,  if,  before 
applying  the  scratch  brush  to  the  surface 
of  the  aluminum,  the  article  is  first  cut 
down  by  the  use  of  a  porpoise-hide  wheel 
and  fine  Connecticut  sand,  placing  the 
sand  between  the  surface  of  the  alumi- 
num and  the  wheel,  so  that  the  skin  and 
the  irregularities  on  the  surface  are  re- 
moved, and  then  putting  the  article  on 
a  buffing  wheel  before  attempting  to 
scratch  brush  it.  This  method,  how- 
ever, is  probably  more  advantageous  in 
the  treating  of  aluminum  castings  than 

for  articles  manufactured  out  of  the  sheet 
metal,  as  in  the  majority  of  cases  it  is 
simply  necessary  before  scratch  brushing 
to  cut  down  the  article  with  tripoli,  and 
then  polish  it  with  rouge  as  already  de- 
scribed, before  putting  on  the  scratch 
brush;  in  this  way  the  brush  seems  to 
take  hold  quicker  and  better,  and  to  pro- 
duce a  more  uniform  polish. 

An  effect  similar  to  the  scratch-brush 
finish  can  be  got  by  sand  blasting,  and 
by  first  sand  blasting  and  then  scratch 
brushing  the  sheets,  a  good  finish  is  ob- 
tained with  very  much  less  labor  than  by 
scratch  brushing  alone.  Another  very 
pretty  frosted  effect  is  procured  by  first 
sand  blasting  and  then  treated  as  here- 
inafter described  by  "dipping"  and 
"frosting,"  and  many  variations  in  the 
finish  of  aluminum  can  be  got  by  varying 
the  treatment,  either  by  cutting  down 
with  tripoli  and  polishing,  scratch  brush- 
ing, sand  blasting,  dipping,  and  frosting, 
and  by  combinations  of  those  treatments. 
A  very  pretty  mottled  effect  is  secured  on 
aluminum  by  first  polishing  and  then 
scratch  brushing  and  then  holding  the 
aluminum  against  a  soft  pine  wheel,  run 
at  a  high  rate  of  speed  on  a  lathe,  and  by 
careful  manipulation,  quite  regular  forms 
of  a  mottled  appearance  can  be  obtained. 

The  dipping  and  frosting  of  aluminum 
sheet  is  probably  the  cheapest  way  of 
producing  a  nice  finish.  First  remove 
all  grease  and  dirt  from  the  article  by 
dipping  in  benzine,  then  dip  into  water 
in  order  that  the  benzine  adhering  to 
the  article  may  be  removed,  so  as  not  to 
affect  the  strength  of  the  solution  into 
which  it  is  next  dipped.  After  they  have 
been  taken  out  of  the  water  and  well 
shaken,  the  articles  should  be  plunged  in 
a  strong  solution  of  caustic  soda  or  caus- 
tic potash,  and  left  there  a  sufficient 
length  of  time  until  the  aluminum  starts 
to  turn  black.  Then  they  should  be 
removed,  dipped  in  water  again,  and  then 
into  a  solution  of  concentrated  nitric 
and  sulphuric  acid,  composed  of  24  parts 
of  nitric  acid  to  1  part  of  sulphuric  acid. 
After  being  removed,  the  article  should 
be  washed  thoroughly  in  water  and  dried 
in  hot  sawdust  in  the  usual  way.  This 
finish  can  also  be  varied  somewhat  by 
making  the  solution  of  caustic  soda  of 
varying  degrees  of  strength,  or  by  adding 
a  small  amount  of  common  salt  to  the 

In  burnishing  the  metal  use  a  blood- 
stone or  a  steel  burnisher.  In  burnish- 
ing use  a  mixture  of  melted  vaseline  and 
coal  oil,  or  a  solution  composed  of  2 
tablespoonfuls  of  ground  borax  dissolved 
in  about  a  quart  of  hot  water,  with  a  few 



drops  of  ammonia  added.  In  engrav- 
ing, which  adds  materially  to  the  ap- 
pearance of  finished  castings,  book  cov- 
ers, picture  frames,  and  similar  articles 
made  of  sheet,  probably  the  best  lubri- 
cant to  use  on  an  engraver's  tool  in  order 
to  obtain  a  clean  cut,  which  is  bright,  is 
naphtha  or  coal  oil,  or  a  mixture  of  coal 
oil  and  vaseline.  The  naphtha,  how- 
ever, is  preferred,  owing  to  the  fact  that 
it  does  not  destroy  the  satin  finish  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  cut,  as  the  other 
lubricants  are  very  apt  to  do.  There  is, 
however,  as  much  skill  required  in  using 
and  making  a  tool  in  order  to  give  a 
bright,  clean  cut  as  there  is  in  the  choice 
of  the  lubricant  to  be  used.  The  tool 
should  be  made  somewhat  on  the  same 
plan  as  the  lathe  tools  already  outlined. 
That  is,  they  should  be  brought  to  a 
sharp  point  and  be  "cut  back"  rather 
far,  so  as  to  give  plenty  of  clearance. 

There  has  been  one  class  of  work  in 
aluminum  that  has  been  developed 
lately  and  only  to  a  certain  extent,  in 
which  there  are  great  possibilities,  and 
that  is  in  drop  forging  the  metal.  Some 
very  superior  bicycle  parts  have  been 
manufactured  by  drop  forging.  This  can 
be  accomplished  probably  more  readily 
with  aluminum  than  with  other  metals, 
for  the  reason  that  it  is  not  necessary 
with  all  the.  alloys  to  work  them  hot; 
consequently,  they  can  be  worked  and 
handled  more  rapidly. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 

See  Alloys. 

See  Alloys  under  Bronzes. 

See  Casting. 

See  Paper. 


See  Plating. 

See  Polishes. 


See  also  Easily  Fusible  Alloys  under 

The  name  amalgam  is  given  to  al- 
loys of  metals  containing  mercury.  The 
term  comes  to  us  from  the  alchemists. 
It  signifies  softening,  because  an  excess 

of  mercury  dissolves  a  large  number  of 

Preparation  of  Amalgams. — Mercury 
forms  amalgams  with  most  metals.  It 
unites  directly  and  readily,  either  cold  or 
hot,  with  potassium,  sodium,  barium, 
strontium,  calcium,  magnesium,  zinc, 
cadmium,  tin,  antimony,  lead,  bismuth, 
silver,  and  gold;  directly,  but  more  dif- 
ficultly, with  aluminum,  copper,  and 
palladium.  This  combination  takes 
place  oftenest  at  the  ordinary  temper- 
ature; certain  metals,  however,  like 
aluminum  and  antimony,  combine  only 
when  heated  in  presence  of  quicksilver. 

Quicksilver  has  no  direct  action  on 
metals  of  high  fusing  points:  manganese, 
iron,  nickel,  cobalt,  uranium,  platinum, 
and  their  congeners.  Still,  amalgams 
of  these  metals  can  be  obtained  of  buty- 
rous  consistency,  either  by  electrolysis  of 
their  saline  solutions,  employing  quick- 
silver as  the  negative  electrode,  or  by  the 
action  of  an  alkaline  amalgam  (potas- 
sium or  sodium),  on  their  concentrated 
and  neutral  saline  solutions.  These 
same  refractory  metals  are  also  amalga- 
mated superficially  when  immersed  in 
the  amalgam  of  sodium  or  of  ammonium 
in  presence  of  water. 

Processes  for  preparing  amalgams  by 
double  decomposition  between  an  alkaline 
amalgam  and  a  metallic  salt,  or  by  elec- 
trolysis of  saline  solutions,  with  employ- 
ment of  mercury  as  the  negative  elec- 
trode, apply  a  fortiori  to  metals  capable 
of  combining  directly  with  the  quick- 
silver. The  latter  of  these  methods  is 
especially  utilized  for  the  preparation  of 
alkaline  earthy  metals  by  electrolytic 
decomposition  of  the  solutions  of  their 
salts  or  hydrated  oxides  with  quicksilver 
as  a  cathode. 

General  Properties  of  Amalgams. — 
Amalgams  are  liquid  when  the  quick- 
silver is  in  great  excess;  solid,  but  readily 
fusible,  when  the  alloyed  metal  pre- 

They  have  a  metallic  luster,  and  a 
metallic  structure  which  renders  them 
brittle.  They  even  form  crystallized 
metallic  combinations  of  constant  propor- 
tions, dissolved  in  an  excess  of  quick- 
silver, when  the  excess  is  separated  by 
compression  in  a  chamois  skin,  or  by 
filtration  in  a  glass  funnel  of  slender 
stem,  terminating  with  an  orifice  almost 

According  as  the  fusing  heat  of  a  metal 
is  less  or  greater  than  its  combination 
heat  with  quicksilver,  the  amalgamation 
of  this  metal  produces  an  elevation  or  a 
lowering  of  temperature.  Thus  potas- 



sium,  sodium,  and  cadmium,  in  alloy 
with  quicksilver,  disengage  heat;  while 
zinc,  antimony,  tin,  bismuth,  lead,  and 
silver  combine  with  mercury  with  ab- 
sorption of  heat.  The  amalgamation  of 
162  parts  of  quicksilver  with  21  parts  of 
lead,  12  parts  of  tin  or  of  antimony,  and 
28.5  parts  of  bismuth,  lowers  the  tem- 
perature of  the  mixture  79°  F. 

Amalgams  formed  with  disengage- 
ment of  heat  are  electro-negative  with 
reference  to  the  metals  alloyed  with  the 
quicksilver.  The  products  with  absorp- 
tion of  heat  are  electro-negative  with  ref- 
erence to  the  metals  combined  with  the 
quicksilver;  consequently,  in  a  battery 
of  elements  of  pure  cadmium  and  amal- 
gamated cadmium,  the  cadmium  will  be 
the  negative  pole;  in  case  of  zinc  and 
amalgamated  zinc,  the  zinc  will  be  the 
positive  pole. 

Heat  decomposes  all  amalgams,  va- 
porizing the  mercury  and  leaving  the 
metal  alloys  as  a  residue. 

Water  is  decomposed  by  the  amal- 
gams of  potassium  and  sodium,  because 
the  heat  of  formation  of  these  amalgams, 
although  considerable,  is  even  less  than 
the  heat  disengaged  by  potassium  and 
sodium,  on  decomposing  water.  The 
alkaline  amalgams  may,  therefore,  serve 
as  a  source  of  nascent  hydrogen  in  pres- 
ence of  water,  giving  rise  to  an  action 
less  energetic,  and  often  more  advan- 
tageous, than  that  of  the  alkaline  metals 
alone.  Thus  is  caused  the  frequent  em- 
ployment of  sodium  amalgam  for  hydro- 
genizing  a  large  number  of  bodies.  As 
a  consequence  of  their  action  on  water, 
the  alkaline  amalgams  are  changed  by 
moist  air,  with  production  of  free  alkali 
or  alkaline  carbonate. 

Applications  of  Potassium  Amalgams. 
— I. — They  furnish  a  process  for  prepar- 
ing potassium  by  the  decomposition  of 
potash  by  the  electric  current,  by  em- 
ploying quicksilver  as  the  cathode,  and 
vaporizing  the  quicksilver  of  the  amal- 
gam formed  by  heating  this  in  a  current 
of  dry  hydrogen. 

II. — They  can  serve  for  the  prepara- 
tion of  the  amalgams  of  the  metals,  other 
than  those  of  the  alkaline  group,  by  de- 
composing the  salts  of  these  metals,  with 
formation  of  a  salt  of  potash  and  of  the 
amalgam  of  the  metal  corresponding  to 
the  original  salt. 

III. — They  can  be  employed  as  a 
source  of  nascent  hydrogen  in  presence 
of  water  for  hydrogenizing  many  sub- 

Applications  of  Sodium  Amalgams. — 
These  are  nearly  the  same  as  those  of  the 

potassium  amalgams,  but  the  sodium 
amalgams  are  employed  almost  exclu- 
sively, because  sodium  is  easier  to  handle 
than  potassium,  and  is  cheaper.  These 
employments  are  the  following: 

I. — Sodium  amalgam  furnishes  a  proc- 
ess for  the  preparation  of  sodium  when 
soda  is  decomposed  by  means  of  the 
electric  current,  employing  quicksilver 
as  the  cathode,  and  afterwards  vaporizing 
the  quicksilver  of  the  amalgam  formed 
by  heating  this  in  a  current  of  dry  hy- 

II. — Amalgams  of  sodium  serve  for 
the  preparation  of  amalgams  of  the  oth- 
er metals,  particularly  alkaline  earthy 
metals  and  metals  of  high  fusing  points, 
by  decomposing  the  salts  of  these  metals, 
with  formation  of  a  salt  of  soda  and  of 
the  amalgam  of  the  metal  corresponding 
to  the  original  salt. 

III. — They  serve  for  amalgamating 
superficially  the  metals  of  high  fusing 
point,  called  "refractory,"  such  as  iron 
and  platinum,  when  a  well-cleaned  plate 
of  these  metals  is  immersed  in  sodium 
amalgam  in  presence  of  water. 

IV. — An  amalgam  of  2  or  3  per  cent  of 
sodium  is  employed  in  the  processes  of 
extraction  of  gold  by  amalgamation.  It 
has  the  property  of  rendering  quick- 
silver more  brilliant,  and  consequently 
more  energetic,  by  acting  as  a  deoxidant 
on  the  pellicle  of  oxide  formed  on  its 
surface  in  presence  of  certain  ores, 
which,  by  keeping  it  separated  from  the 
particles  of  gold,  destroy  its  activity. 
Sodium  amalgam  of  3  per  cent  is  utilized 
with  success  for  the  amalgamated  plates 
employed  in  crushers  and  other  appa- 
ratus for  treating  the  ores  of  gold.  If  a 
few  drops  of  this  amalgam  are  spread 
on  a  plate  of  copper,  of  tin,  or  of  zinc,  a 
brilliant  coating  of  an  amalgam  of  tin, 
copper,  or  zinc  is  immediately  formed. 

V. — Amalgams  of  from  2  to  8  per  cent 
of  sodium  serve  frequently  in  laborato- 
ries for  reducing  or  hydrogenizing  or- 
ganic combinations,  -without  running 
the  risk  of  a  partial  destruction  of  these 
compounds  by  too  intense  action,  as 
may  occur  by  employing  free  sodium 
instead  of  its  amalgam. 

Applications  of  Barium  Amalgams.— 
These  can,  by  distillation,  furnish  bari- 
um. It  is  one  of  the  processes  for  pre- 
paring this  metal,  which,  when  thus  ob- 
tained, almost  always  retains  a  little 

Applications  of  Strontium  Amalgams. 

— These   amalgams,   washed   and   dried 

1   rapidly  immediately  after  their  prepara- 

I   tion,  and  then  heated  to  a  nascent  red 



in   a   current  of  dry   hydrogen,   yield   a 
fused  mass  of  strontium. 

Applications  of  Cadmium  Amalgams. — 
Amalgams  of  cadmium,  formed  of  equal 
weights  of  cadmium  and  quicksilver, 
have  much  power  of  cohesion  and  are 
quite  malleable;  the  case  is  the  same  with 
an  amalgam  formed  of  1  part  of  cad- 
mium and  2  parts  of  quicksilver.  They 
are  used  as  dental  cements  for  plugging 
teeth;  for  the  same  purpose  an  amalgam 
of  2  parts  of  quicksilver,  1  part  of  cad- 
mium, and  2  parts  of  tin  may  be  used. 

Applications  of  Zinc  Amalgams. — The 
principal  employment  of  zinc  amalgams 
is  their  use  as  a  cathode  or  negative  elec- 
trode in  the  batteries  of  Munson,  Dan- 
iels, and  Lechanche.  This  combination 
is  designed  to  render  the  zinc  non-attack- 
able by  the  exciting  liquid  of  the  battery 
with  open  circuit.  The  action  of  the 
mercury  is  to  prevent  the  zinc  from  form- 
ing a  large  number  of  small  voltaic  ele- 
ments when  foreign  bodies  are  mingled 
with  the  metal;  in  a  word,  the  giving  to 
ordinary  zinc  the  properties  of  pure  zinc, 
and  consequently  of  causing  a  great  sav- 
ing in  expense. 

For  amalgamating  a  zinc  plate  it  is 
plunged  for  a  few  seconds  into  water  in 
which  there  is  one-sixteenth  in  volume 
of  sulphuric  acid,  then  rubbing  with 
a  copper-wire  brush  which  has  been 
dipped  in  the  quicksilver.  The  mercury 
takes  more  readily  on  the  zinc  when, 
after  the  zinc  has  been  cleaned  with 
water  sharpened  with  sulphuric  acid, 
it  is  moistened  with  a  solution  of  corro- 
sive sublimate,  which  is  reduced  and 
furnishes  a  first  very  thin  coat  of  amal- 
gam, on  which  the  quicksilver  is  im- 
mediately fixed  by  simple  immersion 
without  rubbing. 

The  zinc  of  a  battery  may  be  amalga- 
mated by  putting  at  the  bottom  of  the 
compartment  containing  each  element, 
a  little  quicksilver  in  such  a  way  that  the 
zinc  touches  the  liquid.  The  amalga- 
mation is  effected  under  the  influence  of 
the  current,  but  this  process  applies  only 
on  condition  that  the  zinc  alone  touches 
the  bottom  of  the  vessel  containing  the 

Applications  of  Manganese  Amalgams. 
— These  may  serve  for  the  preparation 
of  manganese.  For  this  purpose  it  is 
sufficient  to  distill  in  a  current  of  pure 
Lydrogen.  The  manganese  remains  in 
the  form  of  a  grayish  powder. 

Applications  of  Tin  Amalgams. — I. — 
Tinning  of  glass.  This  operation  is 
accomplished  in  the  following  manner : 

On  a  cast-iron  table,  quite  horizontal,  a 
sheet  of  tin  of  the  dimensions  of  the  glass 
is  spread  out  and  covered  with  a  layer  of 
quicksilver,  5  or  6  millimeters  in  thick- 
ness. The  glass  is  made  to  slide  on  the 
sheet  of  tin  in  such  a  way  as  to  drive  off 
the  excess  of  quicksilver;  wrhen  the  two 
surfaces  are  covered  without  interposi- 
tion of  air,  weights  are  placed  on  the 
glass.  In  a  few  days,  the  glass  may  be 
removed,  having  been  covered  with  an 
adhering  pellicle  of  amalgam  of  4  parts 
of  tin  and  1  part  of  quicksilver.  (See 
also  Mirrors.) 

II. — An  amalgam  consisting  of  2  parts 
of  zinc  and  1  part  tin  may  be  used  for 
covering  the  cushions  of  frictional  elec- 
tric machines.  This  amalgam  is  pre- 
pared by  first  melting  the  zinc  and  tin  in 
a  crucible  and  adding  the  quicksilver 
previously  heated. 

III. — Mention  has  been  made  of  the 
cadmium  amalgam  employed  for  plug- 
ging teeth,  an  amalgam  of  2  parts  of 
quicksilver,  2  parts  of  tin,  and  1  part  of 
cadmium.  For  the  same  purpose  an 
amalgam  of  tin,  silver,  and  gold  is  em- 
ployed. (See  also  Cements,  Dental.) 

Applications  of  Copper  Amalgams. — 
I. — An  amalgam  of  30  per  cent  of  copper 
has  been  employed  for  filling  teeth. 
This  use  has  been  abandoned  on  account 
of  the  inconvenience  occasioned  by  the 
great  changeableness  of  the  product. 

II. — The  amalgam  of  30  per  cent  of 
copper,  designated  by  the  name  of  "me- 
tallic mastic,"  is  an  excellent  cement  for 
repairing  objects  and  utensils  of  porce- 
lain. For  this  employment,  the  broken 
surfaces  are  heated  to  662°  F.,  and  a  little 
of  the  amalgam,  previously  heated  to  the 
consistency  of  melted  wax,  is  applied. 

III. — Copper  amalgam,  of  30  to  45 
per  cent  of  copper,  rendered  plastic  by 
heating  and  grinding,  may  serve  for  ob- 
taining with  slight  compression  copies  of 
delicate  objects,  which  may,  after  hard- 
ening of  the  amalgam,  be  reproduced, 
either  in  wax  or  by  galvanic  process. 

IV. — According  to  Debray,  when  a 
medal,  obtained  with  an  amalgam  of 
45  per  cent  of  copper,  by  compression  in 
the  soft  state,  in  molds  of  gutta  percha, 
is  heated  progressively  to  redness  in  an 
atmosphere  of  hydrogen,  the  quicksilver 
is  volatilized  gradually,  and  the  particles 
of  copper  come  together  without  fusion 
in  such  a  way  as  to  produce  a  faithful 
reproduction,  formed  exclusively  of  me- 
tallic copper,  of  the  original  medal. 

V. — In  the  metallurgy  of  gold  the 
crushers  are  furnished  with  amalga- 
mated plates  of  copper  for  retaining  the 
gold.  The  preparation  of  these  plates, 



which  are  at  least  0.128  inches  in  thick- 
ness, is  delicate,  requiring  about  two 
weeks.  They  are  freed  from  greasy  mat- 
ter by  rubbing  with  ashes,  or,  better, 
with  a  little  sand  and  caustic  soda,  or  if 
more  rapid  action  is  desired,  with  a  cloth 
dipped  in  dilute  nitric  acid;  they  are 
washed  with  water,  then  with  a  solution 
of  potassium  cyanide,  and  finally  brushed 
with  a  mixture  of  sal  ammoniac  and  a 
little  quicksilver,  until  the  surface  is 
completely  amalgamated.  They  are 
finally  made  to  absorb  as  much  quick- 
silver as  possible.  But  the  plates  thus 
treated  are  useful  for  only  a  few  days 
when  they  are  sufficiently  covered  with  a 
layer  of  gold  amalgam;  in  the  meantime 
they  occasion  loss  of  time  and  of  gold. 
So  it  is  preferable  to  cover  them  arti- 
ficially with  a  little  gold  amalgam,  which 
is  prepared  by  dissolving  gold  in  quick- 
silver. Sometimes  the  amalgam  of  gold 
is  replaced  by  an  amalgam  of  silver, 
which  is  readily  poured  and  more  eco- 

Another  method  giving  better  results 
consists  in  silvering  copper  slabs  by  elec- 
troplating and  covering  them  with  a  layer 
of  silver.  Then  it  is  only  necessary  to 
apply  a  little  quicksilver,  which  adheres 
quite  rapidly,  so  that  they  are  ready  for 
use  almost  immediately,  and  are  quite 
active  at  the  outset. 

These  amalgamation  slabs  ought  to 
be  cleaned  before  each  operation.  Po- 
tassium cyanide  removes  fatty  matter, 
and  sal  ammoniac  the  oxides  of  the  low 

Applications  of  Lead  Amalgams. — 
These  meet  with  an  interesting  employ- 
ment for  the  autogenous  soldering  of 
lead.  After  the  surfaces  to  be  soldered 
have  been  well  cleaned,  a  layer  of  lead 
amalgam  is  applied.  It  is  afterwards 
sufficient  to  pass  along  the  line  of  junc- 
tion a  soldering  iron  heated  to  redness, 
in  order  that  the  heat  should  cause  the 
volatilization  of  the  quicksilver,  and  that 
the  lead,  liberated  in  a  state  of  fine  divi- 
sion, should  be  melted  and  cause  the 
adherence  of  the  two  surfaces.  The 
only  precaution  necessary  is  to  avoid 
breathing  the  mercurial  vapor,  which  is 
quite  poisonous. 

Applications  of  Bismuth  Amalgams. — 
The  amalgam  formed  of  1  per  cent  of 
bismuth  and  4  parts  of  quicksilver  will 
cause  the  strong  adherence  of  glass.  It 
is  employed  with  advantage  in  the  tin- 
ning of  glass  globes.  For  this  operation 
it  is  poured  into  a  dry  hot  receiver,  and 
then  passed  over  the  whole  surface  of 
the  glass;  it  solidifies  on  cooling.  For 

the  purpose  of  economizing  the  bismuth, 
the  price  of  which  is  high,  the  preceding 
amalgam  is  replaced  by  another  com- 
posed of  2  parts  of  quicksilver,  1  part  of 
bismuth,  1  part  of  lead,  and  1  part  of  tin. 
The  bismuth,  broken  into  small  frag- 
ments, is  added  to  the  tin  and  lead,  pre- 
viously melted  in  the  crucible,  and  when 
the  mixture  of  the  three  metals  becomes 
fluid,  the  quicksilver  is  poured  in,  while 
stirring  with  an  iron  rod.  The  impuri- 
ties floating  on  the  surface  are  removed, 
and  when  the  temperature  is  sufficiently 
lowered  this  amalgam  is  slbwly  poured 
into  the  vessels  to  be  tinned,  which  have 
been  previously  well  cleaned  and  slightly 
heated.  M.  Ditte  recommends  for  the 
same  employment,  as  a  very  strong  ad- 
herent to  the  glass,  an  amalgam  obtained 
by  dissolving  hot  2  parts  of  bismuth  and 
1  part  of  lead  in  a  solution  of  1  part  of 
tin  in  10  parts  of  quicksilver.  By  caus- 
ing a  quantity  of  this  amalgam  to  move 
around  the  inside  of  a  receiver,  clean, 
dry,  and  slightly  heated,  the  surface  will 
be  covered  with  a  thin,  brilliant  layer, 
which  hardens  quite  rapidly. 

For  the  injection  of  anatomical  pieces 
an  amalgam  formed  of  10  parts  of  quic  c- 
silver,  50  parts  of  bismuth,  31  parts  of 
lead,  and  18  parts  of  tin,  fusible  at  77.5° 
and  solidifiable  at  60°  C.,  is  made  use  of; 
or,  again,  an  amalgam  composed  of  9 
parts  of  Darcet  alloy  and  1  part  of  quick- 
silver fusible  at  127J°  F.,  and  pasty  at  a 
still  lower  temperature.  This  last  amal- 
gam may  also  be  used  for  filling  carious 
teeth.  The  Darcet  alloy,  as  known,  con- 
tains 2  parts  of  bismuth,  1  part  of  lead, 
and  1  part  of  tin,  and  melts  at  199^°  F. 
The  addition  of  1  part  of  quicksilver 
lowers  the  fusing  point  to  104°  F. 

Applications  of  Silver  Amalgams.  — I. — 
In  the  silvering  of  mirrors  by  the  Petit- 
jean  method,  which  has  almost  univer- 
sally replaced  tinning,  the  property  of 
silver  in  readily  amalgamating  is  taken 
advantage  of,  by  substituting  the  glass 
after  silvering  to  the  action  of  a  dilute 
solution  of  double  cyanide  of  mercury 
and  potassium  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
form  an  amalgam  of  white  and  brilliant 
silver  adhering  strongly  to  the  glass.  To 
facilitate  the  operation  and  utilize  all  the 
silver,  while  economizing  the  double  cya- 
nide, M.  Lenoir  has  recommended  the 
following:  Sprinkle  the  glass  at  the  time 
when  it  is  covered  with  the  mercurial 
solution  with  very  fine  zinc  powder, 
which  precipitates  the  quicksilver  and 
regulates  the  amalgamation. 

II. — The  metallurgy  of  silver  also 
takes  advantage  of  the  property  of  this 



metal  in  combining  cold  with  quicksil- 
ver; this  for  the  treatment  of  poor  silver 

In  the  Saxon  or  Freiburg  process  for 
treating  silver  ores,  recourse  is  had  to 
quicksilver  in  the  case  of  amalgam  in 
amalgamating  casks,  in  which  the  ore, 
after  grinding,  is  shaken  with  disks  of 
iron,  and  with  mercury  and  water.  The 
amalgam,  collected  and  filtered  under 
strong  pressure,  contains  from  30  to  33 
per  cent  of  silver.  It  is  distilled  either 
in  cylindrical  retorts  of  cast  iron,  fur- 
nished with  an  exit  tube  immersed  in 
the  water  for  condensing  the  mercurial 
vapors,  or  on  plates  of  iron,  arranged 
over  each  other  along  a  vertical  iron 
stem,  supported  by  a  tripod  at  the  bot- 
tom of  a  tank  filled  with  water,  and 
covered  with  an  iron  receiver,  which  is 
itself  surrounded  with  ignited  charcoal. 
It  should  be  remarked  that  the  last  por- 
tions of  quicksilver  in  a  silver  amalgam 
submitted  to  distillation  are  voiaiiiized 
only  under  the  action  of  a  high  and  pro- 
longed temperature. 

Applications  of  Gold  Amalgams. — I.  — 
Gilding  with  quicksilver.  This  process 
of  gilding,  much  employed  formerly,  is 
now  but  little  used.  It  can  be  applied 
only  to  metals  slightly  fusible  and  capa- 
ble of  amalgamation,  like  silver,  copper, 
bronze,  and  brass.  Iron  can  also  be 
gilded  by  this  method,  provided  it  is 
previously  covered  with  a  coating  of 
copper.  To  perform  this  gilding  the 
surface  is  well  cleaned,  and  the  gold 
amalgam,  consisting  of  2  parts  of  gold 
and  1  part  of  quicksilver,  prepared  as 
mentioned  before,  is  applied.  The  piece 
is  afterwards  heated  to  about  the  red,  so 
as  to  volatilize  the  mercury.  The  gold 
remains,  superficially  alloyed  with  the 
metal,  and  forms  an  extremely  solid 
layer  of  deadened  gold,  which  can  be 
afterwards  polished.  The  volatilization 
should  be  effected  under  a  chimney  hav- 
ing strong  draught,  in  order  to  avoid  the 
poisonous  action  of  the  mercurial  vapors. 

II. — The  amalgamation  of  gold  finds 
its  principal  applications  in  the  treatment 
of  auriferous  ores.  The  extraction  of 
small  spangles  of  gold  scattered  in  gold- 
bearing  sands  is  based  on  the  ready 
dissolution  of  gold  in  quicksilver,  and 
on  the  formation  of  an  amalgam  of  solid 
gold  by  compression  and  filtering  through 
a  chamois  skin,  in  a  state  more  or  less 
liquid.  The  spangles  of  gold  are  shaken 
with  about  their  weight  of  quicksilver, 
collected  in  the  cavities  of  sluices  and 
mixed  with  a  small  quantity  of  sand. 
The  gold  is  dissolved  and  the  sand  re- 

mains. The  amalgam  thus  obtained  is 
compressed  in  a  chamois  skin,  so  as  to 
separate  the  excess  of  mercury  which 
passes  through  the  pores  of  the  skin;  or, 
yet  again,  it  is  filtered  through  a  glass 
funnel  having  a  very  slender  stem,  with 
almost  capillary  termination.  In  both 
cases  an  amalgam  of  solid  gold  remains, 
which  is  submitted  to  the  action  of  heat 
in  a  crucible  or  cast-iron  retort,  com- 
municating with  a  bent-iron  tube,  of 
which  the  extremity,  surrounded  with  a 
cloth  immersed  in  water,  is  arranged 
above  a  receiver  lialf  full  of  water.  The 
quicksilver  is  vaporized  and  condensed 
in  the  water.  The  gold  remains  in  the 

The  property  of  gold  of  combining 
readily  with  quicksilver  is  also  used  in 
many  kinds  of  amalgamating  apparatus 
for  extraction  and  in  the  metallurgy  of 

In  various  operations  it  is  essential 
to  keep  the  quicksilver  active  by  preserv- 
ing its  limpidity.  For  this  purpose 
potassium  cyanide  and  ammonium 
chloride  are  especially  employed;  some- 
times wood  ashes,  carbonate  of  soda, 
hyposulphite  of  soda,  nitrate  of  potash, 
cupric  sulphate,  sea  salt,  and  lime;  the 
latter  for  precipitating  the  soluble  sul- 
phates proceeding  from  the  decomposi- 
tion of  pyrites. 

The  amalgamation  of  gold  is  favored 
by  a  temperature  of  38°  to  45°  C.  (100° 
to  113°  F.),  and  still  more  by  the  em- 
ployment of  quicksilver  in  the  nascent 
state.  This  last  property  is  the  base  of 
the  Designol  process,  which  consists  in 
treating  auriferous  or  auro-argentiferous 
ores,  first  ground  with  sea  salt,  in  revolv- 
ing cylinders  of  cast  iron,  with  iron  and 
mercury  bichloride,  in  such  a  way  that 
the  mercury  precipitated  collects  the  gold 
and  eventually  the  silver  more  effica 

Gold  Amalgam. — Eight  parts  of  gold 
and  1  of  mercury  are  formed  into  an 
amalgam  for  plating  by  rendering  the 
gold  into  thin  plates,  making  it  red  hot, 
and  then  putting  it  into  the  mercury  while 
the  latter  is  also  heated  to  ebullition. 
The  gold  immediately  disappears  in 
combination  with  the  mercury,  after 
which  the  mixture  may  be  turned  into 
water  to  cool.  It  is  then  ready  for  use. 

Zinc  Amalgam  for  Electric  Batteries. 
• — Dissolve  2  parts  of  mercury  in  1  part 
of  aqua  regia.  This  accomplished,  add 
5  parts  of  hydrochloric  acid.  This  solu- 
tion is  made  warm.  It  suffices  to  dip 
the  zinc  to  be  amalgamated  into  this 
liquid  only  for  a  few  seconds. 



Amalgam  for  Cementing  Glass,  Por- 
celain, Etc. — Take  tin  2  parts,  and  cad- 
mium 1  part.  Fuse  in  an  iron  spoon 
or  some  vessel  of  the  same  material. 
When  the  two  materials  are  in  fusion  add 
a  little  mercury,  previously  heated.  Place 
all  in  an  iron  crucible  and  boil,  agitating 
the  mass  with  a  pestle.  This  amalgam 
is  soft  and  can  be  kneaded  between  the 
fingers.  It  may  be  employed  for  luting 
glass  or  porcelain  vessels,  as  well  as  for 
filling  teeth.  It  hardens  in  a  short  while. 

Amalgam  for  Silvering  Glass  Balls. — 
Lead,  25  parts;  tin,  25  parts;  bismuth, 
25  parts;  mercury,  25  parts;  or,  lead,  20 
parts;  tin,  20  parts;  bismuth,  20  parts; 
mercury,  40  parts.  Melt  the  lead  and 
the  tin,  then  add  the  bismuth;  skim  sev- 
eral times  and  add  the  mercury,  stirring 
the  composition  vigorously. 

(See  also  Mirror-Silvering). 

Copper  Amalgam. — Copper  amalgam, 
or  so-called  Viennese  metal  cement,  crys- 
tallizes with  the  greatest  readiness  and 
acquires  such  hardness  on  solidifying 
that  it  can  be  polished  like  gold.  The 
amalgam  may  also  be  worked  under  the 
hammer  or  between  rollers;  it  can  also 
be  stamped,  and  retains  its  metallic  luster 
for  a  long  time  in  the  air.  In  air  con- 
taining hydrogen  sulphide,  however,  it 
quickly  tarnishes  and  turns  black.  A 
very  special  property  of  copper  amalgam 
consists  in  that  it  becomes  very  soft  when 
laid  in  water,  and  attains  such  pliancy 
that  it  can  be  employed  for  modeling  the 
most  delicate  objects.  After  a  few 
hours  the  amalgam  congeals  again  into 
a  very  fine-grained,  rather  malleable 
mass.  An  important  application  of 
copper  amalgam  is  that  for  cementing 
metals.  ^  All  that  is  necessary  for  this 
purpose  is  to  heat  the  metals,  which  must 
be  bright,  to  80-90°  C.  (176-194°  F.),  to 
apply  the  amalgam  and  to  press  the  metal 
pieces  together.  They  will  cohere  as 
firmly  as  though  soldered  together. 

Copper  amalgam  may  be  prepared  in 
the  following  manner: 

Place  strips  of  zinc  in  a  solution  of  blue 
vitriol  and  agitate  the  solution  thor- 
oughly. The  copper  thus  obtained  in 
the  form  of  a  very  fine  powder  is  washed 
and,  while  still  moist,  treated  in  a  mor- 
tar with  a  solution  of  mercury  nitrate. 
The  copper  powder  thereby  amalga- 
mates more  readily  with  the  quicksilver. 
Next,  hot  water  is  poured  over  the  cop- 
per, the  mortar  is  kept  hot,  and  the  mer- 
cury added.  Knead  with  the  pestle  of 
the  mortar  until  the  copper,  pulverulent 
in  the  beginning,  has  united  with  the 
mercury  into  a  very  plastic  mass.  The 

longer  the  kneading  is  continued  the 
more  uniform  will  be  the  mass.  As  soon 
as  the  amalgam  has  acquired  the  suitable 
character — for  its  production  3  parts  of 
copper  and  7  parts  of  mercury  are  used 
— the  water  is  poured  off  and  the  amal- 
gam still  soft  is  given  the  shape  in  which 
it  is  to  be  kept. 

For  cementing  purposes,  the  amalgam 
is  rolled  out  into  small  cylinders,  whose 
diameter  is  about  0.16  to  0.2  inches,  with 
a  length  of  a  few  inches.  In  order  to 
produce  with  this  amalgam  impressions 
of  castings,  which  are  made  after  wood- 
cuts, the  amalgam  is  rolled  out  hot 
into  a  thin  plate  and  pressed  firmly 
onto  the  likewise  heated  plaster  cast. 
After  the  amalgam  has  hardened  the 
thin  plate  of  it  may  be  reinforced  by 
pouring  on  molten  type  metal. 

Silver  Amalgam. — Silver  amalgam  can 
easily  be  made  with  the  help  of  finely 
powdered  silver.  The  mercury  need 
only  be  heated  to  250°  to  300°  C.  (482° 
to  572°  F.);  silver  powder  is  then  sprin- 
kled on  it,  and  mixed  with  it  by  stirring. 
The  vessel  is  heated  for  several  minutes 
and  then  allowed  to  cool,  the  excess  of 
mercury  being  removed  from  the  granu- 
lated crystalline  amalgam  by  pressing  in 
a  leather  bag.  Silver  amalgam  can  also 
easily  be  made  by  dissolving  silver  in 
nitric  acid,  evaporating  the  solution  till 
the  excess  of  free  acid  is  eliminated,  di- 
luting with  distilled  water,  and  adding 
mercury  to  the  fluid  in  the  proportion  of 
4  parts,  by  weight,  of  mercury  to  1  of  the 
silver  originally  used.  The  mercury 
precipitates  the  silver  in  a  metallic  state, 
and  immediately  forms  an  amalgam  with 
it;  the  fluid  standing  above  after  a  time 
contains  no  more  silver,  but  consists  of 
a  solution  of  mercury  nitrate  mixed  with 
whatever  copper  was  contained  in  the 
dissolved  silver  in  the  form  of  copper 
nitrate.  The  absence  of  a  white  pre- 
cipitate, if  a  few  drops  of  hydrochloric 
acid  are  added  to  a  sample  of  the  fluid 
in  a  test  tube,  shows  that  all  the  silver 
has  been  eliminated  from  the  solution 
and  is  present  in  the  form  of  amalgam. 

Amalgam  for  the  Rubber  of  Electric 
Machines. — Mercury,  100  parts;  zinc,  50 
parts;  tin,  50  parts.  Tnis  amalgam 
reduced  to  powder  and  incorporated 
with  grease  can  be  applied  to  the  rubber 
of  electric  machines. 

See  Gilding  under  Plating. 

Imitation  Amber. — Melt  carefully  to- 
gether pine  rosin,  1;  lacca  in  tabulis,  2; 
white  colophony,  15  parts. 




See  Adhesives  under  Cements. 


See  Varnishes. 


See  Salts  (Effervescent). 


See  Photography. 

See  Gems,  Artificial. 


See  Explosives. 


Household  Ammonia. — (See  also  House- 
hold Formulas.) — Household  ammonia  is 
simply  diluted  ammonia  water  to  which 
borax  and  soap  have  been  added.  To 
make  it  cloudy  add  potassium  nitrate 
or  methylated  spirit.  The  following  are 
good  formulas: 

I. — Ammonia  water  ....     16  parts 

Yellow  soap 64  parts 

Potassium  nitrate...        1  part 
Soft  water,  sufficient 

to  make 200  parts 

Shave  up  the  soap  and  dissolve  it  in 
the  water  by  heating,  add  the  potassium 
nitrate  and  dissolve.  Cool,  strain,  skim 
off  any  suds  or  bubbles,  add  the  am- 
monia, mix,  and  bottle  at  once. 

II. — Yellow  soap 10  grains 

Borax 1  drachm 

Lavender  water. ...    20  minims 
Stronger  ammonia 

water 6  ounces 

Water,     enough     to 

make 20  ounces 

Dissolve    the    soap    and    borax    in    5 
ounces  of  boiling  water;  when  cold  add 
the  lavender  water  and  ammonia,  and 
make  up  to  a  pint  with  water. 
III. — Methylated  spirit.  ..        1  gallon 

Soft  water 1  gallon 

Stronger     ammonia 

water 1  gallon 

IV. — Ammonia  water.  —        5  pints 

Distilled  water 5  pints 

Soap 100  grains 

Olive  oil 5  drachms 

Cut  the  soap  in  shavings,  boil  with  the 
oil  and  water,  cool,  add  the  ammonia 
water,  and  bottle.  For  use  in  laundries, 
baths,  and  for  general  household  pur- 
poses add  one  tablespoonful  to  one 
gallon  of  water. 

V.— The  best  quality: 

Alcohol,  94  per  cent . .   4  ounces 

Soft  water 4  gallons 

Oil  of  rosemary 4  drachms 

Oil  of  citronella 3  drachms 

Dissolve  the  oils  in  the  alcohol  and 
add  to  the  water.  To  the  mixture  add 
4  ounces  of  talc  (or  fuller's  earth  will 
answer),  mix  thoroughly,  strain  through 
canvas,  and  to  the  colate  add  1,  2,  or  3 
gallons  of  ammonia  water,  according  to 
the  strength  desired,  in  which  has  been 
dissolved  1,  2,  or  3  ounces  of  white 'curd, 
or  soft  soap. 

Liquor  Ainmonii  Anisatus. — 

Oil  of  anise,  by  weight 1  part 

Alcohol,  by  weight 24  parts 

Water  of  ammonia,  by  weight. .      5  parts 

Dissolve  the  oil  in  the  alcohol  and  add 
the  water  of  ammonia. 

It  should  be  a  clear,  yellowish  liquid. 

Violet  Color  for  Ammonia. — A  purple- 
blue  color  may  be  given  to  ammonia 
water  by  adding  an  aqueous  solution 
of  litmus.  The  shade,  when  pale 
enough,  will  probably  meet  all  views  as 
to  a  violet  color. 

Perfumed  Ammonia  Water. — The 
following  are  typical  formulas: 

I. — Stronger  water  of  am- 
monia       6  ounces 

Lavender  water 1  ounce 

Soft  soap 10  grains 

Water,      enough      to 

make 16  ounces 

II. — Soft  soap 1     ounce 

Borax 2     drachms 

Cologne  water |  ounce 

Stronger  water  of  am- 
monia       5£  ounces 

Water,      enough      to 

make 12     ounces 

Rub  up  the  soap  and  borax  with  water 
until  dissolved,  strain  and  add  the  other 
ingredients.  The  perfumes  may  be 
varied  to  suit  the  price. 


See  Photography. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 

See  Dyes. 

See  Pigments. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 



See  Wines  and  Liquors. 


See  Butter. 


See  Steel. 


See  Pain  Killers. 


See  Insecticides. 

Antidotes  for  Poisons 


When  a  person  has  taken  poison  the 
first  thing  to  do  is  to  compel  the  patient 
to  vomit,  and  for  that  purpose  give  any 
emetic  that  can  be  most  readily  and 
quickly  obtained,  and  which  is  prompt 
and  energetic,  but  safe  in  its  action. 
For  this  purpose  there  is,  perhaps, 
nothing  better  than  a  large  teaspoonful 
of  ground  mustard  in  a  tumblerful  of 
warm  water,  and  it  has  the  advantage  of 
being  almost  always  at  hand.  If  the  dry 
mustard  is  not  to  be  had  use  mixed 
mustard  from  the  mustard  pot.  Its 
operation  may  generally  be  facilitated 
by  the  addition  of  a  like  quantity  of 
common  table  salt.  If  the  mustard  is 
not  at  hand,  give  two  or  three  teaspoon- 
fuls  of  powdered  alum  in  syrup  or 
molasses,  and  give  freely  of  warm  water 
to  drink;  or  give  10  to  20  grains  of  sul- 
phate of  zinc  (white  vitriol),  or  20  to  30 
grains  of  ipecac,  with  1  or  2  grains  of 
tartar  emetic,  in  a  large  cup  of  warm 
water,  and  repeat  every  ten  minutes  until 
three  or  four  doses  are  given,  unless 
free  vomiting  is  sooner  produced.  After 
vomiting  has  taken  place  large  draughts 
of  warm  water  should  be  given,  so 
that  the  vomiting  will  continue  until  the 
poisonous  substances  have  been  thor- 
oughly evacuated,  and  then  suitable  anti- 
dotes should  be  given.  If  vomiting  can- 
not be  produced  the  stomach  pump 
should  be  used.  When  it  is  known  what 
particular  kind  of  poison  has  been  swal- 
lowed, then  the  proper  antidote  for  that 
poison  should  be  given;  but  when  this 
cannot  be  ascertained,  as  is  often  the 
case,  give  freely  of  equal  parts  of  cal- 
cined magnesia,  pulverized  charcoal, 
and  sesquioxide  of  iron,  in  a  sufficient 
quantity  of  water.  This  is  a  very  harm- 
less mixture  and  is  likely  to  be  of  great 
benefit,  as  the  ingredients,  though  very 

simple,  are  antidotes  for  the  most  com- 
mon and  active  poisons.  In  case  this 
mixture  cannot  be  obtained,  the  stomach 
should  be  soothed  and  protected  by  the 
free  administration  of  demulcent,  muci- 
laginous, or  oleaginous  drinks,  such  as  the 
whites  of  eggs,  milk,  mucilage  of  gum 
arabic,  or  slippery-elm  bark,  flaxseed 
tea,  starch,  wheat  flour,  or  arrowroot 
mixed  in  water,  linseed  or  olive  oil,  or 
melted  butter  or  lard.  Subsequently 
the  bowels  should  be  moved  by  some 
gentle  laxative,  as  a  tablespoonful  or 
two  of  castor  oil,  or  a  teaspoonful  of  cal- 
cined magnesia;  and  pain  or  other  evi- 
dence of  inflammation  must  be  relieved 
by  the  administration  of  a  few  drops  of 
laudanum,  and  the  repeated  application 
of  hot  poultices,  fomentations,  and  mus- 
tard plasters. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  the 
substances  that  may  give  rise  to  poison- 
ing, most  commonly  used,  and  their  anti- 

Mineral  Acids — Sulphuric  Acid  (Oil 
of  Vitriol),  Nitric  Acid  (Aqua  Fortis), 
Muriatic  Acid  (Spirits  of  Salts). — Symp- 
toms: Acid,  burning  taste  in  the  moutn, 
acute  pain  in  the  throat,  stomach,  and 
bowels;  frequent  vomiting,  generally 
bloody;  mouth  and  lips  excoriated, 
shriveled,  white  or  yellow;  hiccough, 
copious  stools,  more  or  less  bloody,  with 
great  tenderness  in  the  abdomen;  diffi- 
cult breathing,  irregular  pulse,  excessive 
thirst,  while  drink  increases  the  pain 
and  rarely  remains  in  the  stomach;  fre- 
quent but  vain  efforts  to  urinate;  cold 
sweats,  altered  countenance;  convul- 
sions, generally  preceding  death.  Nitric 
acid  causes  yellow  stains;  sulphuric 
acid,  black  ones.  Treatment:  Mix 
calcined  magnesia  in  milk  or  water  to  the 
consistence  of  cream,  and  give  freely  to 
drink  a  glassful  every  couple  of  minutes, 
if  it  can  be  swallowed.  Common  soap 
(hard  or  soft),  chalk,  whiting,  or  even 
mortar  from  the  wall  mixed  in  water 
may  be  given,  until  magnesia  can  be  ob- 
tained. Promote  vomiting  by  tickling 
the  throat,  if  necessary,  and  when  the 
poison  is  got  rid  of,  flaxseed  or  slippery- 
elm  tea,  gruel,  or  other  mild  drinks. 
The  inflammation  which  always  follows 
needs  good  treatment  to  save  the  pa- 
tient's life. 

Vegetable  Acids— Acetic,  Citric,  Ox- 
alic, Tartaric. — Symptoms:  Intense 
burning  pain  of  mouth,  throat,  and 
stomach;  vomiting  blood  which  is  highly 
acid,  violent  purging,  collapse,  stupor, 

Oxalic    acid    is    frequently    taken    in 


mistake  for  Epsom  salts,  to  which  in 
shops  it  often  bears  a  strong  resemblance. 
Treatment:  Give  chalk  or  magnesia  in  a 
large  quantity  of  water,  or  large  draughts 
of  limewater.  If  these  are  not  at  hand, 
scrape  the  wall  or  ceiling,  and  give  the 
scrapings  mixed  with  water. 

Prussic  or  Hydrocyanic  Acid — Laurel 
Water,  Cyanide  of  Potassium,  Bitter 
Almond  Oil,  Etc. — Symptoms:  In  large 
doses  almost  invariably  instantaneously 
fatal;  when  not  immediately  fatal,  sud- 
den loss  of  sense  and  control  of  the  vol- 
untary muscles.  The  odor  of  the  poison 
generally  noticeable  on  the  breath. 
Treatment:  Chlorine,  in  the  form  of 
chlorine  water,  in  doses  of  from  1  to  4 
fluidrachms,  diluted.  Weak  solution 
of  chloride  lime  of  soda;  water  of  am- 
monia (spirits  of  hartshorn),  largely 
diluted,  may  be  given,  and  the  vapor  of  it 
cautiously  inhaled.  Cold  affusion,  and 
chloroform  in  half  to  teaspoonful  doses 
in  glycerine  or  mucilage,  repeated  every 
few  minutes,  until  the  symptoms  are 
ameliorated.  Artificial  respiration. 

Aconite — Monkshood,  Wolfsbane. — 
Symptoms:  Numbness  and  tingling  in 
the  mouth  and  throat,  and  afterwards  in 
other  portions  of  the  body,  with  sore 
throat,  pain  over  the  stomach,  and  vom- 
iting; dimness  of  vision,  dizziness,  great 
prostration,  loss  of  sensibility,  and  de- 
lirium. Treatment:  An  emetic  and 
then  brandy  in  tablespoonful  doses,  in 
ice  water,  every  half  hour ;  spirits  of 
ammonia  in  half -teaspoonful  doses  in 
like  manner;  the  cold  douche  over  the 
head  and  chest,  warmth  to  the  extrem- 
ities, etc. 

Alkalis  and  Their  Salts— Concen- 
trated Lye,  Wood-ash  Lye,  Caustic  Pot- 
ash, Ammonia,  Hartshorn. — Symptoms: 
Caustic,  acrid  taste,  excessive  heat  in 
the  throat,  stomach,  and  intestines; 
vomiting  of  bloody  matter,  cold  sweats, 
hiccough,  purging  of  bloody  stools. 
Treatment:  The  common  vegetable 
acids.  Common  vinegar,  being  always 
at  hand,  is  most  frequently  used.  The 
fixed  oils,  as  castor,  flaxseed,  almond, 
and  olive  oils  form  soaps  with  the  alka- 
lis and  thus  also  destroy  their  caustic 
effect.  They  should  be  given  in  large 

Antimony  and  Its  Preparations — Tar- 
tar Emetic,  Antimonial  Wine,  Kerme's 
Mineral.  —  Symptoms  :  Faintness  and 
nausea,  soon  followed  by  painful  and 
continued  vomiting,  severe  diarrhea, 
constriction  and  burning  sensation  in 
the  throat,  cramps,  or  spasmodic  twitch- 

ings,  with  symptoms  of  nervous  derange- 
ment, and  great  prostration  of  strength, 
often  terminating  in  death.  Treatment: 
If  vomiting  has  not  been  produced,  it 
should  be  effected  by  tickling  the  fauces, 
and  administering  copious  draughts  of 
warm  water.  Astringent  infusions,  such 
as  of  gall,  oak  bark,  Peruvian  bark,  act 
as  antidotes,  and  should  be  given  prompt- 
ly. Powdered  yellow  bark  may  be  used 
until  the  infusion  is  prepared,  or  very 
strong  green  tea  should  be  given.  To 
stop  the  vomiting,  should  it  continue, 
blister  over  the  stomach  by  applying  a 
cloth  wet  with  strong  spirits  of  hartshorn, 
and  then  sprinkle  on  one-eighth  to  one- 
fourth  of  a  grain  of  morphia. 

Arsenic  and  Its  Preparations— Rats- 
bane, Fowler's  Solution,  Etc. —  Symp- 
toms: Generally  within  an  hour  pain 
and  heat  are  felt  in  the  stomach,  soon 
followed  by  vomiting,  with  a  burning 
dryness  of  the  throat  and  great  thirst; 
the  matters  vomited  are  generally  colored 
either  green  yellow,  or  brown,  and  are 
sometimes  bloody.  Diarrhea  or  dys- 
entery ensues,  while  the  pulse  becomes 
small  and  rapid,  yet  irregular.  Breath- 
ing much  oppressed;  difficulty  in  vom- 
iting may  occur,  while  cramps,  convul- 
sions, or  even  paralysis  often  precede 
death,  which  sometimes  takes  place  with- 
in five  or  six  hours  after  arsenic  has  been 
taken.  Treatment  :  Give  a  prompt 
emetic,  and  then  hydrate  of  peroxide  of 
iron  (recently  prepared)  in  tablespoon- 
ful doses  every  10  or  15  minutes  until  the 
urgent  symptoms  are  relieved.  In  the 
absence  of  this,  or  while  it  is  being  pre- 
pared, give  large  draughts  of  new  milk 
and  raw  eggs,  limewater  and  oil,  melted 
butter,  magnesia  in  a  large  quantity  of 
water,  or  even  if  nothing  else  is  at  hand, 
flour  and  water,  always5>  however,  giv- 
ing an  emetic  the  first  thing,  or  causing 
vomiting  by  tickling  the  throat  with  a 
feather,  etc.  The  inflammation  of  the 
stomach  which  follows  must  be  treated 
by  blisters,  hot  fomentations,  muci- 
laginous drinks,  and  the  like. 

Belladonna,  or  Deadly  Nightshade.— 
Symptoms:  Dryness  of  the  mouth  and 
throat,  great  thirst,  difficulty  of  swal- 
lowing, nausea,  dimness,  confusion  or 
loss  of  vision,  great  enlargement  of  the 
pupils,  dizziness,  delirium,  and  coma. 
Treatment:  There  is  no  known  anti- 
dote. Give  a  prompt  emetic  and  then 
reliance  must  be  placed  on  continual 
stimulation  with  brandy,  whisky,  etc., 
and  to  necessary  artificial  respiration. 
Opium  and  its  preparations,  as  morphia, 
laudanum,  etc.,  are  thought  by  some  to 


counteract  the  effect  of  belladonna,  and 
may  be  given  in  small  and  repeated  doses, 
as  also  strong  black  coffee  and  green  tea. 

Blue  Vitriol,  or  Blue  Stone.— See  Cop- 

Cantharides  (Spanish  or  Blistering 
Fly)  and  Modern  Potato  Bug. — Symp- 
toms: Sickening  odor  of  the  breath, 
sour  taste,  with  burning  heat  in  the 
throat,  stomach,  and  bowels;  frequent 
vomiting,  often  bloody;  copious  bloody 
stools,  great  pain  in  the  stomach,  with 
burning  sensation  in  the  bladder  and 
difficulty  to  urinate  followed  with  ter- 
rible convulsions,  delirium,  and  death. 
Treatment:  Excite  vomiting  by  drinking 
plentifully  of  sweet  oil  or  other  whole- 
some oils,  sugar  and  water,  milk,  or 
slippery-elm  tea;  give  injections  of  castor 
oil  and  starch,  or  warm  milk.  The  in- 
flammatory symptoms  which  generally 
follow  must  be  treated  by  a  physician. 
Camphorated  oil  or  camphorated  spirits 
should  be  rubbed  over  the  bowels,  stom- 
ach, and  thighs. 

Caustic  Potash. — See  Alkalis  under  this 

Cobalt,  or  Fly  Powder. — Symptoms: 
Heat  and  pain  in  the  throat  and  stomach, 
violent  retching  and  vomiting,  cold  and 
clammy  skin,  small  and  feeble  pulse, 
hurried  and  difficult  breathing,  diar- 
rhea, etc.  Treatment:  An  emetic,  fol- 
lowed by  the  free  administration  of  milk, 
eggs,  wheat  flour  and  water,  and  muci- 
laginous drinks. 

Copper — Blue  Vitriol,  Verdigris  or 
Pickles  or  Food  Cooked  in  Copper  Ves- 
sels.— Symptoms:  General  inflamma- 
tion of  the  alimentary  canal,  suppres- 
sion of  urine;  hiccough,  a  disagreeable 
metallic  taste,  vomiting,  violent  colic, 
excessive  thirst,  sense  of  tightness  of  the 
throat,  anxiety;  faintness,  giddiness, 
and  cramps  and  convulsions  generally 
precede  death.  Treatment :  Large 
doses  of  simple  syrup  as  warm  as  can  be 
swallowed,  until  the  stomach  rejects  the 
amount  it  contains.  The  whites  of  eggs 
and  large  quantities  of  milk.  Hydrated 
peroxide  of  iron. 

Creosote  — Carbolic  Acid.  — Symptoms  : 
Burning  pain,  acrid,  pungent  taste, 
thirst,  vomiting,  purging,  etc.  Treat- 
ment: An  emetic  and  the  free  adminis- 
tration of  albumen,  as  the  whites  of  eggs, 
or,  in  the  absence  of  these,  milk,  or  flour 
and  water. 

Corrosive  Sublimate. — See  Mercury 
under  this  title. 

Deadly  Nightshade.— See  Belladonna 
under  this  title. 

Foxglove,  or  Digitalis.— Symptoms: 
Loss  of  strength,  feeble,  fluttering  pulse, 
faintness,  nausea  and  vomiting  and  stu- 
por ;  cold  perspiration,  dilated  pupils, 
sighing,  irregular  breathing,  and  some- 
times convulsions.  Treatment:  After 
vomiting,  give  brandy  and  ammonia  in 
frequently  repeated  doses,  apply  warmth 
to  the  extremities,  and  if  necessary  resort 
to  artificial  respiration. 

Gases — Carbonic  Acid,  Chlorine,  Cy- 
anogen, Hydrosulphuric  Acid,  Etc. — 
Symptoms:  Great  drowsiness,  difficult 
respiration,  features  swollen,  face  blue 
as  in  strangulation.  Treatment:  Arti- 
ficial respiration,  cold  douche,  friction 
with  stimulating  substances  to  the  sur- 
face of  the  body.  Inhalation  of  steam 
containing  preparations  of  ammonia. 
Cupping  from  nape  of  neck.  Internal 
use  of  chloroform. 

Hellebore,  or  Indian  Poke. — Symp- 
toms: Violent  vomiting  and  purging, 
bloody  stools,  great  anxiety,  tremors, 
vertigo,  fainting,  sinking  of  the  pulse, 
cold  sweats,  and  convulsions.  Treat- 
ment: Excite  speedy  vomiting  by  large 
draughts  of  warm  water,  molasses  and 
water,  tickling  the  throat  with  the  finger 
or  a  feather,  and  emetics;  give  oily  and 
mucilaginous  drinks,  oily  purgatives, 
and  clysters,  acids,  strong  coffee,  cam- 
phor, and  opium. 

Hemlock  (Conium). — Symptoms:  Dry- 
ness  of  the  throat,  tremors,  dizziness, 
difficulty  of  swallowing,  prostration,  and 
faintness,  limbs  powerless  or  paralyzed, 
pupils  dilated,  pulse  rapid  and  feeble; 
insensibility  and  convulsions  sometimes 
precede  death.  Treatment:  Empty  the 
stomach  and  give  brandy  in  tablespoon- 
ful  doses,  with  half  teaspoonful  of  spirits 
of  ammonia,  frequently  repeated,  and 
if  much  pain  and  vomiting,  give  bro- 
mide of  ammonium  in  5-grain  doses 
every  half  hour.  Artificial  respiration 
may  be  required. 

Henbane,  or  Hyoscyamus. — Symp- 
toms: Muscular  twitching,  inability  to 
articulate  plainly,  dimness  of  vision  and 
stupor;  later,  vomiting  and  purging, 
small  intermittent  pulse,  convulsive 
movement  of  the  extremities,  and  coma. 
Treatment:  Similar  to  opium  poison- 
ing, which  see. 

Iodine. — Symptoms:  Burning  pain  in 
throat,  lacerating  pain  in  the  stomach, 
fruitless  effort  to  vomit,  excessive  ten- 
derness of  the  epigastrium.  Treatment: 



Free  emesis,  prompt  administration  of 
starch,  wheat  flour,  or  arrowroot,  beaten 
up  in  water. 

Lead — Acetate  of  Lead,  Sugar  of  Lead, 
Dry  White  Lead,  Red  Lead,  Litharge,  or 
Pickles,  Wine,  or  Vinegar  Sweetened  by 
Lead. — Symptoms:  When  taken  in  large 
doses,  a  sweet  but  astringent  metallic 
taste  exists,  with  constriction  in  the 
throat,  pain  in  the  region  of  the  stomach, 
painful,  obstinate,  and  frequently  bloody 
vomitings,  hiccough,  convulsions  or 
spasms,  and  death.  When  taken  in 
small  but  long-continued  doses  it  pro- 
duces colic,  called  painters'  colic;  great 
pain,  obstinate  constipation,  and  in  ex- 
treme cases  paralytic  symptoms,  es- 
pecially wrist-drop,  with  a  blue  line  along 
the  edge  of  the  gums.  Treatment:  To 
counteract  the  poison  give  alum  in  water 
li  ounce  to  a  quart;  or,  better  still,  Ep- 
som salts  or  Glauber's  salts,  an  ounce  of 
either  in  a  quart  of  water;  or  dilute  sul- 
phuric acid,  a  teaspoonful  to  a  quart  of 
water.  If  a  large  quantity  of  sugar  of 
lead  has  been  recently  taken,  empty  the 
stomach  by  an  emetic  of  sulphate  of  zinc 
(1  drachm  in  a  qur,rt  oi  water),  giving 
one-fourth  to  commence,  and  repeating 
smaller  doses  until  free  vomiting  is  pro- 
duced; castor  oil  should  be  given  to  clear 
the  bowels  and  injections  of  oil  and 
starch  freely  administered.  If  the  body 
is  cold  use  the  warm  bath. 

Meadow  Saffron. — See  Belladonna. 
Laudanum. — See  Opium. 

Lobelia  —  Indian  Poke.  —  Symptoms : 
Excessive  vomiting  and  purging,  pains 
in  the  bowels,  contraction  of  the  pupils, 
delirium,  coma,  and  convulsions.  Treat- 
ment: Mustard  over  the  stomach,  and 
brandy  and  ammonia. 

Mercury— Corrosive  Sublimate  (bug 
poisons  frequently  contain  this  poison), 
Red  Precipitate,  Chinese  or  English 
Vermilion. — Symptoms:  Acrid,  metallic 
taste  in  the  mouth,  immediate  constric- 
tion and  burning  in  the  throat,  with  anx- 
iety and  tearing  pains  in  both  stomach 
and  bowels,  sickness,  and  vomiting  of 
various-colored  fluids,  and  sometimes 
bloody  and  profuse  diarrhea,  with  dif- 
ficulty and  pain  in  urinating;  pulse 
quick,  small,  and  hard;  faint  sensations, 
great  debility,  difficult  breathing,  cramps, 
cold  sweats,  syncope,  and  convulsions. 
Treatment:  If  vomiting  does  not  al- 
ready exist,  emetics  must  be  given  im- 
mediately— white  of  eggs  in  continuous 
large  doses,  and  infusion  of  catechu  after- 
wards, sweet  milk,  mixtures  of  flour  and 

water  in  successive  cupfuls,  and  to  check 
excessive  salivation  put  a  half  ounce  of 
chlorate  of  potash  in  a  tumbler  of  water, 
and  use  freely  as  a  gargle,  and  swallow  a 
tablespoonful  every  hour  or  two. 

Morphine. — See  Opium. 

Nitrate  of  Silver  (Lunar  Caustic).— 
Symptoms:  Intense  pain  and  vomiting, 
and  purging  of  blood,  mucus,  and  shreds 
of  mucous  membranes;  and  if  these  stand 
they  become  dark.  Treatment:  Give 
freely  of  a  solution  of  common  salt  in 
water,  which  decomposes  the  poison, 
and  afterwards  flaxseed  or  slippery-elm- 
bark  tea,  and  after  a  while  a  dose  of 
castor  oil. 

Opium  and  All  Its  Compounds — 
Morphine,  Laudanum,  Paregoric,  Etc. — 
Symptoms:  Giddiness,  drowsiness,  in- 
creasing to  stupor.,  and  insensibility; 
pulse  usually,  at  first,  quick  and  ir- 
regular, and  breathing  hurried,  and 
afterwards  pulse  slow  and  feeble,  and 
respiration  slow  and  noisy;  the  pupils  are 
contracted  and  the  eyes  and  face  con- 
gested, and  later,  as  death  approaches, 
the  extremities  become  cold,  the  surface 
is  covered  with  cold,  clammy  perspira- 
tion, and  the  sphincters  relax.  The  ef- 
fects of  opium  and  its  preparations,  in 
poisonous  doses,  appear  in  from  a  half 
to  two  hours  from  its  administration. 
Treatment:  Empty  the  stomach  imme- 
diately with  an  emetic  or  with  the  stom- 
ach pump.  Then  give  very  strong 
coffee  without  milk;  put  mustard  plasters 
on  the  wrists  and  ankles;  douche  the  head 
and  chest  with  cold  water,  and  if  the 
patient  is  cold  and  sinking,  give  brandy, 
or  whisky  and  ammonia.  Belladonna  is 
thought  by  many  to  counteract  the  poi- 
sonous effects  of  opium,  and  may  be 
given  in  doses  of  half  to  a  teaspoonful  of 
the  tincture,  or  2  grains  of  the  extract, 
every  20  minutes,  until  some  effect  is 
observed  in  causing  the  pupils  to  ex- 
pand. Use  warmth  and  friction,  and 
if  possible  prevent  sleep  for  some  hours, 
for  which  purpose  the  patient  should 
be  walked  about  between  two  persons. 
Finally,  as  a  last  resort,  use  artificial 
respiration,  persistence  in  which  will  some- 
times be  rewarded  with  success  in  ap- 
parently hopeless  cases.  Electricity  should 
also  be  tried. 

Cooley  advises  as  follows:  Vomiting 
must  be  .induced  as  soon  as  possible,  by 
means  of  a  strong  emetic  and  tickling  the 
fauces.  If  this  does  not  succeed,  the 
stomach  pump  should  be  applied.  The 
emetic  may  consist  of  a  half  drachm  of 
sulphate  of  zinc  dissolved  in  a  half  pint 
of  warm  water,  of  which  one-third  should 



be  taken  at  once,  and  the  remainder  at 
the  rate  of  a  wineglassful  every  5  or  10 
minutes,  until  vomiting  commences. 
When  there  is  much  drowsiness  or  stupor 
1  or  2  fluidrachms  of  tincture  of  capsi- 
cum will  be  found  a  useful  addition;  or 
one  of  the  formulas  for  emetic  draughts 
may  be  taken  instead.  Infusion  of  galls, 
cinchona,  or  oak  bark  should  be  freely 
administered  before  the  emetic,  and 
water  soured  with  vinegar  and  lemon 
juice,  after  the  stomach  has  been  well 
cleared  out.  To  rouse  the  system 
spirit  and  water  or  strong  coffee  may  be 
given.  To  keep  the  sufferer  awake, 
rough  friction  should  be  applied  to  the 
skin,  an  upright  posture  preserved,  and 
walking  exercise  enforced,  if  necessary. 
When  this  is  ineffectual  cold  water  may 
be  dashed  over  the  chest,  head,  and 
spine,  or  mild  shocks  of  electricity  may 
be  had  recourse  to.  To  allow  the  suffer- 
er to  sleep  is  to  abandon  him  to  destruc- 
tion. Bleeding  may  be  subsequently 
necessary  in  plethoric  habits,  or  in 
threatened  congestion.  The  costiveness 
that  accompanies  convalescence  may  be 
best  met  by  aromatic  aperients;  and  the 
general  tone  of  the  habit  restored  by  stim- 
ulating tonics  and  the  shower  bath. 
The  smallest  fatal  dose  of  opium  in  the 
case  of  an  adult  within  our  recollection 
was  4  £  grains.  Children  are  much  more 
susceptible  to  the  action  of  opium 'than 
of  other  medicines,  and  hence  the  dose  of 
it  for  them  must  be  diminished  consid- 
erably below  that  indicated  by  the  com- 
mon method  of  calculation  depending  on 
the  age. 

Oxalic  Acid.— See  Acids. 

Phosphorus — Found  in  Lucifer 
Matches  and  Some  Rat  Poisons. — Symp- 
toms: Symptoms  of  irritant  poisoning; 
pain  in  tha  stomach  and  bowels;  vomit- 
ing, diarrhea;  tenderness  and  tension 
of  the  abdomen.  Treatment:  An  emetic 
is  to  be  promptly  given;  copious  draughts 
containing  magnesia  in  suspension;  mu- 
cilaginous drinks.  General  treatment 
for  inflammatory  symptoms. 

Poisonous  Mushrooms. — Symptoms: 
Nausea,  heat  and  pains  in  the  stomach 
and  bowels;  vomiting  and  purging, 
thirst,  convulsions,  and  faintings;  pulse 
small  and  frequent,  dilated  pupil  and 
stupor,  cold  sweats  and  death.  Treat- 
ment: The  stomach  and  bowels  are  to  be 
cleared  by  an  emetic  of  ground  mustard 
or  sulphate  of  zinc,  followed  by  frequent 
doses  of  Glauber's  or  of  Epsom  salts,  and 
large  stimulating  clysters.  After  the 
poison  is  evacuated,  either  may  be  given 
with  small  quantities  of  brandy  and 

water.  But  if  inflammatory  symptoms 
manifest  themselves  such  stimuli  should 
be  avoided,  and  these  symptoms  appro- 
priately treated.  A  hypodermic  injection 
of  gV  grain  of  atropine  is  the  latest  discovered 

Potash.— See  Alkali. 

Prussic  or  Hydrocyanic  Acid. —  See 

Poison  Ivy. — Symptoms:  Contact 
with,  and  with  many  persons  the  near 
approach  to,  the  vine  gives  rise  to  vio- 
lent erysipelatous  inflammation,  espe- 
cially of  the  face  and  hands,  attended 
with  itching,  redness,  burning,  and  swell- 
ing, with  watery  blisters.  Treatment: 
Give  saline  laxatives,  and  apply  weak 
sugar  of  lead  and  laudanum,  or  limewater 
and  sweet  oil,  or  bathe  the  parts  freely  with 
spirits  of  niter.  Anointing  with  oil  will 
prevent  poisoning  from  it. 

Saltpeter  (Nitrate  of  Potash).— Symp- 
toms: Only  poisonous  in  large  quanti- 
ties, and  then  causes  nausea,  painful 
vomiting,  purging,  convulsions,  faint- 
ness,  feeble  pulse,  cold  feet  and  hands, 
with  tearing  pains  in  stomach  and  bowels. 
Treatment:  Treat  as  is  directed  for 
arsenic,  for  there  is  no  antidote  known, 
and  emptying  the  stomach  and  bowels 
with  mild  drinks  must  be  relied  on. 

Savine. — Symptoms:  Sharp  pains  in 
the  bowels,  hot  skin,  rapid  pulse,  violent 
vomiting  and  sometimes  purging,  with 
great  prostration.  Treatment:  Mus- 
tard and  hot  fomentations  over  the 
stomach  and  bowels  and  ice  allowed 
in  the  stomach  only  until  the  inflam- 
mation ceases.  If  prostration  comes  on, 
food  and  stimulants  must  be  given  by 

Stramonium,  Thorn  Apple,  or  James- 
town Weed. — Symptoms:  Vertigo,  head- 
ache, perversion  of  vision,  slight  delir- 
ium, sense  of  suffocation,  disposition  to 
sleep,  bowels  relaxed,  and  all  secretions 
augmented.  Treatment:  Same  as  for 

Snake  Bites,  Cure  for. — The  Inspector 
of  Police  in  the  Bengal  Government  re- 
ports that  of  939  cases  in  which  ammonia 
was  freely  administered,  207  victims  have 
recovered,  and  in  the  cured  instances  the 
remedy  was  not  administered  till  about 
3i  hours  after  the  attack;  on  the  average 
of  the  fatal  cases  the  corresponding 
duration  of  time  was  44  hours. 

Strychnine  or  Nux  Vomica. — The  char- 
acteristic symptom  is  the  special  influ- 
ence exerted  upon  the  nervous  system, 



which  is  manifested  by  a  general  con- 
traction of  all  the  muscles  of  the  body, 
with  rigidity  of  the  spinal  column.  A 
profound  calm  soon  succeeds,  which  is 
followed  by  a  new  tetanic  seizure,  longer 
than  the  first,  during  which  the  respira- 
tion is  suspended.  These  symptoms 
then  cease,  the  breathing  becomes  easy, 
and  there  is  stupor,  followed  by  another 
general  contraction.  In  fatal  cases 
these  attacks  are  renewed,  at  intervals, 
with  increasing  violence,  until  death  en- 
sues. One  phenomenon  which  is  found 
only  in  poisonings  by  substances  con- 
taining strychnine  is  that  touching  any 
part  of  the  body,  or  even  threatening 
to  do  so,  instantly  produces  the  tetanic 
spasm.  Antidote:  The  stomach  should 
be  immediately  cleared  by  means  of  an 
emetic,  tickling  the  fauces,  etc.  To 
counteract  the  asphyxia  from  tetanus, 
etc.,  artificial  respiration  should  be 
practiced  with  diligence  and  care.  "If 
the  poison  has  been  applied  externally, 
we  ought  immediately  to  cauterize  the 
part,  and  apply  a  ligature  tightly  above 
the  wound.  If  the  poison  has  been 
swallowed  for  some  time  we  shouH  give 
a  purgative  clyster,  and  administer 
draughts  containing  sulphuric  ether  or 
oil  of  turpentine,  which  in  most  cases 
produce  a  salutary  effect.  Lastly,  in- 
jections of  chlorine  and  decoction  of 
tannin  are  of  value." 

According  to  Ch.  Gunther  the  great- 
est reliance  may  be  placed  on  full  doses 
of  opium,  assisted  by  venesection,  in 
cases  of  poisoning  by  strychnia  or  nux 
vomica.  His  plan  is  to  administer  this 
drug  in  the  form  of  solution  or  mix- 
ture, in  combination  with  a  saline  ape- 

Another  treatment  is  to  give,  if  obtain- 
able, 1  ounce  or  more  of  bone  charcoal 
mixed  with  water,  and  follow  with  an 
active  emetic;  then  to  give  chloroform  in 
teaspoonful  doses,  in  flour  and  water  or 
glycerine,  every  few  minutes  while  the 
spasms  last,  and  afterwards  brandy  and 
stimulants,  and  warmth  of  the  extremi- 
ties if  necessary.  Recoveries  have  fol- 
lowed the  free  and  prompt  administra- 
tion of  oils  or  melted  butter  or  lard.  ^  In 
all  cases  empty  the  stomach  if  possible. 

Sulphate  of  Zinc— White  Vitriol.— See 

Tin— Chloride  of  Tin,  Solution  of  Tin 
(used  by  dyers),  Oxide  of  Tin,  or  Putty 
Powder. — Symptoms:  Vomiting,  pains 
in  the  stomach,  anxiety,  restlessness,  fre- 
quent pulse,  delirium,  etc.  Treatment: 
Empty  the  stomach,  and  give  whites  of 
eggs  in  water,  milk  in  large  quantities, 

or  flour  beaten  up  in  water,  with  mag- 
nesia or  chalk. 

Tartar  Emetic. — See  Antimony. 

Tobacco. — Symptoms:  Vertigo,  stu- 
por, fainting,  nausea,  vomiting,  sudden 
nervous  debility,  cold  sweat,  tremors, 
and  at  times  fatal  prostration.  Treat- 
ment: After  the  stomach  is  empty  apply 
mustard  to  the  abdomen  and  to  the  ex- 
tremities, and  give  strong  coffee,  with 
brandy  and  other  stimulants,  with 
warmth  to  the  extremities. 

Zinc— Oxide  of  Zinc,  Sulphate  of 
Zinc,  White  Vitriol,  Acetate  of  Zinc.— 
Symptoms:  Violent  vomiting,  astrin- 
gent taste,  burning  pain  in  the  stomach, 
pale  countenance,  cold  extremities,  dull 
eyes,  fluttering  pulse.  Death  seldom 
ensues,  in  consequence  of  the  emetic 
effect.  Treatment:  The  vomiting  may 
be  relieved  by  copious  draughts  of  warm 
water.  Carbonate  of  soda,  administered 
in  solution,  will  decompose  the  sulphate 
of  zinc.  Milk  and  albumen  will  also  act 
as  antidotes.  General  principles  to  be 
observed  in  the  subsequent  treatment. 

Woorara. — Symptoms:  When  taken 
into  the  stomach  it  is  inert;  when  ab- 
sorbed through  a  wound  it  causes  sudden 
stupor  and  insensibility,  frothing  at  the 
mouth,  and  speedy  death.  Treatment: 
Suck  the  wound  immediately,  or  cut  it 
out  and  tie  a  cord  around  the  limb  be- 
tween the  wound  and  the  heart.  Apply 
iodine,  or  iodide  of  potassium,  and  give  it 
internally,  and  try  artificial  respiration. 


The  following  are  tried  and  useful 

I. — Sulphite  (not  sulphate)  of  lime, 
in  fine  powder,  1  part;  marble  dust, 
ground  oyster  shells,  or  chalk,  7  parts; 
mix,  and  pack  tight,  so  as  to  exclude  the 

II. — Sulphite  (not  sulphate)  of  potassa, 
1  part;  new  black-mustard  seed  (ground 
in  a  pepper  mill),  7  parts;  mix,  and  pack 
so  as  to  exclude  air  and  moisture  per- 
fectly. Dose  (of  either),  |  ounce  to  1^ 
ounces  per  hogshead. 

III. — Mustard  seed,  14  pounds;  cloves 
and  capsicum,  of  each,  1|  pounds;  mix, 
and  grind  them  to  powder  in  a  pep- 
per mill.  Dose,  f  to  ^  pound  per  hogs- 

A  portion  of  any  one  of  these  compounds 
added  to  cider,  or  the  like,  soon  allays 
fermentation,  when  excessive,  or  when 
it  has  been  renewed.  The  first  formula 
is  preferred  when  there  is  a  tendency  to 
acidity.  The  second  and  third  may  be 
advantageously  used  for  wine  and  beer,  as 



well  as  for  cider.  The  third  compound 
greatly  improves  the  flavor  and  the  ap- 
parent strength  of  the  liquor,  and  also 
improves  its  keeping  qualities. 

Anchovy  Preparations 

Extemporaneous  Anchovy  Sauce. — 
Anchovies,      chopped 

small 3  or  4 

Butter 3  ounces 

Water 2  ounces 

Vinegar 1  ounce 

Flour 1  ounce 

Mix,  place  over  the  fire,  and  stir  until 
the  mixture  thickens.  Then  rub  through 
a  coarse  sieve. 

Essence  of  Anchovies. — Remove  the 
bones  from  1  pound  of  anchovies,  reduce 
the  remaining  portions  of  the  fish  to  a 
pulp  in  a  Wedgewood  mortar,  and  pass 
through  a  clean  hair  or  brass  sieve.  Boil 
the  bones  and  other  portions  which  will 
not  pass  through  the  sieve  in  1  pint  of 
water  for  15  minutes,  and  strain.  To 
the  strained  liquor  add  2£  ounces  of  salt 
and  2*  ounces  of  flour,  and  the  pulped 
anchovies.  Let  the  whole  simmer  over 
the  fire  for  three  or  four  minutes;  re- 
move from  the  fire,  and  when  the  mix- 
ture has  cooled  a  little  add  4  ounces  of 
strong  vinegar.  The  product  (nearly 
3  pounds)  may  be  then  bottled,  and  the 
corks  tied  over  with  bladder,  and  either 
waxed  or  capsuled. 

Anchovy  Paste. — 

Anchovies 7  pounds 

Water 9  pints 

Salt 1  pound 

Flour 1  pound 

Capsicum J  ounce 

Grated  lemon  peel.  .  .  1 

Mushroom  catsup.  .  .  4  ounces 

Anchovy  Butter. — 
Anchovies,  boned  and 

beaten  to  a  paste  .  .    1  part 

Butter 2  parts 

Spice enough 

See  Paints. 

See  Freezing  Preventives. 


See  Alloys,  under  Phosphor  Bronze 
and  Antifriction  Metals. 


The  best  process  for  the  preservation 
of  antique  metallic  articles  consists  in  a 
retransformation  of  the  metallic  oxides 
into  metal  by  the  electrolytic  method. 
For  this  purpose  a  zinc  strip  is  wound 
around  the  article  and  the  latter  is  laid 
in  a  soda-lye  solution  of  5  per  cent,  or 
suspended  as  the  negative  pole  of  a  small 
battery  in  a  potassium  cyanide  solution 
of  2  per  cent.  Where  this  method  does 
not  seem  practicable  it  is  advisable  to 
edulcorate  the  objects  in  running  water, 
in  which  operation  fragile  or  easily  de- 
stroyed articles  may  be  protected  by 
winding  with  gauze;  next,  they  should 
be  carefully  dried,  first  in  the  air,  then 
with  moderate  heat,  and  finally  protected 
from  further  destruction  by  immersion 
in  melted  paraffiiie.  A  dry  place  is  re- 
quired for  storing  the  articles,  since  par- 
affine  is  not  perfectly  impermeable  to 
water  in  the  shape  of  steam. 


See  Rust  Preventives. 


Antiseptic  Powders. — 

I. — Borax 3     ounces 

Dried  alum 3    ounces 

Thymol 22    grains 

Eucalyptol 20     drops 

Menthol 1£  grains 

Phenol 15     grains 

Oil  of  gaultheria ...      4     drops 
Carmine  to  give  a  pink  tint. 

II. — Alum,  powdered -  .    5(H  ^ 

Borax,  powdered 50     3 

Carbolic  acid,  crystals  ...      5  |  £, 

Oil  of  eucalyptus 5  V<< 

Oil  of  wintergreen 5     | 

Menthol .  .  5    '«' 



III. — Boracic  acid 10  ounces 

Sodium  biborate.  .        4  ounces 

Alum 1  ounce 

Zinc  sulphocarbolate    1  ounce 

Thymic  acid 1  drachm. 

Mix  thoroughly.  For  an  antiseptic 
wash  dissolve  1  or  2  drachms  in  a  quart 
of  warm  wa.ter. 

IV. — Ektogan  is  a  new  dusting  powder 
which  is  a  mixture  of  zinc  hydroxide  and 
dioxide.  It  is  equivalent  to  about  8  per 
cent  of  active  oxygen.  It  is  a  yellowish- 
white  odorless  and  tasteless  powder,  in- 
soluble in  water.  It  is  used  externally  in 
wounds  and  in  skin  diseases  as  a  moist 
dressing  mixed  with  citric,  tartaric,  or 




tannic  acid,  which  causes  the  liberation 
of  oxygen.  With  iodides  it  liberates 
iodine.  It  is  stated  to  be  strongly  anti- 
septic; it  is  used  in  the  form  of  a  powder, 
a  gauze,  and  a  plaster. 

Antiseptic  Pencils. — 

I. — Tannin q.  s. 

Alcohol,  q.  s 1  part 

Ether,  q.  s 3  parts 

Make  into  a  mass,  using  as  an  excip- 
ient  the  alcohol  and  ether  previously 
mixed.  Roll  into  pencils  of  the  desired 
length  and  thickness.  Then  coat  with 
collodion,  roll  in  pure  silver  leaf,  and 
finally  coat  with  the  following  solution  of 
gelatine  and  set  aside  to  dry: 

Gelatine 1  drachm 

Water 1  pint 

Dissolve  by  the  aid  of  a  gentle  heat. 
When  wanted  for  use,  shave  away  a 
portion   of  the  covering,  dip  the  pencil 
into  tepid  water  and  apply. 

II. — Pencils  for  stopping  bleeding  are 
prepared  by  mixing: 

Purified  alum 480   1 

Borax 24 

Oxide  zinc 2i 

Thymol 8 

Formalin 4 

Melting  carefully  in  a  water  bath,  add- 
ing some  perfume,  and  forming  mixture 
into  pencils  or  cones. 

A  very  convenient  way  to  form  into 
pencils  where  no  mold  need  be  made  is 
to  take  a  small  glass  tube,  roll  a  piece  of 
oil  paper  around  the  tube,  remove  the 
glass  tube,  crimp  the  paper  tube  thus 
formed  on  one  end  and  stand  it  on  end 
or  in  a  bottle,  and  pour  the  melted  so- 
lution in  it  and  leave  until  cool,  then  re- 
move the  paper. 

Antiseptic  Paste  (Poison)  for  Organic 
Specimens. — 

(a)   Wheat  flour 16  ounces 

Beat  to  a  batter  with 

cold  water 16  fluidounces 

Then  pour  into  boil- 
ing water 32  fluidounces 

(6)   Pulverized  gum  ar- 

abic 2  ounces 

Dissolve     in     boil- 
ing water.  ......      4  fluidounces 

<£)   Pulverized  alum.  ..      2  ounces 
Dissolve     in     boil- 
ing water 4  fluidounces 

(d)  Acetate  of  lead  ....      2  ounces 
Dissolve     in     boil- 
ing water 4  fluidounces 

(e)  Corrosive  sublimate  10  grains 

Mix  (a)  and  (6)  while  hot  and  continue 
to  simmer;  meanwhile  stir  in  (r)  -and 

mix  thoroughly;  then  add  (d).  Stir 
briskly,  and  pour  in  the  dry  corrosive 
sublimate.  This  paste  is  very  poison- 
ous. It  is  used  for  anatomical  work  and 
for  pasting  organic  tissue,  labels  on  skel- 
etons, etc. 

Mouth  Antiseptics.—  I.—  Thymic  acid, 
25  centigrams  (3£  grains):  benzoic  acid, 
3  grams  (45  grains);  essence  of  pep- 
permint, 75  centigrams  (10  minims); 
tincture  of  eucalyptus,  15  grams  (4  A 
drachms) ;  alcohol,  100  grams  (3  ounces). 
Put  sufficient  in  a  glass  of  water  to  render 
latter  milky. 

II. — Tannin,  12  grams  (3  drachms); 
menthol,  8  grams  (2  drachms);  thymol, 
1  gram  (15  grains);  tincture  benzoin,  6 
grams  (90  minims);  alcohol,  100  grams 
(3  ounces).  Ten  drops  in  a  half-glassful 
of  tepid  water. 

See  also  Dentifrices  for  Mouth 

Antiseptic  Paste.— Difficulty  is  often 
experienced  in  applying  an  antiseptic 
dressing  to  moist  surfaces,  such  as  the 
lips  after  operation  for  harelip.  A  paste 
for  this  purpose  is  described  by  its  origi- 
nator, Socin.  The  composition  is:  Zinc 
oxide,  50  parts;  zinc  chloride,  5  parts; 
distilled  water,  50  parts.  The  paste  is 
applied  to  the  wound,  previously  dried 
by  means  of  a  brush  or  spatula,  allowed 
to  dry  on,  and  to  remain  in  place  five  or 
six  days.  It  may  then  be  removed  and 
a  fresh  application  made. 
Potassium  bicar- 
bonate    32.0  grams 

Sodium  benzoate  .  .      32.0  grams 

Sodium  borate 8.0  grams 

Thymol 0.2  gram 

Eucalyptol 2.0  c.  cent. 

Oil  of  peppermint..  0.2  c.  cent. 
Oil  of  wintergreen. .  0.4  c.  cent. 
Tincture  of  cudbear  15.0  c.  cent. 

Alcohol 60.0  c.  cent. 

Glycerine 250.0  c.  cent. 

Water,    enough    to 

make 1,000.0  c.  centimeters 

Dissolve  the  salts  in  650  cubic  centi- 
meters of  water,  and  t>he  thymol,  eucalyp- 
tol,  and  oils  in  the  alcohol.  Mix  the 
alcoholic  solution  with  the  glycerine  and 
add  the  aqueous  liquid,  then  the  tincture 
of  cudbear,  and  lastly  enough  water  to 
make  1,000  cubic  centimeters.  Allow 
to  stand  a  few  days,  then  filter,  adding  a 
little  magnesium  carbonate  to  the  filter, 
if  necessary,  to  get  a  brilliant  filtrate. 

This  is  from  the  Formulary  of  the 
Bournemouth  Pharmaceutical  Associa- 
tion, as  reported  in  the  Canadian  Phar- 
maceutical Association: 



Alkaline  Glycerine  of  Thymol. — 

Sodium  bicarbonate. .  100  grains 

Sodium  biborate 200  grains 

Sodium  benzoate 80  grains 

Sodium  salicylate  ....  40  grains 

Menthol 2  grains 

Pumilio  pine  oil 4  minims 

Wintergreen  oil 2  minims 

Thymol 4  grains 

Eucalyptol 12  minims 

Compound  Solution  of  Thymol. — 

Benzoic  acid 64  grains 

Borax 64  grains 

Boric  acid 128  grains 

Distilled  water 6  ounces 



Thymol 20  grains 

Menthol 6  grains 

Eucalyptol 4  minims 

Oil  of  wintergreen. ...        4  minims 
Oil  of  peppermint. ...        2  minims 

Oil  of  thyme 1  minim 

Alcohol  (90  per  cent)  .        3  ounces 

Mix  solutions  A  and  B,  make  up  to 
20  fluidounces  with  distilled  water,  and 

Oil  of  Cinnamon  as  an  Antiseptic. — 
Oil  of  cinnamon  in  a  9-per-cent  emulsion, 
when  used  upon  the  hands,  completely 
sterilizes  them.  A  7-to  8-per-cent  emul- 
sion is  equal  to  a  1-per-cent  solution  of 
corrosive  sublimate  and  is  certainly  far 
more  agreeable  to  use.  Oil  of  thyme  in 
an  11-per-cent  solution  is  equal  to  a  7-per- 
cent solution  of  cinnamon  oil. 

Green  Coloring  for  Antiseptic  Solu- 
tions.— The  safest  coloring  substance  for 
use  in  a  preparation  intended  either  for 
internal  administration  or  for  applica- 
tion to  the  skin  is  the  coloring  matter  of 
leaves,  chlorophyll.  A  tincture  of  spin- 
ach or  of  grass  made  by  macerating  2 
ounces  of  the  freshly  cut  leaves  in  a  pint 
of  alcohol  for  five  days  will  be  found  to 
give  good  results.  If  the  pure  coloring 
substance  is  wanted  the  solvent  should 
be  evaporated  off. 

Antiseptic  Bromine  Solution. — 

Bromine 1  ounce 

Sodium  chloride 8  ounces 

Water 8  pints 

Dissolve  the  sodium  chloride  in  the 
water  and  add  the  bromine.  This  solu- 
tion is  to  be  diluted,  when  applied  to 
broken  skin  surfaces,  1  part  with  15 
parts  of  water. 

Substitute  for  Rubber  Gloves.— Mur- 

phy has  found  that  a  4-,  6-,  or  8-per-cent 
solution  of  gutta-percha  in  benzine,  when 
applied  to  the  hands  of  the  surgeon  or 
the  skin  of  the  patient,  will  seal  these 
surfaces  with  an  insoluble,  impervious, 
and  practically  imperceptible  coating — 
a  coating  that  will  not  allow  the  secre- 
tions of  the  skin  to  escape,  and  will  not 
admit  secretions,  blood,  or  pus  into  the 
crevices  of  the  skin.  At  the  same  time 
it  does  not  impair  the  sense  of  touch  nor 
the  pliability  of  the  skin.  A  similar  solu- 
tion in  acetone  also  meets  most  of  the 

Murphy's  routine  method  of  hand  prep- 
aration is  as  follows:  First,  five  to  seven 
minutes'  scrubbing  with  spirits  of  green 
soap  and  running  hot  water;  second, 
three  minutes'  washing  with  alcohol; 
third,  when  the  hands  are  thoroughly 
dried,  the  gutta-percha  solution  is  poured 
over  the  hands  and  forearms,  care  being 
taken  to  fill  in  around  and  beneath  the 
nails.  The  hands  must  be  kept  exposed 
to  the  air  with  the  fingers  separated  until 
thoroughly  dry.  The  coating  is  very 
thin  and  can  be  recognized  only  by  its 
glazed  appearance.  It  will  resist  soap 
and  water,  but  is  easily  removed  by  wash- 
ing in  benzine.  The  hands  can  be 
washed  in  bichloride  or  any  of  the  anti- 
septic solutions  without  interfering  with 
the  coating  or  affecting  the  skin.  If 
the  operations  be  many,  or  prolonged, 
the  coating  wears  away  from  the  tips 
of  the  fingers,  but  is  easily  renewed.  For 
the  remaining  portion  of  the  hands  one 
application  is  sufficient  for  a  whole  morn- 
ing's work. 

The  4-per-cent  solution  of  rubber  wears 
better  on  the  tips  of  the  fingers,  in  han- 
dling instruments,  sponges,  and  tissues 
than  the  acetone  solution. 

For  the  abdomen  the  acetone  solution 
has  the  advantage,  and  it  dries  in  three 
to  four  seconds  after  its  application, 
while  the  benzine  solution  takes  from 
three  to  four  and  a  half  minutes  to  make 
a  dry,  firm  coating. 

The  preparation  of  the  patient's  skin 
consists  in  five  minutes'  scrubbing  with 
spirits  of  green  soap,  washing  with  ether, 
followed  by  alcohol.  The  surface  is  then 
swabbed  over  thoroughly  with  the  ben- 
zine or  acetone  solution. 

The  gutta-percha  solution  is  prepared 
by  dissolving  the  pure  gutta-percha  chips 
in  sterile  benzine  or  acetone.  These 
solutions  do  not  stand  boiling,  as  this 
impairs  the  adhesiveness  and  elasticity  of 
the  coating. 


See  Veterinary  Formulas. 




See  Waters. 


See  Essences  and  Extracts. 


See  Castings. 


See  Gold. 

See  Adhesives. 


See  Putty. 


See  Alloys. 


See  Adhesives  under  Jewelers'  Ce- 


See  Lubricants. 


See  Ointments. 


See  Alloys. 

See  Adhesives. 


See  Fireproofing. 

See  Rubber. 

See  Paint. 


See  Varnishes. 


See  Gold. 

ASTHMA  CUKES.— Asthma  Papers.— 
I. — Impregnate  bibulous  paper  with  the 
following:  Extract  of  stramonium,  10; 
potassium  nitrate,  17;  sugar,  20;  warm 
water,  200  parts.  Dry. 

II. — Blotting  or  gray  filter  paper,  120; 
potassium  nitrate,  60;  powdered  bella- 
donna leaves,  5;  powdered  stramonium 
leaves,  5;  powdered  digitalis  leaves,  5; 
powdered  lobelia,  5;  myrrh,  10;  oli- 
banum,  10;  phellandrium  fruits,  5  parts. 

Stramonium  Candle. — Powdered  stra- 
monium leaves,  120;  potassium  nitrate, 
72;  Peruvian  balsam,  3;  powdered  sugar, 
1;  powdered  tragacanth,  4  parts.  (Water, 
q.  s.  to  mass;  roll  into  suitable  shapes 
and  dry.) 

deary's  Asthma  Fumigating  Fowder. 
— Powdered  stramonium,  15;  powdered 
belladonna  leaves,  15;  powdered  opium, 
2;  potassium  nitrate,  5. 

Asthma  Fumigating  Powders. — I. — 
Powdered  stramonium  leaves,  4;  pow- 
dered aniseed,  2;  potassium  nitrate,  2 

II. — Powdered  stramonium,  30;  potas- 
sium nitrate,  5;  powdered  tea,  15;  pow- 
dered eucalyptus  leaves,  15;  powdered 
Indian  hemp,  15;  powdered  lobelia,  15; 
powdered  aniseed,  2;  distilled  water,  45 
parts.  (All  the  herbal  ingredients  in 
coarse  powder;  moisten  with  the  water  in 
which  the  potassium  nitrate  has  been 
previously  dissolved,  and  dry.) 

Schiffmann's  Asthma  Powder. — Potas- 
sium nitrate,  25;  stramonium,  70;  bella- 
donna leaves,  5  parts. 

Neumeyer's  Asthma  Powder. — Potas- 
sium nitrate,  6  parts;  sugar,  4;  stramo- 
nium, 6;  powdered  lobelia,  1. 

Fischer's  Asthma  Powder. — Stramo- 
nium, 5  parts ;  potassium  nitrate,  1 ;  pow- 
dered Achillea  millefolium  leaves,  1. 

Vorlaender's  Asthma  Powder. —  Stra- 
monium, 150;  lobelia,  80;  arnica  flowers, 
80;  potassium  nitrate,  30;  potassium 
iodide,  3;  naphthol,  1,100  parts. 

Asthma  Cigarettes.  — I.  —  Belladonna 
leaves,  5  parts;  stramonium  leaves,  5 
parts;  digitalis  leaves,  5  parts;  sage 
leaves,  5  parts;  potassium  nitrate,  75 
parts;  tincture  of  benzoin,  40  parts;  boil- 
ing water,  1,000  parts.  Extract  the 
leaves  with  the  boiling  writer,  filter,  and 
in  the  filtrate  dissolve  the  salts.  Im- 
merse in  the  fluid  sheets  of  bibulous 
paper  (Swedish  filter  paper  will  an- 
swer) and  let  remain  for  24  hours.  At 
the  end  of  this  time  remove,  dry,  cut  into 
pieces  about  2f  by  4  inches,  and  roll  into 

II. — Sodium  arseniate,  3  grains;  ex- 
tract of  belladonna,  8  grains;  extract  of 
stramonium,  8  grains.  Dissolve  the  ar- 
seniate of  sodium  in  a  small  quantity  of 
water,  and  rub  it  with  the  two  extracts. 
Then  soak  up  the  whole  mixture  with 
fine  blotting  paper,  which  is  dried  and 
cut  into  24  equal  parts.  Each  part  is 
rolled  up  in  a  piece  of  cigarette  paper. 
Four  or  five  inhalations  are  generally 
sufficient  as  a  dose. 


See  Veterinary  Formulas. 


See  Veterinary  Formulas. 


See  Weights  and  Measures. 




The  usual  physiological  antidotes  to 
the  mydriatic  alkaloids  from  belladonna, 
stramonium,  and  hyoscyamus  are  mor- 
phine or  eserine.  Strong  tea,  coffee,  or 
brandy  are  usually  administered  as  stim- 
ulants. Chief  reliance  has  usually  been 
placed  upon  a  stomach  siphon  and 
plenty  of  water  to  wash  out  the  contents 
of  the  stomach.  The  best  antidote  ever 
reported  was  that  of  muscarine  extracted 
by  alcohol  from  the  mushroom,  Amanita 
muscaria,  but  the  difficulty  of  securing 
the  same  has  caused  it  to  be  overlooked 
and  almost  forgotten.  Experiments 
with  this  antidote  showed  it  to  be  an  al- 
most perfect  opposite  of  atropine  in  its 
effects  upon  the  animal  body  and  that 
it  neutralized  poisonous  doses. 


Cort.  cinnam.  chinens.  3  parts 

Flor.  lavandulae 5  parts 

Fol.  Menth.  pip 5  parts 

Fol.  rosmarini 5  parts 

Fol.  salvise 10  parts 

Fruct.  fceniculi 3  parts 

Spiritus 70  parts 

Aqua 300  parts 

Macerate  the  drugs  in  the  mixed  al- 
cohol and  water  for  24  hours  and  distill 
200  parts. 

AQUA  REGIA. — Aqua  regia  consists 
in  principle  of  2  parts  of  hydrochloric  acid 
and  1  part  of  nitric  acid.  But  this  quan- 
tity varies  according  to  the  shop  where  it 
is  used  for  gilding  or  jewelry,  and  some- 
times the  proportion  is  brought  to  4  parts 
of  hydrochloric  acid  to  1  of  nitric  acid. 


See  Freezing  Preventives. 

See  Lubricants. 

See  Alloys. 

Baking  Powders 

I. — Tartaric  acid,  3  parts;  sodium 
bicarbonate,  1  part;  starch,  0.75  part. 
Of  this  baking  powder  the  required 
amount  for  500  parts  of  flour  is  about 
20  parts  for  rich  cake,  and  15  parts  for 
lean  cake. 

The  substances  employed  must  be 
dry,  each  having  been  previously  sifted 

by  itself,  so  that  no  coarse  pieces  are 
present;  the  starch  is  mixed  with  the 
sodium  bicarbonate  before  the  acid  is 
added.  When  large  quantities  are  pre- 
pared the  mixing  is  done  by  machine; 
smaller  quantities  are  best  mixed  to- 
gether in  a  spacious  mortar,  and  then 
passed  repeatedly  through  a  sieve.  In- 
stead of  starch,  flour  may  be  used,  but 
starch  is  preferable,  because  it  inter- 
feres with  the  action  of  the  acid  on  the 

II. — A  formula  proposed  by  Cramp- 
ton,  of  the  United  States  Department  of 
Agriculture,  as  the  result  of  an  investi- 
gation of  the  leading  baking  powders  of 
the  market,  is: 

Potassium  bitartrate. .  .    2  parts 
Sodium  bicarbonate. ..    1  part 
Cornstarch 1  part 

The  addition  of  the  starch  serves  the 
double  purpose  of  a  "  filler"  to  increase 
the  weight  of  the  powder  and  as  a  pre- 
servative. A  mixture  of  the  chemicals 
alone  does  not  keep  well. 

The  stability  of  the  preparation  is  in- 
creased by  drying  each  ingredient  sepa- 
rately by  exposure  to  a  gentle  heat,  mixing 
at  once,  and  immediately  placing  in  bot- 
tles or  cans  and  excluding  access  of  air 
and  consequently  of  moisture. 

This  is  not  a  cheap  powder;  but  it  is 
the  best  that  can  be  made,  as  to  health- 

III. — Sodium    acid    phos- 
phate       20  parts 

Calcium  acid  phos- 
phate        20  parts 

Sodium  bicarbonate     25  parts 
Starch 35  parts 

Caution  as  to  drying  the  ingredients 
and  keeping  them  dry  muse  be  observed. 
Even  the  mixing  should  be  done  in  a 
room  free  from  excessive  humidity. 

IV.— Alum  Baking  Powder.— 
Ammonium     alum, 

anhydrous 15  parts 

Sodium  bicarbonate      18  parts 
Cornstarch,  q.  s.  to  make  100  parts. 
Mix.     The  available   carbon   dioxide 
yielded  is  7J  per  cent  or  8  per  cent. 


See  Watchmakers'  Formulas. 


See  Hair  Preparations. 


See  Laundry  Preparations. 


See  also  Ointments. 



Wild-Cherry  Balsam.— 

Wild-cherry  bark.  .    1  ounce 

Licorice  root 1  ounce 

Ipecac 1  ounce 

Bloodroot 1  drachm 

Sassafras 1  drachm 

Compound  tincture 

of  opium 1  fluidounce 

Fluid    extract    of 

cubeb 4  fluidrachms 

Moisten  the  ground  drugs  with  the 
fluid  extract  and  tincture  and  enough 
menstruum  consisting  of  25  per  cent 
alcohol,  and  after  six  or  eight  hours  pack 
in  a  percolator,  and  pour  on  menstruum 
until  percolation  begins.  Then  cork  the 
orifice,  cover  the  percolator,  and  allow  to 
macerate  for  24  hours.  Then  percolate 
to  10  fluidounces,  pouring  back  the  first 
portion  of  percolate  until  it  comes  through 
clear.  In  the  percolate  dissolve  £  ounce 
of  ammonium  chloride  and  A  pound  of 
sugar  by  cold  percolation,  adding  simple 
syrup  to  make  16  fluidounces.  Finally 
add  1  fluidrachm  of  chloroform. 

Balsam  Spray  Solution. — 

Oil  of  Scotch  pine. .  .    30  minims 

Oil  of  eucalyptus 1  drachm 

Oil  of  cinnamon  ....    30  minims 
Menthol  crystals.  ...    q.  s. 
Fluid  extract  of  balm- 

of-Gilead  buds  ...      1  drachm 
Tincture  of  benzoin, 

enough  to  make  .  .  4  ounces 
This  formula  can,  of  course,  be  modi- 
fied to  suit  your  requirements.  The  oils 
of  eucalyptus  and  cinnamon  can  be  omit- 
ted and  such  quantities  of  tincture  of 
tolu  and  tincture  of  myrrh  incorporated 
as  may  be  desired. 

Birch  Balsam. — 

Parts  by 

Alcohol 30,000 

Birch  juice 3,000 

Glycerine 1,000 

Bergamot  oil 90 

Vanillin.... 10 

Geranium  oil 50 

Water 14,000 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 


See  Plating. 


See  Essences  and  Extracts. 


See  Pyrotechnics. 


See  Beverages  under  Lemonade. 


See  Polishes. 


See  Ointments. 


See  Cosmetics. 


See  Hygrometers  and  Hygroscopes. 

See  Air  Bath. 


See  Alloys. 


See  Cosmetics. 


Tartaric  acid 10  parts 

Sodium  bicarbonate.  .      9  parts 

Rice  flour 6  parts 

A  few  spoonfuls  of  this,  when  stirred 
into  a  bathtubful  of  water,  causes  a  co- 
pious liberation  of  carbon  dioxide,  which 
is  refreshing.  This  mixture  can  be  made 
into  tablets  by  compression,  moistening, 
if  necessary,  with  alcohol.  Water,  of 
course,  cannot  be  used  in  making  them, 
as  its  presence  causes  the  decomposition 
referred  to.  Perfume  may  be  added  to 
this  powder,  essential  oils  being  a  good 
form.  Oil  of  lavender  would  be  a  suit- 
able addition,  in  the  proportion  of  a 
fluidrachm  or  more  to  the  pound  of 
powder.  A  better  but  more  expensive 
perfume  may  be  obtained  by  mixing  1 
part  of  oil  of  rose  geranium  with  6  parts 
of  oil  of  lavender.  A  perfume  still  more 
desirable  may  be  had  by  adding  a  mix- 
ture of  the  oils  from  which  Cologne  water 
is  made.  For  an  ordinary  quality  the 
following  will  suffice: 

Oil  of  lavender  . .  4  fluidrachms 
Oil  of  rosemary. .  4  fluidrachms 
Oil  of  bergamot. .  1  fluidounce 

Oil  of  lemon 2  fluidounces 

Oil  of  clove 30  minims 

For  the  first  quality  the  following  may 
be  taken: 

Oil  of  neroli 6  fluidrachms 

Oil  of  rosemary. .  3  fluidrachms 
Oil  of  bergamot..  3  fluidrachms 

Oilofcedrat 7  fluidrachms 

Oil  of  orange  peel      7  fluidrachms 
A  fluidrachm  or  more  of  either  of  these 
mixtures  may  be  used  to  the  pound,  as  in 
the  case  of  lavender. 

These  mixtures  may  also  be  used  in  the 
preparation  of  a  bath  powder  (non-effer- 



vescent)  made  by  mixing  equal  parts  of 
powdered  soap  and  powdered  borax. 


See  Varnishes. 


See  Paint. 


I. — In  the  so-called  dry  batteries  the 
exciting  substance  is  a  paste  instead  of 
a  fluid;  moisture  is  necessary  to  cause 
the  reaction.  These  pastes  are  gener- 
ally secret  preparations.  One  of  the 
earlier  "dry"  batteries  is  that  of  Gassner. 
The  apparatus  consists  of  a  containing 
vessel  of  zinc,  which  forms  the  positive 
element;  the  negative  one  is  a  cylinder 
of  carbon,  and  the  space  between  is 
filled  with  a  paste,  the  recipe  for  which  is: 

Oxide  of  zinc 1  part 

Sal  ammoniac 1  part 

Plaster 3  parts 

Chloride  of  zinc 1  part 

Water 2  parts 

The  usual  form  of  chloride-of-silyer 
battery  consists  of  a  sealed  cell  contain- 
ing a  zinc  electrode,  the  two  being  gen- 
erally separated  by  some  form  of  porous 
septum.  Around  the  platinum  or  silver 
electrode  is  cast  a  quantity  of  silver 
chloride.  This  is  melted  and  general- 
ly poured  into  molds  surrounding  the 
metallic  electrode.  The  exciting  fluid 
is  either  a  solution  of  ammonium  chlo- 
ride, caustic  potassa,  or  soda,  or  zinc 
sulphate.  As  ordinarily  constructed, 
these  cells  contain  a  paste  of  the  electro- 
lyte, and  are  sealed  up  hermetically  in 
glass  or  hard-rubber  receptacles. 

II. — The  following  formula  is  said  to 
yield  a  serviceable  filling  for  dry  batteries: 

Charcoal 3  ounces 

Graphite 1  ounce 

Manganese  dioxide. ..   3  ounces 

Calcium  hydrate 1  ounce 

Arsenic  acid 1  ounce 

Glucose    mixed    with 

dextrine  or  starch . .    1  ounce 
Intimately  mix,  and  then  work  into  a 
paste  of  proper  consistency  with  a  sat- 
urated solution  of  sodium  and  ammo- 
nium chlorides  containing  one-tenth  of 
its  volume  of  a  mercury-bichloride  solu- 
tion and  an  equal  volume  of  hydrochloric 
acid.     Add  the  fluid  gradually,  and  well 
work  up  the  mass. 
III. — Calcium       chloride, 

crystallized 30  parts 

Calcium      chloride, 

granulated 30  parts 

Ammonium  sulphate  15  parts 
Zinc  sulphate 25  parts 

Solutions  for  Batteries. — The  almost 
exclusively  employed  solution  of  sal  am- 
moniac (ammonium  chloride)  presents 
the  drawback  that  the  zinc  rods,  glasses, 
etc.,  after  a  short  use,  become  covered 
with  a  fine,  yellow,  very  difficultly  sol- 
uble, basic  zinc  salt,  whereby  the  gen- 
eration of  the  electric  current  is  impaired, 
and  finally  arrested  altogether.  This 
evil  may  be  remedied  by  an  admixture  of 
cane  sugar.  For  a  battery  of  ordinary 
size  about  20  to  25  grams  of  sugar,  dis- 
solved in  warm  water,  is  sufficient  per 
50  to  60  grams  of  sal  ammoniac/  After 
prolonged  use  only  large  crystals  (of  a 
zinc  saccharate)  form,  which,  however, 
become  attached  only  to  the  zinc  rod  in 
a  few  places,  having  very  little  disad- 
vantageous effect  upon  the  action  of  the 
batteries  and  being  easy  to  remove,  owing 
to  their  ready  solubility. 


See  Alloys. 


I. — Oil  of  bay 1  drachm 

Alcohol 18  ounces 

Water 18  ounces 

Mix  and  filter  through  magnesia. 

II. — Bay-leaf  otto A  ounce 

Magnesium  carbonate.      ^  ounce 

Jamaica  rum 2    pints 

Alcohol 3    pints 

Water 3    pints 

Triturate  the  otto  with  the  magnesium 
carbonate,  gradually  adding  the  other 
ingredients,  previously  mixed,  and  filter. 
If  the  rum  employed  contains  sufficient 
sugar  or  mucilaginous  matter  to  cause 
any  stickiness  to  be  felt  on  the  skin,  rec- 
tification will  be  necessary. 


See  Fats. 


See  Lubricants. 


See  Babbitt  Metal,  Bearing  Metal,  and 
Phosphor  Bronze,  under  Alloys. 


See  Insecticides. 


Extract  of  beef  ....  512  grains 
Detannated  sherry 

wine 26  ounces 

Alcohol 4  ounces 

Citrate  of  iron  and 

ammonia 256  grains 

Simple  sirup 12  ounces 



Tincture  of  orange .        2  ounces 
Tincture  of  carda- 
mom co 1  ounce 

Citric  acid 10  grains 

Water,  enough  to  make  4  pints 
Let  stand  24  hours,  agitate  frequently, 
and  filter.     See  that  the  orange  is  fresh. 


See  Peptonoids. 


See  Foods. 


See  Beverages. 


See  Alcohol. 

See  Beverages. 


I. — Powdered  chalk  is  poured  into  the 
cask  and  allowed  to  remain  in  the  beer 
until  completely  precipitated. 

II. — The  liquor  of  boiled  raisins  may 
be  poured  into  the  beer,  with  the  result 
that  the  sour  taste  of  the  beer  is  disguised. 

III. — A  small  quantity  of  a  solution  of 
potash  will  remove  the  sour  taste  of 
beer.  Too  much  potash  must  not  be 
added;  otherwise  the  stomach  will  suffer. 
Beer  thus  restored  will  not  keep  long. 

IV. — If  the  beer  is  not  completely 
spoiled  it  may  be  restored  by  the  addi- 
tion of  coarsely  powdered  charcoal. 

V. — If  the  addition  of  any  of  the  above- 
mentioned  substances  should  affect  the 
taste  of  the  beer,  a  little  powdered  zingi- 
ber  may  be  used  to  advantage.  Syrup 
or  molasses  may  also  be  employed. 


"Foul  brood"  is  a  contagious  disease 
to  which  bees  are  subject.  It  is  caused 
by  bacteria  and  its  presence  may  be 
known  by  the  bees  becoming  languid. 
Dark,  stringy,  and  elastic  masses  are 
found  in  the  bottom  of  the  cells,  while 
the  caps  are  sunken  or  irregularly  punc- 
tured. Frequently  the  disease  is  said  to 
be  accompanied  by  a  peculiar  offensive 
odor.  Prompt  removal  of  diseased  col- 
onies, their  transfer  to  clean  and  thor- 
oughly disinfected  hives,  and  feeding  on 
antiseptically  treated  honey  or  syrup  are 
the  means  taken  for  the  prevention  and 
cure  of  the  disease.  The  antiseptics 
used  are  salicylic  acid,  carbolic  acid,  or 
formic  acid.  Spraying  the  brood  with 
any  one  of  these  remedies  in  a  solution 
and  feeding  with  a  honey  or  syrup  medi- 
cated with  them  will  usually  be  all  that 
is  required  by  way  of  treatment.  It  is 

also  said  that  access  to  salt  water  is  im- 
portant for  the  health  of  bees. 


See  Insecticides. 


See  Alloys. 


See  Antidotes  and  Atropine. 


I.— Tallow. 50  parts 

Castor  oil,  crude. ...    20  parts 

Fish  oil 20  parts 

Colophony 10  parts 

Melt  on  a  moderate  fire  and  stir  until 
the  mass  cools. 

II.— Melt  250  parts  of  gum  elastic 
with  250  parts  of  oil  of  turpentine  in  an 
iron,  well-closed  crucible  at  122°  F. 
(caution!)  and  mix  well  with  200  parts  of 
colophony.  After  further  melting  add 
200  parts  of  yellow  wax  and  stir  carefully. 
Melt  in  750  parts  of  heated  train  oil, 
250  parts  of  tallow,  and  to  this  add,  with 
constant  stirring,  the  first  mixture  when 
the  latter  is  still  warm,  and  let  cool  slowly 
with  stirring.  This  grease  is  intended 
for  cotton  belts. 

III. — Gutta-percha 40  parts 

Rosin 10  parts 

Asphalt 15  parts 

Petroleum 60  parts 

Heat  in  a  glass  vessel  on  the  water 
bath  for  a  few  hours,  until  a  uniform  so- 
lution is  obtained.  Let  cool  and  add  15 
parts  of  carbon  disulphide  and  allow  the 
mixture  to  stand,  shaking  it  frequently. 
Directions  for  Use. — The  leather  belts 
to  be  cemented  should  first  be  roughened 
at  the  joints,  and  after  the  cement  has 
been  applied  they  should  be  subjected 
to  a  strong  pressure  between  warm 
rollers,  whereupon  they  will  adhere  to- 
gether with  much  tenacity. 

Preservation  of  Belts. — In  a  well-cov- 
ered iron  vessel  heat  at  a  temperature  of 
50°  C.  (152°  F.)  1  part  by  weight  of 
caoutchouc,  cut  in  small  pieces,  with  1 
part  by  weight  of  rectified  turpentine. 
When  the  caoutchouc  is  dissolved  add 
0.8  part  of  colophony,  stir  until  this  is 
dissolved,  and  add  to  the  mixture  0.1 
part  of  yellow  wax.  Into  another  vessel 
of  suitable  size  pour  3  parts  of  fish  oil, 
add  1  part  of  tallow,  and  heat  the  mixture 
until  the  tallow  is  melted;  then  pour  on 
the  contents  of  the  first  vessel,  con- 
stantly stirring — an  operation  to  be  con- 
tinued until  the  matter  is  cooled  and 
congealed.  This  grease  is  to  be  rubbed 



on  the  inside  of  the  belts  from  time  to 
time,  while  they  are  in  use.  The  belts 
run  easily  and  do  not  slip.  The  grease 
may  also  serve  for  improving  old  belts. 
For  this  purpose  the  grease  should  be 
rubbed  on  both  sides  in  a  warm  place. 
A  first  layer  is  allowed  to  soak  in,  and 
another  applied. 

To  Make  a  Belt  Pull.— Hold  a  piece  of 
tar  soap  on  the  inside  of  the  belt  while  it 
is  running. 


See  Adhesives. 


See  Adhesives. 


See  Lubricants. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 


Benzine,  to  Color  Green. — Probably 
the  simplest  and  cheapest  as  well  as  the 
best  method  of  coloring  benzine  green  is 
to  dissolve  in  it  sufficient  oil  soluble  aniline 
green  of  the  desired  tint  to  give  the  re- 
quired shade. 

Purification  of  Benzine. — Ill-smelling 
benzine,  mixed  with  about  1  to  2  per  cent 
of  its  weight  of  free  fatty  acid,  will  dis- 
solve therein.  One-fourth  per  cent  of 
tannin  is  added  and  all  is  mixed  well. 
Enough  potash  or  soda  lye,  or  even  lime 
milk,  is  added  until  the  fatty  acids  are 
saponified,  and  the  tannic  acid  is  neu- 
tralized, shaking  repeatedly.  After  a 
while  the  milky  liquid  separates  into  two 
layers,  viz.,  a  salty,  soapy,  mud-sediment 
and  clear,  colorless,  and  almost  odorless 
benzine  above.  This  benzine,  filtered, 
may  be  employed  for  many  technical 
purposes,  but  gives  an  excellent,  pure 
product  upon  a  second  distillation. 

Fatty  acid  from  tallow,  olive  oil,  or 
other  fats  may  be  used,  but  care  should 
be  taken  that  they  have  as  slight  an  odor 
of  rancid  fat  as  possible.  The  so-called 
elaine  or  olein  —  more  correctly  oleic  acid 
— of  the  candle  factories  may  likewise 
be  employed,  but  it  should  first  be  agi- 
tated with  a  rVper-cent  soda  solution  to 
get  rid  of  the  bad-smelling  fatty  acids, 
especially  the  butyric  acid. 

The  Prevention  of  the  Inflammability 
of  Benzine. — A  mixture  of  9  volumes 
tetrachloride  and  1  volume  of  benzine  is 
practicably  inflammable.  The  flame  is 
soon  extinguished  by  itself. 

Substitute  for  Benzine  as  a  Cleansing 

I. — Chloroform 75  parts 

Ether 75  parts 

Alcohol 600  parts 

Decoction  of  quillaya 

bark 22,500  parts 


II. — Acetic     ether,     tech- 
nically pure 10  parts 

Amyl  acetate 10  parts 

Ammonia  water 10  parts 

Alcohol  dilute 70  parts 


III. — Acetone 1  part 

Ammonia  water 1  part 

Alcohol  dilute 1  part 


Deodorizing  Benzine. — 

I. — Benzine 20  ounces 

Oil  of  lavender. . .      1  fluidrachm 
Potassium  dichro- 

mate 1  ounce 

Sulphuric  acid.  .  .      1  fluidounce 
Water 20  fluidounces 

Dissolve  the  dichromate  in  the  water, 
add  the  acid  and,  when  the  solution  is 
cold,  the  benzine.  Shake  every  hour 
during  the  day,  allow  to  stand  all  night, 
decant  the  benzine,  wash  with  a  pint  of 
water  and  again  decant,  then  add  the  oil 
of  lavender. 

II. — First  add  to  the  benzine  1  to  2  per 
cent  of  oleic  acid,  which  dissolves.  Then 
about  a  quarter  of  1  per  cent  of  tannin  is 
incorporated  by  shaking.  A  sufficient 
quantity  of  caustic  potassa  solution,  or 
milk  of  lime,  to  combine  with  the  acids 
is  then  well  shaken  into  the  mixture, 
and  the  whole  allowed  to  stand.  The 
benzine  rises  to  the  top  of  the  watery 
fluid,  sufficiently  deodorized  and  decol- 
orized for  practical  purposes. 

III.— To  1,750  parts  of  water  add  250 
parts  of  sulphuric  acid,  and  when  it  has 
cooled  down  add  30  parts  of  potassium 
permanganate  and  let  dissolve.  Add 
this  solution  to  4,500  parts  of  benzine, 
stir  well  together,  and  set  aside  for  24 
hours.  Now  decant  the  benzine  and  to 
it  add  a  solution  of  7*  parts  of  potassium 
permanganate  and  15  parts  of  sodium 
hydrate  in  1,000  parts  of  water,  and  agi- 
tate the  substances  well  together.  Let 
stand  until  the  benzine  separates,  then 
draw  oft'. 

IV. — Dissolve  3  parts  of  litharge  and 
18  parts  of  sodium  hydrate  in  40  parts  of 
water.  Add  this  to  200-250  parts  of 
benzine  and  agitate  well  together  for  two 
minutes,  then  let  settle  and  draw  off  the 
benzine.  Rinse  the  latter  by  agitating 



it  with  plenty  of  clear  water,  let  settle, 
draw  off  the  benzine,  and,  if  necessary, 
repeat  the  operation. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 
ods, under  Miscellaneous  Methods. 


See  Food. 


See  Soap. 


A  neutral,  bland,  oily  preparation  of 
benzoin,  useful  for  applying  various 
antiseptics  by  the  aid  of  an  atomizer, 
nebulizer,  or  vaporizer.  Can  be  used 
plain  or  in  combination  with  other  easily 
dissolved  medicinals. 

Paraffine,  liquid 16  ounces 

Gum  benzoin 1  ounce 

Digest  on  a  sand  bath  for  a  half  hour 
and  filter. 


Old-Fashioned  Ginger  Beer. — 
Lemons,     large     and 

sound 6     only 

Ginger,  bruised 3    ounces 

Sugar 6    cups 

Yeast,  compressed  ...      J  cake 

Boiling  water 4     gallons 

Water enough 

Slice  the  lemons  into  a  large  earthen- 
ware vessel,  removing  the  seed.  Add  the 
ginger,  sugar,  and  water.  When  the 
mixture  has  cooled  to  lukewarmness,  add 
the  yeast,  first  diffused  in  a  little  water. 
Cover  the  vessel  with  a  piece  of  cheese 
cloth,  and  let  the  beer  stand  24  hours. 
At  the  end  of  that  time  strain  and  bottle 
it.  Cork  securely,  but  not  so  tightly  that 
the  bottles  would  break  before  the  corks 
would  fly  out,  and  keep  in  a  cool  place. 

Ginger  Beer. — Honey  gives  the  bever- 
age a  peculiar  softness  and,  from  not 
having  fermented  with  yeast,  is  the  less 
violent  in  its  action  when  opened.  In- 
gredients: White  sugar,  I  pound;  honey, 
|  pound;  bruised  ginger,  5  ounces;  juice 
of  sufficient  lemons  to  suit  the  taste;  water, 
4 A  gallons.  Boil  the  ginger  in  3  quarts 
of  the  water  for  half  an  hour,  then  add 
the  ginger,  lemon  juice,  and  honey,  with 
the  remainder  of  the  water;  then  strain 
through  a  cloth;  when  cold,  add  the 
quarter  of  the  white  of  an  egg  and  a  tea- 
spoonful  of  essence  of  lemon.  Let  the 
whole  stand  for  four  days  before  bot- 

tling.     This  quantity  will  make  a  hun- 
dred bottles. 

Ginger  Beer  without  Yeast.— 

Ginger,  bruised li  pounds 

Sugar 20 "   pounds 

Lemons 1     dozen 

Honey 1     pound 

Water enough 

Boil  the  ginger  in  3  gallons  of  water 
for  half  an  hour;  add  the  sugar,  the 
lemons  (bruised  and  sliced),  the  honey, 
and  17  gallons  of  water.  Strain  and, 
after  three  or  four  days,  bottle. 

Package  Pop. — 

Cream  of  tartar 3  ounces 

Ginger,  bruised 1  ounce 

Sugar 24  ounces 

Citric  acid 2  drachms 

Put  up  in  a  package,  and  direct  that  it 
be  shaken  in  1J  gallons  of  boiling  water, 
strained  when  cooled,  fermented  with  1 
ounce  of  yeast,  and  bottled. 

Ginger- Ale  Extract. — 
I. — Jamaica      ginger, 

coarse  powder. .      4  ounces 
Mace,  powder. ...      i  ounce 
Canada  snakeroot, 

coarse  powder..    60  grains 

Oil  of  lemon 1  fluidrachm 

Alcohol 12  fluidounces 

Water. 4  fluidounces 

Magnesium  car- 
bonate or  puri- 
fied talcum 1  av.  ounce 

Mix  the  first  four  ingredients,  and 
make  16  fluidounces  of  tincture  with 
the  alcohol  and  water,  by  percolation. 
Dissolve  the  oil  of  lemon  in  a  small  quan- 
tity of  alcohol,  rub  with  magnesia  or  tal- 
cum, add  gradually  with  constant  trit- 
uration  the  tincture,  and  filter.  The 
extract  may  be  fortified  by  adding  4 
avoirdupois  ounces  of  powdered  grains 
of  paradise  to  the  ginger,  etc.,  of  the 
above  before  extraction  with  alcohol  and 
II. — Capsicum,  coarse 

powder Bounces 

Water 6  pints 

Essence  of  ginger.  8  fluidounces 
Diluted  alcohol..  .  7  fluidounces 
Vanilla  extract.  .  .  2  fluidounces 

Oil  of  lemon 20  drops 

Caramel 1  fluidounce 

Boil  the  capsicum  with  water  for  three 
hours,  occasionally  replacing  the  water 
lost  by  evaporation;  filter,  concentrate 
the  filtrate  on  a  hot  water  bath  to  the  con- 
sistency of  a  thin  extract,  add  the  remain- 
ing ingredients,  and  filter. 



III. — Jamaica  ginger, 

ground 12  ounces 

Lemon  peel,  fresh, 

cut  fine 2  ounces 

Capsicum,  powder     1  ounce 

Calcined  magne- 
sia   '.  . .  1  ounce 

Water0*  [ofeach-      sufficient 

Extract  the  mixed  ginger  and  capsi- 
cum by  percolation  so  as  to  obtain  16 
fluidounces  of  water,  set  the  mixture  aside 
for  24  hours,  shaking  vigorously  from 
time  to  time,  then  filter,  and  pass  through 
the  filter  enough  of  a  mixture  of  2  vol- 
umes of  alcohol  and  1  of  water  to  make 
the  filtrate  measure  32  fluidounces.  In 
the  latter  macerate  the  lemon  peel  for 
7  days,  and  again  filter. 

Ginger  Beer. — 

Brown  sugar 2  pounds 

Boiling  water 2  gallons 

Cream  of  tartar 1  ounce 

Bruised  ginger  root. . .  2  ounces 

Infuse  the  ginger  in  the  boiling  water, 
add  the  sugar  and  cream  of  tartar;  when 
lukewarm  strain;  then  add  half  pint  good 
yeast.  Let  it  stand  all  night,  then  bot- 
tle; one  lemon  and  the  white  of  an  egg 
may  be  added  to  fine  it. 

Lemon  Beer. — 

Boiling  water 1  gallon 

Lemon,  sliced 1 

Ginger,  bruised 1  ounce 

Yeast 1  teacupful 

Sugar 1  pound 

Let  it  stand  12  to  20  hours,  and  it  is 
ready  to  be  bottled. 

Hop  Beer. — 

Water 5  quarts 

Hops 6  ounces 

Boil  3  hours,  strain  the  liquor,  add: 

Water 5  quarts 

Bruised  ginger 4  ounces 

and  boil  a  little  longer,  strain,  and  add 
4  pounds  of  sugar,  and  when  milk- 
warm,  1  pint  of  yeast.  Let  it  ferment; 
in  24  hours  It  is  ready  for  bottling. 

(Enanthic  Ether  as  a  Flavoring  for 
Ginger  Ale. — A  fruity,  vinous  bouquet 
and  delightful  flavor  are  produced  by  the 
presence  of  cenanthic  ether  or  brandy 

flavor  in  ginger  ale.  This  ether  throws 
off  a  rich,  pungent,  vinous  odor,  and 
gives  a  smoothness  very  agreeable  to  any 
liquor  or  beverage  of  which  it  forms 
a  part.  It  is  a  favorite  with  "brandy 
sophisticators."  Add  a  few  drops  of 
the  ether  (previously  dissolved  in  eight 
times  its  bulk  of  Cologne  spirit)  to  the 
ginger-ale  syrup  just  before  bottling. 

Soluble  Extract  of  Ginger  Ale.— Of 
the  following  three  formulas  the  first  is 
intended  for  soda-fountain  use,  the  sec- 
ond is  a  "cheap"  extract  for  the  bottlers 
who  want  a  one.-ounce-to-the-gallon  ex- 
tract, and  the  third  is  a  bottlers'  extract 
to  be  used  in  the  proportion  of  three 
ounces  to  a  gallon  of  syrup.  This  latter 
is  a  most  satisfactory  extract  and  has 
been  sold  with  most  creditable  results, 
both  as  to  clearness  of  the  finished  ginger 
ale  and  delicacy  of  flavor. 

It  will  be  noted  that  in  these  formulas 
oleoresin  of  ginger  is  used  in  addition  to 
the  powdered  root.  Those  who  do  not 
mind  the  additional  expense  might  use 
one-fourth  of  the  same  quantity  of  vola- 
tile oil  of  ginger  instead.  This  should 
develop  an  excellent  flavor,  since  the  oil 
is  approximately  sixteen  times  as  strong 
as  the  oleoresin,  and  has  the  additional 
advantage  of  being  free  from  resinous 

The  following  are  the  formulas: 

I.  —  (To  be  used  in  the  proportion  of 
4  ounces  of  extract  to  1  gallon  of  syrup.) 

Jamaica  ginger,  in 

fine  powder 8  pounds 

Capsicum,  in  fine  pow- 
der   6  ounces 

Alcohol,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Mix  the  powders  intimately,  moisten 
them  with  a  sufficient  quantity  of  alco- 
hol, and  set  aside  for  4  hours.  Pack 
in  a  cylindrical  percolator  and  percolate 
with  alcohol  until  10  pints  of  percolate 
have  resulted.  Place  the  percolate  in  a 
bottle  of  the  capacity  of  16  pints,  and 
add  to  it  2  fluidrachms  of  oleoresin  of 
ginger;  shake,  add  2^  pounds  of  finely 
powdered  pumice  stone,  and  agitate  thor- 
oughly at  intervals  of  one-half  hour  for  12 
hours.  Then  add  14  pints  of  water  in 
quantities  of  1  pint  at  each  addition, 
shaking  briskly  meanwhile.  This  part 
of  the  operation  is  most  important.  Set 
the  mixture  aside  for  24  hours,  agitating 
it  strongly  every  hour  or  so  during  that 
period.  Then  take 

Oil  of  lemon 1 J  fluidounces 

Oil   of  rose  (or  ge- 
ranium)      3     fluidrachms 

Oil  of  bergamot ....    2    fluidrachms 



Oil  of  cinnamon ....    3    fluidrachms 

Magnesium  carbon- 
ate      3     fluidounces 

Rub  the  oils  with  the  magnesia  in  a 
large  mortar  and  add  9  ounces  of  the 
clear  portion  of  the  ginger  mixture  to 
which  have  been  previously  added  2 
ounces  of  alcohol,  and  continue  tritu- 
ration,  rinsing  out  the  mortar  with  the 
ginger  mixture.  Pass  the  ginger  mixture 
through  a  double  filter  and  add  through 
the  filter  the  mixture  of  oils  and  magnesia; 
finally  pass  enough  water  through  the 
filter  to  make  the  resulting  product 
measure  24  pints,  or  3  gallons.  If  the 
operator  should  desire  an  extract  of  more 
or  less  pungency,  he  may  obtain  his  de- 
sired effect  by  increasing  or  decreasing 
the  quantity  of  powdered  capsicum  in 
the  formula. 

II. — (To  be  used  in  the  proportion  of  1 
ounce  to  1  gallon  of  syrup.) 
Ginger,  in  moderately 

fine  powder 6     pounds 

Capsicum,  in  fine  pow- 
der      2  \  pounds 

Alcohol,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Mix,  moisten  the  powder  with  3  pints 
of  alcohol,  and  set  aside  in  a  suitable 
vessel  for  4  hours.  Then  pack  the  pow- 
der firmly  in  a  cylindrical  percolator, 
and  percolate  until  6  pints  of  extract  are 
obtained.  Set  this  mixture  aside  and 
label  Percolate  No.  1,  and  continue  the 
percolation  with  \\  pints  of  alcohol 
mixed  with  1^  pints  of  water.  Set  the 
resultant  tincture  aside,  and  label  Per- 
colate No.  2. 

Take  oleoresin  ginger  5  fluid  ounces 
and  add  to  Percolate  No.  1.  Then  take: 

Oil  of  lemon 1^  fluidounces 

Oil  of  cinnamon.  .  .    1     fluidounce 

Oil  of  geranium \  fluidounce 

Magnesium  carbon- 
ate     8  ounces 

Triturate  the  oils  with  the  magnesia, 
add  gradually  Percolate  No.  2,  and  set 
aside.  Then  place  Percolate  No.  1  in  a 
large  bottle,  add  3J  pounds  of  finely  pow- 
dered pumice  stone,  and  shake  at  inter- 
vals of  half  an  hour  for  six  hours.  This 
being  completed,  add  the  mixture  of  oils, 
and  later  10  pints  of  water,  in  quantities 
of  \  a  pint  at  a  time,  shaking  vigorously 
after  each  solution.  Let  the  mixture 
stand  for  24  hours,  shaking  it  at  inter- 
vals, and  then  pass  it  through  a  double 
filter.  Finally  add  enough  water  through 
the  filter  to  make  the  product  measure 
24  pints,  or  3  gallons. 

III.  —  (To  be  used  in  proportion  of  3 
ounces  to  1  gallon  of  syrup.) 

Ginger,  in  moderately 

fine  powder 8  pounds 

Capsicum,  in  moder- 
ately fine  powder  . .  2  pounds 

Alcohol,  q.  s. 

Mix,  moisten  with  alcohol,  and  set 
aside  as  in  the  preceding  formula;  then 
percolate  with  alcohol  until  10  pints  of 
extract  are  obtained.  To  this  add  oleo- 
resin of  ginger  3  drachms,  and  place  in 
a  large  bottle.  Add  2$  pounds  of  pow- 
dereH  pumice  stone,  and  shake  as  di- 
rected for  formula  No.  1.  Then  add  14 
pints  of  water,  in  quantities  of  1  pint  at  a 
time,  shaking  vigorously  after  each  addi- 
tion. Set  the  mixture  aside  for  24  hours, 
shaking  at  intervals.  Then  take: 

Oil  of  lemon \\  fluidounces 

Oil  of  geranium  ...      \  fluidounce 
Oil  of  cinnamon  ...    3    fluidrachms 
Magnesia  carbonate  3    ounces 

Rub  these  in  a  mortar  with  the  mag- 
nesia, and  add  9  ounces  of  the  clear  por- 
tion of  the  ginger  mixture  mixed  with  2 
ounces  of  alcohol,  rubbing  the  mixture 
until  it  becomes  smooth.  Prepare  a 
double  filter,  and  filter  the  ginger  mix- 
ture, adding  through  the  filter  the  mix- 
ture of  oils  and  magnesia.  Finally  add 
enough  water  through  the  filter  to  make 
the  final  product  measure  24  pints,  or  3 

If  these  formulas  are  properly  manip- 
ulated the  extracts  should  keep  for  a 
reasonable  length  of  time  without  a  pre- 
cipitate. If,  however,  a  precipitate  oc- 
cur after  the  extract  has  stood  for  a 
week,  it  should  be  refiltered. 


Lemonade  Preparations  for  the  Sick.— 
I. — Strawberry  Lemonade:  Citric  acid,  6 
parts;  water,  100  parts;  sugar,  450  parts; 
strawberry  syrup,  600  parts;  cherry  syr- 
up, 300  parts;  claret,  450  parts;  aromatic 
tincture,  ad  lib. 

II. — Lemonade  Powder:  Sodium  bi- 
carbonate, 65;  tartaric  acid,  60;  sugar, 
125;  lemon  oil,  12  drops. 

III. — Lemonade  juice:  Sugar  syrup, 
200;  tartaric  acid,  15;  distilled  water, 
100;  lemon  oil,  3;  tincture  of  vanilla,  6 

IV. — Lemonade  Lozenges:  Tartaric 
acid,  10;  sugar,  30;  gum  arabic,  2;  pow- 
dered starch,  0.5;  lemon  oil,  6  drops; 
tincture  of  vanilla,  25  drops;  and  suffi- 
cient diluted  spirit  of  wine  so  that  30 
lozenges  can  be  made  with  it. 

Lemonade  for  Diabetics. — The  follow- 
ing is  said  to  be  useful  for  assuaging  the 
thirst  of  diabetics: 



Citric  acid 1  part 

Glycerine 50  parts 

Cognac 50  parts 

Distilled  water 500  parts 

Hot  Lemonade. — Take  2  large,  fresh 
lemons,  and  wash  them  clean  with  cold 
water.  Roll  them  until  soft;  then  divide 
each  into  halves,  and  use  a  lemon-squeez- 
er or  reamer  to  express  the  juice  into  a 
small  pitcher.  Remove  all  the  seeds 
from  tne  juice,  to  which  add  4  or  more 
tablespoonfuls  of  white  sugar,  according 
to  taste.  A  pint  of  boiling  water  is  now 
added,  and  the  mixture  stirred  until  the 
sugar  is  dissolved.  The  beverage  is  very 
effective  in  producing  perspiration,  and 
should  be  drunk  while  hot.  The  same 
formula  may  be  used  for  making  cold 
lemonade,  by  substituting  ice  water  for 
the  hot  water,  and  adding  a  piece  of 
lemon  peel.  If  desired,  a  weaker  lemon- 
ade may  be  made  by  using  more  water. 

Lemonades,  Lemon  and  .Sour  Drinks 
for  Soda-Water  Fountains.—  Plain  Lem- 
onade.— Juice  of  1  lemon;  pulverized 
sugar,  2  teaspoonfuls;  filtered  water,  suffi- 
cient; shaved  ice,  sufficient. 

Mix  and  shake  well.  Garnish  with 
fruit,  and  serve  with  both  spoon  and 

Huyler's  Lemonade. — Juice  of  1  lem- 
on; simple  syrup,  2  ounces;  soda  water, 
sufficient.  Dress  with  sliced  pineapple, 
and  serve  with  straws.  In  mixing,  do 
not  shake,  but  stir  with  a  spoon. 

Pineapple  Lemonade. — Juice  of  1 
lemon;  pineapple  syrup,  2  ounces;  soda 
water,  sufficient.  Dress  with  fruit. 
Serve  with  straws. 

Seltzer  Lemonade. — Juice  of  1  lemon; 
pulverized  sugar,  2  teaspoonfuls.  Fill 
with  seltzer.  Dress  with  sliced  lemon. 

Apollinaris  Lemonade. — The  same  as 
seltzer,  substituting  apollinaris  water  for 

Limeade. — Juice  of  1  lime;  pulverized 
sugar,  2  teaspoonfuls;  water,  sufficient. 
Where  fresh  limes  are  not  obtainable, 
use  bottled  lime  juice. 

Orangeade. — Juice  of  1  orange;  pul- 
verized sugar,  2  teaspoonfuls;  water, 
sufficient;  shaved  ice,  sufficient.  Dress 
with  sliced  orange  and  cherries.  Serve 
with  straws. 

Seltzer  and  Lemon. — Juice  of  1  lemon; 
seltzer,  sufficient.  Serve  in  a  small 

Claret  Lemonade. — Juice  of  1  lemon; 
pulverized  sugar,  3  teaspoonfuls.  Make 
lemonade,  pour  into  a  glass  containing 

shaved  ice  until  the  glass  lacks  about  one 
inch  of  being  full.  Pour  in  sufficient 
claret  to  fill  the  glass.  Dress  with  cher- 
ries and  sliced  pineapple. 

Claret  Punch. — Juice  of  1  lemon;  pul- 
verized sugar,  3  teaspoonfuls;  claret 
wine,  2  ounces;  shaved  ice,  sufficient. 
Serve  in  small  glass.  Dress  with  sliced 
lemon,  and  fruit  in  season.  Bright  red 
cherries  and  plums  make  attractive  gar- 

Raspberry  Lemonade. — I. — Juice  of  1 
lemon;  3  teaspoonfuls  powdered  sugar; 
1  tablespoonful  raspberry  juice;  shaved 
ice;  plain  water;  shake. 

II. — Juice  of  1  lemon;  2  teaspoonfuls 
powdered  sugar;  $  ounce  raspberry 
syrup;  shaved  ice;  water;  shake. 

Banjo  Sour. — Pare  a  lemon,  cut  it  in 
two,  add  a  large  tablespoonful  of  sugar, 
then  thoroughly  muddle  it;  add  the 
white  of  an  egg;  an  ounce  of  sloe  gin;  3 
or  4  dashes  of  abricotine;  shake  well; 
strain  into  a  goblet  or  fizz  glass,  and  fill 
balance  with  soda;  decorate  with  a  slice 
of  pineapple  and  cherry. 

Orgeat  Punch. — Orgeat  syrup,  12 
drachms;  brandy,  1  ounce;  juice  of  1 

Granola. — Orange  syrup,  1  ounce; 
grape  syrup,  1  ounce;  juice  of  \  lemon; 
shaved  ice,  q.  s.  Serve  with  straws. 
Dress  with  sliced  lemon  or  pineapple. 

American  Lemonade. — One  ounce  or- 
ange syrup;  1  ounce  lemon  syrup;  1  tea- 
spoonful  powdered  sugar;  1  dash  acid- 
phosphate  solution;  \  glass  shaved  ice. 
Fill  with  coarse  stream.  Add  slice  of 
orange,  and  run  two  straws  through  it. 

Old -Fashioned  Lemonade. — Put  in  a 
freezer  and  freeze  almost  hard,  then  add 
the  fruits,  and  freeze  very  hard.  Serve 
in  a  silver  sherbet  cup. 

"Ping  Pong"  Frappe. — Grape  juice, 
unfermented,  1  quart;  port  wine  (Cali- 
fornia), \  pint;  lemon  syrup,  12  ounces; 
pineapple  syrup,  2  ounces;  orange  syrup, 
4  ounces;  Benedictine  cordial,  4  ounces; 
sugar,  1  pound. 

Dissolve  sugar  in  grape  juice  and  put 
in  wine;  add  the  syrup  and  cordial; 
serve  from  a  punch  bowl,  with  ladle,  into 
12-ounce  narrow  lemonade  glass  and 
fill  with  solid  stream;  garnish  with  slice 
of  orange  and  pineapple,  and  serve  with 

Orange  Frapp!.— Glass  half  full  of 
fine  ice;  tablespoonful  powdered  sugar; 
\  ounce  orange  syrup;  2  dashes  lemon 
syrup;  dash  prepared  raspberry;  \  ounce 



acid-phosphate  solution.  Fill  with  soda 
and  stir  well;  strain  into  a  mineral  glass 
and  serve. 

Hot  Lemonades. — 
I. — Lemon  essence. .      4  fluidrachms 
Solution  of  citric 

acid 1  fluidounce 

Syrup,  enough  to 

make 32  fluidounces 

In  serving,  draw  2t  fluidounces  of  the 
syrup  into  an  8-ounce  mug,  fill  with  hot 
water,  and  serve  with  a  spoon. 

II. — Lemon. 1 

Alcohol 1  fluidounce 

Solution  of  citric 

acid    2  fluidrachms 

Sugar 20  av.  ounces 

Water 20  fluidounces 

White  of 1  egg 

Grate  the  peel  of  the  lemon,  macerate 
with  the  alcohol  for  a  day;  express;  also 
express  the  lemon,  mix  the  two,  add  the 
sugar  and  water,  dissolve  by  agitation, 
and  add  the  solution  of  citric  acid  and 
the  white  of  egg,  the  latter  first  beaten  to 
a  froth.  Serve  like  the  preceding. 

Egg  Lemonade.— I. —Break  1  egg  into 
a  soda  glass,  add  1|  ounces  lemon  syrup, 
a  drachm  of  lemon  juice,  and  a  little 
shaved  ice;  then  draw  carbonated  water 
to  fill  the  glass,  stirring  well. 

II.— Shaved  ice J  tumblerful 

Powdered  sugar   4     tablespoonfuls 

Juice  of 1     lemon 

Yolk  of 1     egg 

Shake  well,  and  add  carbonated  water 
to  fill  the  glass. 


Chocolate. — I. — This  may  be  prepared 
in  two  ways,  from  the  powdered  cocoa  or 
from  a  syrup.  To  prepare  the  cocoa  for 
use,  dry  mix  with  an  equal  quantity  of 
pulverized  sugar  and  use  a  heaping 
teaspoonful  to  a  mug.  To  prepare  a 
syrup,  take  12  ounces  of  cocoa,  5  pints 
of  water,  and  4  pounds  of  sugar.  Re- 
duce the  cocoa  to  a  smooth  paste  with  a 
little  warm  water.  Put  on  the  fire. 
When  the  water  becomes  hot  add  the 
paste,  and  then  allow  to  boil  for  3  or  4 
minutes;  remove  from  fire  and  add  the 
sugar;  stir  carefully  while  heating,  to 
prevent  scorching;  when  cold  add  3 
drachms  of  vanilla;  £  to  I  ounce  will  suf- 
fice for  a  cup  of  chocolate;  top  off  with 
whipped  cream. 

II. — Baker's  fountain  choc- 
olate      1  pound 

Syrup 1  gallon 

Extract  vanilla enough 

Shave  the  chocolate  into  a  gallon  por- 
celained  evaporating  dish  and  melt  with 
a  gentle  heat,  stirring  with  a  thin-bladed 
spatula.  When  melted  remove  from  the 
fire  and  add  1  ounce  of  cold  water,  mix- 
ing well.  Add  gradually  1  gallon  of  hot 
syrup  and  strain;  flavor  to  suit.  Use 
1  ounce  to  a  mug. 

III.— Hot  Egg  Chocolate.— Break  a 
fresh  egg  into  a  soda  tymbler;  add  1£ 
ounces  chocolate  syrup  and  1  ounce 
cream;  shake  thoroughly,  add  hot  soda 
slowly  into  the  shaker,  stirring  mean- 
while; strain  carefully  into  mug;  top  off 
with  whipped  cream  and  serve. 

IV.-^Hot  Chocolate  and  Milk.— 
Chocolate  syrup  ....  1  ounce 
Hot  milk 4  ounces 

Stir  well,  fill  mug  with  hot  soda  and 

V.— Hot  Egg  Chocolate.— One  egg,  1| 
ounces  chocolate  syrup,  1  teaspoonful 
sweet  cream;  shake,  strain,  add  1  cup 
hot  soda,  and  1  tablespoonful  whipped 

Coffee. — I. — Make  an  extract  by  mac- 
erating 1  pound  of  the  best  Mocha  and 
Java  with  8  ounces  of  water  for  20  min- 
utes, then  add  hot  water  enough  to  per- 
colate 1  pint.  One  or  2  drachms  of  this 
extract  will  make  a  delicious  cup  of  cof- 
fee. Serve  either  with  or  without  cream, 
and  let  customer  sweeten  to  taste. 

II. — Pack  ^  pound  of  pulverized  cof- 
fee in  a  percolator.  Percolate  with  2 
quarts  of  boiling  water,  letting  it  run 
through  twice.  Add  to  this  2  quarts  of 
milk;  keep  hot  in  an  urn  and  draw  as  a 
finished  drink.  Add  a  lump  of  sugar 
and  top  off  with  whipped  cream. 

III. — Coffee  syrup  may  be  made  by 
adding  boiling  water  from  the  apparatus 
to  1  pound  of  coffee,  placed  in  a  suitable 
filter  or  coffeepot,  until  2  quarts  of  the 
infusion  are  obtained.  Add  to  this  3 
pounds  of  sugar.  In  dispensing,  first 
put  sufficient  cream  in  the  cup,  add  the 
coffee,  then  sweeten,  if  necessary,  and 
mix  with  the  stream  from  the  draught 

IV. — Mocha  coffee  (ground 

fine) 4  ounces 

Java    coffee    (ground 

fine) 4  ounces 

Granulated  sugar 6  pounds 

Hot  water q.  s. 

Percolate  the  coffee  with  hot  water  un- 
til the  percolate  measures  72  ounces. 
Dissolve  the  sugar  in  the  percolate  by 
agitation  without  heat  and  strain. 

Hot  Egg  Orangeade. — One  egg;  juice 


of  \  orange;  2  teaspoonfuls  powdered 
sugar.  Shake,  strain,  add  1  cup  of  hot 
water.  Stir,  serve  with  nutmeg. 

Hot  Egg  Bouillon.  —  One-half  ounce 
liquid  extract  beef;  1  egg;  salt  and  pep- 
per; hot  water  to  fill  8-ounce  mug.  Stir 
extract,  egg,  and  seasoning  together;  add 
water,  still  stirring;  strain  and  serve. 

Hot  Celery  Punch.  —  One  -  quarter 
ounce  of  clam  juice;  \  ounce  beef  extract; 
1  ounce  of  cream;  4  dashes  of  celery  es- 
sence. Stir  while  adding  hot  water,  and 
serve  with  spices. 

Chicken  Bouillon. — Two  ounces  con- 
centrated chicken;  \  ounce  sweet  cream 
and  spice.  Stir  while  adding  hot  water. 

Ginger. — 

Fluid  extract  of  ginger  2£  ounces 

Sugar 40     ounces 

Water,  to 2£  pints 

Take  10  ounces  of  the  sugar  and  mix 
with  the  fluid  extract  of  ginger;  heat  on 
the  water  bath  until  the  alcohol  is  evap- 
orated. Then  mix  with  20  ounces  of 
water  and  shake  till  dissolved.  Filter 
and  add  the  balance  of  the  water  and  the 
sugar.  Dissolve  by  agitation. 

Cocoa  Syrup. — 

I. — Cocoa,  light,  soluble.    4  ounces 
Granulated  sugar. ...    2  pounds 

Boiling  hot  water 1  quart 

Extract  vanilla 1  ounce 

Dissolve  the  cocoa  in  the  hot  water,  by 
stirring,  then  add  the  sugar  and  dissolve. 
Strain,  and  when  cold  add  the  vanilla 

II. — Cocoa  syrup 2  ounces 

Cream 1  ounce 

Turn  on  the  hot  water  stream  and  stir 
while  filling.  Top  off  with  whipped 

Hot  Soda  Toddy. — 

Lemon  juice 2  fluidrachms 

Lemon  syrup 1  fluidounce 

Aromatic  bitters.  ...    1  fluidrachm 
Hot  water,  enough  to  fill  an  8-ounce 

Sprinkle  with  nutmeg  or  cinnamon. 

Hot  Orange  Phosphate. — 

Orange  syrup 1  fluidounce 

Solution    of   acid 

phosphate 1  fluidrachm 

Hot  water,  enough  to  fill  an  8-ounce 


It  is  prepared  more  acceptably  by  mix- 
ing the  juice  of  half  an  orange  with  acid 
phosphate,  sugar,  and  hot  water. 

Pepsin  Phosphate. — One  teaspoonful 
of  liquid  pepsin;  2  dashes  of  acid  phos- 
phate; 1  ounce  of  lemon  syrup;  1  cup  hot 

Cream  Beef  Tea. — Use  1  teaspoonful 
of  liquid  beef  extract  in  a  mug  of  hot 
water,  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  then 
stir  in  a  tablespoonful  of  rich  cream. 
Put  a  teaspoonful  of  whipped  cream  on 
top  and  serve  with  flakes. 

Cherry  Phosphate.  — Cherry-phosphate 
syrup,  \\  ounces;  hot  water  to  make  8 

Cherry-phosphate  syrup  is  made  as 
follows:  Cherry  juice,  3  pints;  sugar,  6 
pounds;  water,  1  pint;  acid  phosphate, 
4  ounces.  Bring  to  a  boil,  and  when 
cool  add  the  acid  phosphate. 

Celery  Clam  Punch. — Clam  juice,  2 
drachms;  beef  extract,  1  drachm;  cream, 

1  ounce;  essence  of  celery,  5  drops;  hot 
water  to  make  8  ounces. 

Claret  Punch. — Claret  wine,  2  ounces; 
sugar,  3  teaspoonfuls;  juice  of  \  lemon; 
hot  water  to  make  8  ounces. 

Ginger. — Extract  of  ginger,  2  drachms; 
sugar,  2  drachms;  lemon  juice,  2  dashes; 
hot  water  to  make  8  ounces. 

Lemon  Juice,  Plain. — Fresh  lemon 
juice,  2iy  drachms;  lemon  syrup,  1  ounce; 
hot  water,  q.  s.  to  make  8  ounces. 

Lime  Juice. — Lime  juice,  f  drachm; 
lemon  syrup,  1  ounce;  hot  water  to  make 
8  ounces.  Mix.  Eberle  remarks  that 
lemon  juice  or  lime  juice  enters  into 
many  combinations.  In  plain  soda  it 
may  be  combined  with  ginger  and  other 
flavors,  as,  for  instance,  chocolate  and 

Lemonade. — Juice  of  1  lemon;  pow- 
dered sugar,  2  teaspoonfuls;  hot  water  to 
make  8  ounces.  A  small  piece  of  fresh 
lemon  peel  twisted  over  the  cup  lends  an 
added  flavor. 

Hot  Malt. — Extract  of  malt,  1  ounce; 
cherry  syrup,  1  ounce;  hot  water,  suffi- 
cient to  make  8  ounces.  Mix. 

Malted  Milk.— Horlick's  malted  milk, 

2  tablespoonfuls;    hot    water,    quantity 
sufficient  to  make  8  ounces;  flavoring  to 
suit.      Mix.      Essence   of   coffee,    choco- 
late, etc.,  and  many  of  the  fruit  syrups 
go  well  with  malted  milk. 

Hot  Malted  Milk  Coffee  (or  Chocolate). 
— Malted  milk,  2  teaspoonfuls;  coffee 
(or  chocolate)  syrup,  1  ounce;  hot  water, 
quantity  sufficient  to  make  8  ounces. 

Hot  Beef  Tea.  —I.  —Best  beef  extract,  1 
tablespoonfui;  sweet  cream,  1  ounce;  hot 



water,  7  ounces;  pepper,  salt,  etc.,  quan- 
tity sufficient.     Mix. 

II. — Extract  beef  bouillon,  1  teaspoon- 
ful;  extract  aromatic  soup  herbs  (see 
Condiments),  10  drops;  hot  soda,  1  cup- 
ful. Mix. 

III.— Extract  of  beef 1  teaspoonful 

Hot  water q.  s. 

Pepper,  salt,  and  celery  salt. 


Hot  Bouillon.— 

Beef  extract 1  ounce 

Hot    water,    q.   s.    to 

make 8  ounces 

Pepper,  salt,  etc q.  s. 


Clam  Bouillon. — 

I. — Clam  juice 12  drachms 

Cream 2  ounces 

Hot  water,  q.  s.  to  make  8  ounces 
II. — Extract  clam  bouillon     2  ounces 

Prepared  milk 2  drachms 

Extract     of     aromatic 

soup  herbs 5  drops 

Extract  white  pepper. .      5  drops 

Hot  soda 1  cupful 


III. — Clam  juice  may  be  served  with 
hot  water,  salt  and  pepper  added.  Add- 
ing butter  makes  this  bouillon  a  broth. 

It  may  also  be  served  with  milk  or 
cream,  lemon  juice,  tomato  catsup,  etc. 
Hot  oyster  juice  may  be  served  in  the 
same  way. 

Hot  Tea.— 

I. — Tea  syrup sufficient 

Hot  water,    q.    s.    to 

make 1  cupful 

II. — Loaf  sugar 4  cubes 

Extract  of  Oolong 

tea,  about 1  dessertsp'f  ul 

Prepared  milk,  about   1  dessertsp'f  ul 

Hot  soda 1  cupful 

Whipped  cream.  . .    1  tablespoonful 
Mix  the  tea  extract,  sugar,  and  pre- 
pared milk,  pour  on  water,  and  dissolve. 
Top  off  with  whipped  cream. 

Hot  Egg  Drinks.— I.— One-half  to  1 
ounce  liquid  extract  of  beef,  1  egg,  salt 
and  pepper  to  season,  hot  water  to  fill  an 
8-ounce  mug.  Stir  the  extract,  egg,  and 
seasoning  together  with  a  spoon,  to  get 
well  mixed,  add  the  water,  stirring  brisk- 
ly meanwhile;  then  strain,  and  serve. 
Or  shake  the  egg  and  extract  in  a  shaker, 
add  the  water,  and  mix  by  pouring  back 
and  forth  several  times,  from  shaker  to 

II.— Hot  Egg  Chocolate.— Cne  to  1£ 
ounces  chocolate  syrup,  1  egg,  £  ounce 
cream,  hot  water  sufficient  to  fill  an 
8-ounce  mug. 

Mix  the  syrup,  egg,  and  cream  to- 
gether in  an  egg-shaker;  shake  as  in 
making  cold  drinks;  add  the  hot  water, 
and  mix  all  by  pouring  back  and 
forth  several  times,  from  shaker  to  mug. 
Or,  prepare  by  beating  the  egg  with  a 
spoon,  add  the  syrup  and  cream,  mix  all 
quickly  with  the  spoon,  and  add  hot 
water,  stirring  constantly,  and  strain. 

III.— Hot  Egg  Coffee.— One  egg,  1 
dessertspoonful  extract  of  coffee,  1  tea- 
spoonful  sweet  cream,  1  ounce  syrup. 
Shake  well,  strain,  and  add  1  cupful  hot 
water  and  top  with  whipped  cream. 

IV. — Hot  Egg  Lemonade. — One  egg, 
juice  of  1  lemon,  3  teaspoonf uls  powdered 
sugar.  Beat  the  egg  with  lemon  juice 
and  sugar  thoroughly.  Mix  while  add- 
ing the  water.  Serve  grated  nutmeg  and 
cinnamon.  The  amount  of  lemon  juice 
and  sugar  may  be  varied  to  suit  different 

V.— Hot  Egg  Milk.— Two  teaspoon- 
fuls  sugar,  1  ounce  cream,  1  egg,  hot 
milk  to  fill  an  8-ounce  mug.  Prepare  as 
in  hot  egg  chocolate,  top  with  whipped 
cream,  and  sprinkle  with  nutmeg.  If 
there  are  no  facilities  for  keeping  hot 
milk,  use  about  2  ounces  of  cream,  and 
fill  mug  with  hot  water. 

VI. — Hot  Egg  Nogg. — Plain  syrup, 
|  ounce;  brandy,  £  ounce;  Angostura 
bitters,  3  drops;  1  egg.  Put  in  shaker 
and  beat  well.  Strain  in  10-ounce  mug, 
and  fill  with  hot  milk;  finish  with 
whipped  cream  and  nutmeg. 

VII.— Hot  Egg  Phosphate.  — Two 
ounces  lemon  syrup,  1  egg,  ^  ounce  solu- 
tion of  acid  phosphate.  Mix  in  a  glass, 
and  shake  together  thoroughly;  pour  in- 
to another  glass,  heated  previously,  and 
slowly  draw  full  of  hot  water;  season  with 

VIII.— Hot  Egg  Phosphate.— Break 
fresh  egg  into  shaker  and  add  i  ounce 
pineapple  syrup,  £  ounce  orange  syrup, 
1  dash  phosphate.  Shake,  without  ice, 
and  pour  into  bouillon  cup.  Draw  cup- 
ful of  hot  water,  sprinkle  a  touch  of  cin- 
namon, and  serve  with  wafers. 


Coffee  Cream  Soda. — Serve  in  a  12- 
ounce  glass.  Draw  1£  ounces  of  syrup 
and  1  ounce  of  cream.  Into  the  shaker 
draw  8  ounces  of  carbonated  water,  pour 
into  the  glass  sufficient  to  fill  it  to  within 



1  inch  of  the  top;  pour  from  glass  to 
shaker  and  back,  once  or  twice,  to  mix 
thoroughly;  give  the  drink  a  rich,  creamy 
appearance,  and  make  it  cream  suffi- 
ciently to  fill  the  glass. 

Iced  Coffee. — Serve  in  a  10-ounce 
glass.  Draw  1  ounce  into  glass,  fill 
nearly  full  with  ice-cold  milk,  and  mix  by 

Egg  Malted  Milk  Coffee. — Prepare 
same  as, malted  milk  coffee,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  adding  the  egg  before  shaking, 
and  top  off  with  a  little  nutmeg,  if  de- 
sired. This  drink  is  sometimes  called 
coffee  light  lunch. 

Coffee  Frappe. — Serve  in  a  12-ounce 
glass.  Coffee  syrup,  1|  ounces;  white 
of  1  egg;  1  to  1£  ounces  of  pure,  rich, 
sweet  cream;  a  small  portion  of  fine 
shaved  ice;  shake  thoroughly  to  beat  the 
white  of  the  egg  light,  and  then  remove 
the  glass,  leaving  the  contents  in  the 
shaker.  Now  fill  the  shaker  two-thirds 
full,  using  the  fine  stream  only.  Draw 
as  quickly  as  possible  that  the  drink  may 
be  nice  and  light.  Now  pour  into  glass 
and  back,  and  then  strain  into  a  clean 
glass.  Serve  at  once,  and  without 
straws.  This  should  be  drunk  at  once, 
else  it  will  settle,  and  lose  its  lightness 
and  richness. 

Coffee  Nogg. — 

Coffee  syrup 2  ounces 

Brandy 4  drachms 

Cream 2  ounces 

One  egg. 

Coffee  Cocktail. — 

Coffee  syrup 1  ounce 

One  egg. 

Port  wine 1  ounce 

Brandy 2  drachms 

Shake,  strain  into  a  small  glass,  and 
add  soda.  Mace  on  top. 

Chocolate  and  Milk. — 

Chocolate  syrup 2  ounces 

Sweet  milk,  sufficient. 

Fill  a  glass  half  full  of  shaved  ice,  put 
in  the  syrup,  and  add  milk  until  the  glass 
is  almost  full.  Shake  well,  and  serve 
without  straining.  Put  whipped  cream 
on  top  and  serve  with  straws. 

Chocolate  Frappe. — 

Frozen  whipped  cream,  sufficient. 
Shaved  ice,  sufficient. 

Fill  a  glass  half  full  of  frozen  whipped 
cream,  fill  with  shaved  ice  nearly  to  the 

top,  and  pour  in  chocolate  syrup.    Other 
syrups  may  be  used,  it  desired. 

Royal  Frappe. — This  drink  consists  of 
3  parts  black  coffee  and  1  part  of  brandy, 
frozen  in  a  cooler,  and  served  while  in  a 
semifrozen  state. 

Mint  Julep. — One-half  tumbler  shaved 
ice,  teaspoonful  powdered  sugar,  dash 
lemon  juice,  2  or  3  sprigs  of  fresh  mint. 
Crush  the  mint  against  side  of  the  glass 
to  get  the  flavor.  Then  add  claret  syrup, 
\  ounce;  raspberry  syrup,  1^  ounces;  and 
draw  carbonated  water  nearly  to  fill 
glass.  Insert  bunch  of  mint  and  fill 
glass,  leaving  full  of  shaved  ice.  Serve 
with  straws,  and  decorate  with  fruits  of 
the  season. 

Grape  Glace". — Beat  thoroughly  the 
whites  of  4  eggs  and  stir  in  1  pound  of 
powdered  sugar,  then  add  1  pint  grape 
juice,  1  pint  water,  and  1  pound  more  of 
powdered  sugar.  Stir  well  until  sugar 
is  dissolved,  and  serve  from  a  pitcher  or 
glass  dish,  with  ladle. 

"Golf  Goblet."— Serve  in  a  12-ounce 
glass;  fill  two-thirds  full  of  cracked  ice, 
add  \  ounce  pineapple  juice,  1  teaspoon- 
ful lemon  juice,  1  teaspoonful  raspberry 
vinegar.  Put  spoon  in  glass,  and  fill  to 
within  one-half  inch  of  top  with  carbon- 
ated water;  add  shaved  ice,  heaping  full. 
Put  strawberry  or  cherry  on  top,  and 
stick  slice  of  orange  down  side  of  glass. 
Serve  with  spoon  and  straws. 

Goldenade. — Shaved  ice,  £  tumbler- 
ful; powdered  sugar;  juice  of  1  lemon; 
yolk  of  1  egg.  Shake  well,  add  soda 
water  from  large  stream,  turn  from  tum- 
bler to  shaker,  and  vice  versa,  several 
times,  and  strain  through  julep  strainer 
into  a  12-ounce  tumbler. 

Lunar  Blend. — Take  two  mixing 
glasses,  break  an  egg,  putting  the  yolk 
in  one  glass,  the  white  into  the  other; 
into  the  glass  with  the  yolk  add  1  ounce 
cherry  syrup  and  some  cracked  ice; 
shake,  add  small  quantity  soda,  and 
strain  into  a  12-ounce  glass.  Into  the 
other  mixing  glass  add  1  ounce  plain 
sweet  cream,  and  beat  with  bar  spoons 
until  well  whipped;  add  \  ounce  lemon 
syrup,  then  transfer  it  into  the  shaker, 
and  add  soda  from  fine  stream  only, 
and  float  on  top  of  the  one  containing 
the  yolk  and  sherry.  Serve  with  two 

Egg  Chocolate.— 

Chocolate  syrup 2  ounces 

Cream 4  ounces 

White  of  one  egg. 



Egg  CrSme  de  Menthe.— 

Mint  syrup 12  drachms 

Cream 3  ounces 

White  of  one  egg. 

Whisky 4  drachms 

Egg  Sherbet. — 

Sherry  syrup 4  drachms 

Pineapple  syrup 4  drachms 

Raspberry  syrup 4  drachms 

One  egg. 

Egg  Claret.— 

Claret  syrup 2  ounces 

Cream 3  ounces 

One  egg. 

Royal  Mist. — 

Orange  syrup 1  ounce 

Catawba  syrup 1  ounce 

Cream 2  ounces 

One  egg. 

Banana  Cream. — 

Banana  syrup 12  drachms 

Cream 4  ounces 

One  egg. 

Egg  Coffee. — 

Coffee  syrup 2  ounces 

Cream  .". 3  ounces 

One  egg. 
Shaved  ice. 

Cocoa  Mint. — 

Chocolate  syrup.  . 
Peppermint  syrup. ...    1 
White  of  one  egg. 

Cream 2  ounces 

The  peppermint  syrup  is  made  as  fol- 

Oil  of  peppermint. . .   30  minims 

Syrup  simplex 1  gallon 

Soda  foam 1  ounce 

Egg  Lemonade. — 

Juice  of  one  lemon. 

Pulverized  sugar 3  teasp'f uls 

One  egg. 

Water,  q.  s. 

Shake  well,  using  plenty  of  ice,  and 
serve  in  a  small  glass. 


Raspberry  juice 1  ounce 

Pineapple  syrup 1  ounce 

One  egg. 

Cream 2  ounces 

Siberian  Flip.— 

Orange  syrup 1  ounce 

Pineapple  syrup 1  ounce 

One  egg. 

Cream 2  ounces 

1  ounce 

Egg  Orgeat.— 

Orgeat  syrup 12  drachms 

Cream 3  ounces 

One  egg. 

Normona. — 

Peach  syrup 1  ounce 

Grape  syrup 1  ounce 

Cream 3  ounces 

Brandy 2  drachms 

One  egg. 

Silver  Fizz.— 

Catawba  syrup 2  ounces 

Holland  gin 2  drachms 

Lemon  juice 8  dashes 

White  of  one  egg. 

Golden  Fizz. — 

Claret  syrup 2    ounces 

Holland  gin |  ounce 

Lemon  juice 8  dashes 

Yolk  of  one  egg. 

Rose  Cream.— 

Rose  syrup 12  drachms 

Cream 4  ounces 

White  of  one  egg. 

Violet  Cream. — 

Violet  syrup 12  drachms 

Cream 4  ounces 

White  of  one  egg. 

Rose  Mint. — 

Rose  syrup 6  drachms 

Mint  syrup 6  drachms 

Cream 3  ounces 

White  of  one  egg. 

Currant  Cream.— 

Red-currant  syrup ...    2  ounces 

Cream 3  ounces 

One  egg. 

Quince  Flip. — 

Quince  syrup 2  ounces 

Cream 3  ounces 

One  egg. 
Shaved  ice. 

Coffee  Nogg.— 

Coffee  syrup 2  ounces 

Brandy 4  drachms 

Cream 2  ounces 

One  egg. 

Egg  Sour. — 

Juice  of  one  lemon. 

Simple  syrup 12  drachms 

One  egg. 

Shake,  strain,  and  fill  with  soda.  Mace 
on  top. 



Lemon  Sour. — 

Lemon  syrup 12  drachms 

Juice  of  one  lemon. 
One  egg. 

Raspberry  Sour. — 

Raspberry  syrup. ...    12  drachms 
One  egg.  \ 

Juice  of  one  lemon. 

Yama. — 
One  egg. 



Jamaica  rum. 

. .    2     ounces 
. .    2     teaspoonfuls 
$  ounce 

Shake  well,  put  into  cup,  and  add  hot 
water.  Serve  with  whipped  cream,  and 
sprinkle  mace  on  top. 

Prairie  Oyster. — 

Cider  vinegar 2  ounces 

One  egg. 

Put  vinegar  into  glass,  and  break  into 
it  the  egg.     Season  with  salt  and  pepper. 
Serve  without  mixing. 

Fruit  Frappe. — 

Granulated  gelatin ...    1  ounce 
Juice  of  six  lemons. 
Beaten  whites  of  two  eggs. 

Water 5  quarts 

Syrup 1  quart 

Maraschino  cherries. .   8  ounces 

Sliced  peach 4  ounces 

Sliced  pineapple 4  ounces 

Whole  strawberries. . .    4  ounces 

Sliced  orange 4  ounces 

Dissolve  the  gelatin  in  1  quart  boiling 
hot  water;  add  tne  syrup  and  the  balance 
of  the  water;  add  the  whites  of  the  eggs 
and  lemon  juice. 


The  original  koumiss  is  the  Russian, 
made  from  mare's  milk,  while  that  pro- 
duced in  this  country  and  other  parts  of 
Europe  is  usually,  probably  always,  made 
from  cow's  milk.  For  this  reason  there 
is  a  difference  in  the  preparation  which 
•may  or  may  not  be  of  consequence.  It 
has  been  asserted  that  the  ferment  used 
in  Russia  differs  from  ordinary  yeast,  but 
this  has  not  been  established. 

In  an  article  on  this  subject,  contrib- 
uted by  D.  H.  Davies  to  the  Pharma- 
ceutical Journal  and  Transactions,  it  is 
pointed  out  that  mare's  milk  contains  less 
casein  and  fatty  matter  than  cow's 
milk,  and  he  states  that  it  is  "therefore 
far  more  easy  of  digestion."  He  thinks 
that  cow's  milk  yields  a  better  prepara- 
tion when  diluted  with  water  to  reduce 
the  percentage  of  casein,  etc.  He  pro- 
poses the  following  formula: 

Fresh  milk . .    12  ounces 

Water 4  ounces 

Brown  sugar 150  grains 

Compressed  yeast. . .   24  grains 

Milk  sugar 3  drachms 

Dissolve  the  milk  sugar  in  the  water, 
add  to  the  milk,  rub  the  yeast  and  brown 
sugar  down  in  a  mortar  with  a  little  of 
the  mixture,  then  strain  into  the  other 

Strong  bottles  are  very  essential,  cham- 
pagne bottles  being  frequently  used,  and 
the  corks  should  fit  tightly;  in  fact,  it  is 
almost  necessary  to  use  a  bottling  ma- 
chine for  the  purpose,  and  once  the  cork 
is  properly  fixed  it  should  be  wired  down. 
Many  failures  have  resulted  because  the 
corks  did  not  fit  properly,  the  result  being 
that  the  carbon  dioxide  escaped  as 
formed  and  left  a  worthless  preparation. 
It  is  further  necessary  to  keep  the  prepa- 
ration at  a  moderate  temperature,  and  to 
be  sure  that  the  article  is  properly  fin- 
ished the  operator  should  gently  shake 
the  bottles  each  day  for  about  10  min- 
utes to  prevent  the  clotting  of  the  casein. 
It  is  well  to  take  the  precaution  of  rolling 
a  cloth  around  the  bottle  during  the 
shaking  process,  as  the  amount  of  gas 
generated  is  great,  and  should  the  bottle 
be  weak  it  might  explode. 

Kogelman  says  that  if  1  volume  of 
buttermilk  be  mixed  with  1  or  2  vol- 
umes of  sweet  milk,  in  a  short  time 
lively  fermentation  sets  in,  and  in  about 
3  days  the  work  is  completed.  This,  ac- 
cording to  the  author,  produces  a  wine- 
scented  fluid,  rich  in  alcohol,  carbon 
dioxide,  lactic  acid,  and  casein,  which, 
according  to  all  investigations  yet  made, 
is  identical  with  koumiss.  The  follow- 
ing practical  hints  are  given  for  the  pro- 
duction of  a  good  article:  The  sweet  milk 
used  should  not  be  entirely  freed  from 
cream;  the  bottles  should  be  of  strong 
glass;  the  fermenting  milk  must  be  in- 
dustriously shaken  by  the  operator  at 
least  3  times  a  day,  and  then  the  cork 
put  in  firmly,  so  that  the  fluid  will  become 
well  charged  with  carbon-dioxide  gas ; 
the  bottles  must  be  daily  opened  and  at 
least  twice  each  day  brought  nearly  to  a 
horizontal  position,  in  order  to  allow  the 
carbon  dioxide  to  escape  and  air  to  enter; 
otherwise  fermentation  rapidly  ceases, 
If  a  drink  is  desired  strong  in  carbonic 
acid,  the  bottles,  toward  the  end  of  fer- 
mentation, should  be  placed  with  the 
necks  down.  In  order  to  ferment  a 
fresh  quantity  of  milk,  simply  add  $ 
of  its  volume  of  either  actively  fer- 
menting or  freshly  fermented  milk.  The 
temperature  should  be  from  50°  to  60° 
F.,  about  60°  being  the  most  favorable. 



Here  are  some  miscellaneous  formulas: 
I. — Fill  a  quart  champagne  bottle  up 
to  the  neck  with  pure  milk;  add  2  ta- 
blespoonfuls  of  white  sugar,  after  dis- 
solving the  same  in  a  little  water  over  a 
hot  fire;  add  also  a  quarter  of  a  2-cent 
cake  of  compressed  yeast.  Then  tie  the 
cork  in  the  bottle  securely,  and  shake 
the  mixture  well;  place  it  in  a  room  of 
the  temperature  of  50°  to  95°  F.  for  6 
hours,  and  finally  in  the  ice  box  over 
night.  Handle  wrapped  in  a  towel  as 
protection  if  the  bottle  should  burst. 
Be  sure  that  the  milk  is  pure,  that  the 
bottle  is  sound,  that  the  yeast  is  fresh,  to 
open  the  mixture  in  the  morning  with 
great  care,  on  account  of  its  effervescent 
properties;  and  be  sure  not  to  drink  it  at 
all  if  there  is  any  curdle  or  thickening 
part  resembling  cheese,  as  this  indicates 
that  the  fermentation  has  been  prolonged 
beyond  the  proper  time. 

II. — Dilute  the  milk  with  £  part  of 
hot  water,  and  while  still  tepid  add  £ 
of  very  sour  (but  otherwise  good)  but- 
termilk. Put  it  into  a  wide  jug,  cover 
with  a  clean  cloth,  and  let  stand  in  a 
warmish  place  (about  75°  F.)  for  24 
hours;  stir  up  well,  and  leave  for  an- 
other 24  hours.  Then  beat  thoroughly 
together,  and  pour  from  jug  to  jug  till 
perfectly  smooth  and  creamy.  It  is 
now  "still"  koumiss,  and  may  be  drunk 
at  once.  To  make  it  sparkling,  which 
is  generally  preferred,  put  it  into  cham- 
pagne or  soda-water  bottles;  do  not 
quite  fill  them,  secure  the  corks  well, 
and  lay  them  in  a  cool  cellar.  It  will 
then  keep  for  6  or  8  weeks,  though 
it  becomes  increasingly  acid.  To  ma- 
ture some  for  drinking  quickly,  it  is  as 
well  to  keep  a  bottle  or  two  to  start  with 
in  some  warmer  place,  and  from  time  to 
time  shake  vigorously.  With  this  treat- 
ment it  should,  in  about  3  days,  be- 
come sufficiently  effervescent  to  spurt 
freely  through  a  champagne  tap,  which 
must  be  used  for  drawing  it  off  as  re- 
quired. Later  on,  when  very  frothy  and 
acid  it  is  more  pleasant'  to  drink  if  a 
little  sweetened  water  (or  milk  and  wa- 
ter) is  first  put  into  the  glass.  Shake 
the  bottle,  and  hold  it  inverted  well  into 
the  tumbler  before  turning  the  tap. 
Having  made  one  lot  of  koumiss  as  above 
you  can  use  some  of  that  instead  of 
buttermilk  as  a  ferment  for  a  second 
lot,  and  so  on  5  or  6  times  in  succession; 
after  which  it  will  be  found  advisable  to 
begin  again  as  at  first.  Mare's  milk  is 
the  best  for  koumiss;  then  ass's  milk. 
Cow's  milk  may  be  made  more  like  them 
by  adding  a  little  sugar  of  milk  (or  even 
loaf  sugar)  with  the  hot  water  before  fer- 

menting. But  perhaps  the  chief  draw- 
back to  cow's  milk  is  that  the  cream 
separates  permanently,  whereas  that  of 
mare's  milk  will  remix.  Hence  use  par- 
tially skimmed  milk;  for  if  there  is  much 
cream  it  only  forms  little  lumps  of  butter, 
which  are  apt  to  clog  the  tap,  or  are  left 
behind  in  the  bottle. 

Kwass.  —  Kwass  is  a  popular  drink 
among  the  Russian  population  of  Kun- 
zews,  prepared  as  follows:  In  a  big  kettle 
put  from  13  to  15  quarts  of  water,  and 
bring  to  a  boil,  and  when  in  active  ebul- 
lition pour  in  500  grams  of  malt.  Let 
boil  for  20  minutes,  remove  from  the 
fire,  let  cool  down,  and  strain  off.  The 
liquid  is  now  put  into  a  clean  keg  or 
barrel,  30  grams  (about  an  ounce)  of  best 
compressed  yeast  added  along  with  about 
600  grams  (20  ounces)  of  sugar,  and  the 
cask  is  put  in  a  warm  place  to  ferment. 
As  soon  as  bubbles  of  carbonic  gas  are  de- 
tected on  the  surface  of  the  liquid,  it  is  a 
signal  that  the  latter  is  ready  for  bottling. 
In  each  of  the  bottles,  which  should  be 
strong  and  clean,  put  one  big  raisin,  fill, 
cork,  and  wire  down.  The  bottles 
should  be  placed  on  the  side,  and  in  the 
coolest  place  available  —  best,  on  ice. 
The  liquor  is  ready  for  drinking  in  from 
2  to  3  days,  and  is  said  to  be  most  pal- 

"  Braga."  —  Braga  is  a  liquid  of  milky 
turbidity,  resembling  cafe  au  lait  in 
color,  and  forming  a  considerable  pre- 
cipitate if  left  alone.  When  shaken  it 
sparkles  and  a  little  gas  escapes.  Its 
taste  is  more  or  less  acid,  possessing  a 
pleasant  flavor. 

About  35  parts  of  crushed  millet,  to 
which  a  little  wheat  flour  is  added,  are 
placed  in  a  large  kettle.  On  this  about 
400  parts  of  water  are  poured.  The 
mixture  is  stirred  well  and  boiled  for  3 
hours.  After  settling  for  1  hour  the  lost 
water  is  renewed  and  the  boiling  con- 
tinued for  another  10  hours.  A  viscous 
mass  remains  in  the  kettle,  which  sub- 
stance is  spread  upon  large  tables  to 
cool.  After  it  is  perfectly  cool,  it  is 
stirred  with  water  in  a  wooden  trough 
and  left  to  ferment  for  8  hours.  This 
pulp  is  sifted,  mixed  with  a  little  water, 
and  after  an  hour  the  braga  is  ready  for 
sale.  The  taste  is  a  little  sweetish  at  first, 
but  becomes  more  and  more  sourish  in 
time.  Fermentation  begins  only  in  the 


Campchello.  —  Thoroughly  beat  the 
yolks  of  12  fresh  eggs  with  2£  pounds 
finely  powdered,  refined  sugar,  the  juice 



of  3  lemons  and  2  oranges,  and  3  bottles 
of  Graves  or  other  white  wine,  over  the 
fire,  until  rising.  Remove,  and  slowly 
beat  1  bottle  of  Jamaica  rum  with  it. 

Egg  Wine. — Vigorously  beat  4  whole 
eggs  and  the  yolks  of  4  with  £  pound  of 
fine  sugar;  next  add  2  quarts  of  white 
wine  and  beat  over  a  moderate  fire  until 

Bavaroise  au  Cognac. — Beat  up  the 
yolks  of  8  eggs  in  1  quart  of  good  milk 
over  the  fire,  until  boiling,  then  quickly 
add  5  ounces  of  sugar  and  £  quart  of 
fine  cognac. 

Bavaroise  au  Caf6. — Heat  1  pint  of 
strong  coffee  and  1  pint  of  milk,  5  ounces 
of  sugar,  and  the  yolks  of  8  eggs,  until 
boiling,  then  add  -fa  quart  of  Jamaica 

Carbonated  Pineapple  Champagne. — 

Plain  syrup,  42° 10    gallons 

Essence  of  pineapple     8    drachms 
Tincture  of  lemon. .  .      5    ounces 
Carbonate  of  magne- 
sia       1    ounce 

Liquid  saffron 2£  ounces 

Citric-acid  solution..   30    ounces 

Caramel 2J  ounces 

Filter  before  adding  the  citric-acid  so- 
lution and  limejuice.  Use  2  ounces  to 
each  bottle. 

A  German  Drink. — To  100  parts  of 
water  add  from  10  to  15  parts  of  sugar, 
dissolve  and  add  to  the  syrup  thus  formed 
an  aqueous  extract  of  0.8  parts  of  green 
or  black  tea.  Add  fresh  beer  or  brew- 
ers' yeast,  put  in  a  warm  place  and  let 
ferment.  When  fermentation  has  pro- 
gressed to  a  certain  point  the  liquid  is 
cleared,  and  then  bottled,  corked,  and 
the  corks  tied  down.  The  drink  is  said 
to  be  very  pleasant.  1 

Limejuice  Cordial.  —  Limejuice  cor- 
dial that  will  keep  good  for  any  length  of 
time  may  be  made  as  follows:  Sugar, 
6  pounds;  water,  4  pints;  citric  acid,  4 
ounces;  boric  acid,  £  ounce.  Dissolve 
by  the  aid  of  a  gentle  heat,  and  when  cold 
add  refined  limejuice,  60  ounces;  tinc- 
ture of  lemon  peel,  4  ounces;  water  to 
make  up  to  2  gallons,  and  color  with  car- 

Summer  Drink.  — 

Chopped  ice 2    tablespoonfuls 

Chocolate  syrup  .  .    2    tablespoonfuls 
Whipped  cream  ...   3    tablespoonfuls 

Milk $  cup 

Carbonated  water.     J  cup 

Shake  or  stir  well  before  drinking.  A 
tablespoonful  of  vanilla  ice  cream  is  a 

desirable  addition.  A  plainer  drink  is 
made  by  combining  the  syrup,  f  cup  of 
milk,  and  the  ice,  and  shaking  well. 

American  Champagne.  —  Good  cider 
(crab-apple  cider  is  the  best),  7  gal- 
lons; best  fourth-proof  brandy,  1  quart; 
genuine  champagne  wine,  5  pints;  milk, 
1  gallon;  bitartrate  of  potassa,  2  ounces. 
Mix,  let  stand  a  short  time;  bottle  while 
fermenting.  An  excellent  imitation. 

British  Champagne.  —  Loaf  sugar, 
56  pounds;  brown  sugar  (pale),  48 
pounds;  water  (warm),  45  gallons;  white 
tartar,  4  ounces;  mix,  and  at  a  proper 
temperature  add  yeast,  1  quart;  and 
afterwards  sweet  cider,  5  gallons;  bruised 
wild  cherries,  14  or  15  ounces;  pale 
spirits,  1  gallon;  orris  powder,  J  ounce. 
Bottle  while  fermenting. 

Champagne  Cider. — Good  pale  cider, 
1  hogshead;  spirits,  3  gallons;  sugar, 
20  pounds;  mix,  and  let  it  stand  one 
fortnight;  then  fine  with  skimmed  milk, 
|  gallon;  this  will  be  very  pale,  and 
a  similar  article,  when  properly  bottled 
and  labeled,  opens  so  briskly  that  even 
good  judges  have  mistaken  it  for  genuine 


Scotch  Beer.— Add  1  peck  malt  to  4 

gallons  of  boiling  water  and  let  it  mash 

for  8  hours,  and  then  strain,  and  in  the 

strained  liquor  boil: 

Hops 4  ounces 

Coriander  seeds ......    1  ounce 

Honey 1  pound 

Orange  peel 2  ounces 

Bruised  ginger 1  ounce 

Boil  for  half  an  hour,  then  strain  and 

ferment  in  the  usual  way. 

Hop  Bitter  Beer.— 

Coriander  seeds 2  ounces 

Orange  peel 4  ounces 

Ginger 1  ounce 

Gentian  root \  ounce 

Boil  in  5  gallons  of  water  for  half  an 
hour,  then  strain  and  put  into  the  liquor 
4  ounces  hops  and  3  pounds  of  sugar, 
and  simmer  for  15  minutes,  then  add 
sufficient  yeast,  and  bottle  when  ready. 

Sarsaparilla  Beer. — I. — Compound  ex- 
tract of  sarsaparilla,  1  \  ounces ;  hot  water, 
1  pint;  dissolve,  and  when  cold,  add  of 
good  pale  or  East  India  ale,  7  pints. 

II. — Sarsaparilla  (sliced),  1  pound; 
guaiacum  bark  (bruised  small),  \  pound; 
guaiacum  wood  (rasped)  and  licorice  root 
(sliced),  of  each,  2  ounces;  aniseed 
(bruised),  \\  ounces;  mezereon  root- 



bark,  1  ounce ;  cloves  (cut  small),  J 
ounce;  moist  sugar,  3£  pounds;  hot 
water  (not  boiling),  9  quarts;  mix  in  a 
clean  stone  jar,  and  keep  it  in  a  moder- 
ately warm  room  (shaking  it  twice  or 
thrice  daily)  until  active  fermentation 
sets  in,  then  let  it  repose  for  about  a  week, 
when  it  will  be  ready  for  use.  This  is 
said  to  be  superior  to  the  other  prepara- 
tions of  sarsaparilla  as  an  alterative 
or  purifier  of  the  blood,  particularly  in 
old  affections.  That  usually  made  has 
generally  only  J  of  the  above  quan- 
tity of 'sugar,  for  which  molasses  is  often 
substituted;  but  in  either  case  it  will  not 
keep  well;  whereas,  with  proper  caution, 
the  products  of  the  above  formulas  may 
be  kept  for  1  or  even  2  years.  No 
yeast  must  be  used.  Dose:  A  small 
tumblerful  3  or  4  times  a  day,  or  oftener. 

Spruce  Beer. — I. — Sugar,  1  pound; 
essence  of  spruce,  £  ounce;  boiling  water, 
1  gallon;  mix  well,  and  when  nearly  cold 
add  of  yeast  £  wineglassf  ul ;  and  the 
next  day  bottle  like  ginger  beer. 

II. — Essence  of  spruce,  £  pint;  pi- 
mento and  ginger  (bruised),  or  each,  5 
ounces;  hops,  £  pound;  water,  3  gallons; 
boil  the  whole  for  10  minutes,  then  add 
of  moist  sugar,  12  pounds  (or  good  mo- 
lasses, 14  pounds);  warm  water,  11  gal- 
lons; mix  well,  and,  when  only  luke- 
warm, further  add  of  yeast,  1  pint;  after 
the  liquid  has  fermented  for  about  24 
hours,  bottle  it. 

This  is  diuretic  and  antiscorbutic.  It  is 
regarded  as  an  agreeable  summer  drink, 
and  often  found  useful  during  long  sea 
voyages.  When  made  with  lump  sugar 
it  is  called  White  Spruce  Beer;  when  with 
moist  sugar  or  treacle,  Brown  Spruce 
Beer.  An  inferior  sort  is  made  by  using 
less  sugar  or  more  water. 

Treacle'Beer.  — I.  — From  treacle  or  mo- 
lasses, £  to  2  pounds  per  gallon  (accord- 
ing to  the  desired  strength) ;  hops,  J  to  f 
ounce;  yeast,  a  tablespoonful;  water, 
q.  s.;  treated  as  below. 

II. — Hops,  1£  pounds;  corianders,  1 
ounce;  capsicum  pods  (cut  small),  % 
ounce;  water,  8  gallons;  boil  for  10  or 
15  minutes,  and  strain  the  liquor 
through  a  coarse  sieve  into  a  barrel  con- 
taining treacle,  28  pounds;  then  throw 
back  the  hops,  etc.,  into  the  copper  and 
reboil  them,  for  10  minutes,  with  a 
second  8  gallons  of  water,  which  must  be 
strained  into  the  barrel,  as  before;  next 
"rummage"  the  whole  well  with  a  stout 
stick,  add  of  cold  water  21  gallons  (suf- 
ficient to  make  the  whole  measure  37 
r  lions),  and,  again  after  mixing,  stir  in 
pint  of  good  fresh  yeast;  lastly,  let  it 

remain  for  24  hours  in  a  moderately 
warm  place,  after  which  it  may  be  put 
into  the  cellar,  and  in  2  or  3  days  bottled 
or  tapped  on  draught.  In  a  week  it  will 
be  fit  to  drink.  For  a  stronger  beer,  36 
pounds,  or  even  half  a  hundredweight  of 
molasses  may  be  used.  It  will  then 
keep  good  for  a  twelvemonth.  This  is  a 
wholesome  drink,  but  apt  to  prove  laxa- 
tive when  taken  in  large  quantities. 

Weiss  Beer.— This  Differs  from  the 
ordinary  lager  beer  in  that  it  contains 
wheat  malt.  The  proportions  are  § 
wheat  to  $  barley  malt,  1  pound  hops 
being  used  with  a  peck  of  the  combined 
malt  to  each  20  gallons  of  water.  A 
good  deal  depends  on  the  yeast,  which 
must  be  of  a  special  kind,  the  best  grades 
being  imported  from  Germany. 

Yellow  Coloring  for  Beverages. — The 
coloring  agents  employed  are  fustic,  saf- 
fron, turmeric,  quercitron,  and  the  va- 
rious aniline  dyes.  Here  are  some  for- 

I.  —Saffron. 1  ounce 

Deodorized    alco- 
hol     4  fluidounces 

Distilled  water .  ..   4  fluidounces 
Mix  alcohol  and  water,  and  then  add 
the  saffron.     Allow  the  mixture  to  stand 
in  a  warm  place  for  several  days,  shaking 
occasionally;  then  filter.     The  tincture 
thus  prepared  has  a  deep  orange  color, 
and  when  diluted  or  used  in  small  quan- 
tities   gives    a    beautiful    yellow    tint   to 
syrups,  etc. 
II. — Ground       fustic 

wood 1|  ounces 

Deodorized    alco- 
hol     4     fluidounces 

Distilled  water ...    4    fluidounces 
This  color  may  be  made  in  the  same 
manner  as  the  liquid  saffron,  and  is  a  fine 
coloring  for  many  purposes. 
III. — Turmeric  powder. ...    2  ounces 

Alcohol,  dilute 16  ounces 

Macerate  for  several  days,  agitating 
frequently,  and  filter.  For  some  bev- 
erages the  addition  of  this  tincture  is  not 
to  be  recommended,  as  it  possesses  a 
very  spicy  taste. 

The  nonpoisonous  aniline  dyes  rec- 
ommended for  coloring  confectionery, 
beverages,  liquors,  essences,  etc.,  yellow 
are  those  known  as  acid  yellow  R  and 
tropseolin  000  (orange  I). 


See  Adhesives,  under  Rubber  Cements. 


See  Varnishes. 



See  Alloys. 


See  Ivory  and  Casein. 

See  Balsam. 


See  Hair  Preparations. 

See  Veterinary  Formulas. 


See  also  Veterinary  Formulas. 

Mixed  Birdseed.— 

Canary  seed 6  parts 

Rape  seed 2  parts 

Maw  seed 1  part 

Millet  seed 2  parts 

Mocking-Bird  Food.— 

Cayenne  pepper  ....      2  ounces 

Rape  seed 8  ounces 

Hemp  seed 16  ounces 

Corn  meal 2  ounces 

Rice 2  ounces 

Cracker 8  ounces 

Lard  oil 2  ounces 

Mix  the  solids,  grinding  to  a  coarse 
powder,  and  incorporate  the  oil. 

Food  for  Redbirds.— 

Sunflower  seed 8  ounces 

Hemp  seed 16  ounces 

Canary  seed 10  ounces 

Wheat — 8  ounces 

Rice 6  ounces 

Mix  and  grind  to  coarse  powder. 

See  Lime. 


See  Canary-Bird  Paste. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 

See  Dog  Biscuit. 


See  Alloys. 


See  Gold. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 

See  Waters. 

See  Leather. 


See  Shoedressings. 


See  Stove  Blackings  and  Polishes. 


See  Cholera  Remedy. 


See  Paint  and  Varnish. 


See  Cosmetics. 


See  Household  Formulas. 


See  Explosives. 


Linen. — Mix  common  bleaching  pow- 
der in  the  proportion  of  1  pound  to  a 
gallon  of  water;  stir  it  occasionally  for 

3  days,  let  it  settle,  and  pour  it  off  clear. 
Then  make  a  lye  of  1  pound  of  soda  to 
1  gallon  of  boiling  water,  in  which  soak 
the  linen  for  12  hours,  and  boil  it  half  an 
hour;    next    soak    it    in    the    bleaching 
liquor,  made  as  above;  and  lastly,  wash 
it    in    the    usual    manner.      Discolored 
linen  or  muslin  may  be  restored  by  put- 
ting a  portion  of  bleaching  liquor  into 
the  tub  wherein  the  articles  are  soaking. 

Straw. — I. — Dip  the  straw  in  a  solution 
of  oxygenated  muriatic  acid,  saturated 
with  potash.  (Cxyerenated  muriate  of 
lime  is  much  cheaper.)  The  straw  is 
thus  rendered  very  white,  and  its  flexi- 
bility is  increased. 

II. — Straw  is  bleached  by  simply  ex- 
posing it  in  a  closed  chamber  to  the 
fumes  of  burning  sulphur.  An  old  flour 
barrel  is  the  apparatus  most  used  for  the 
purpose  by  milliners,  a  flat  stone  being 
laid  on  the  ground,  the  sulphur  ignited 
thereon,  and  the  barrel  containing  the 
goods  to  be  bleached  turned  over  it. 
The  goods  should  be  previously  washed 
in  pure  water. 

Wool,  Silk,   or  Straw.— Mix  together 

4  pounds  of  oxalic    acid,    4    pounds   of 
table  salt,  water  50  gallons.      The  goods 
are    laid    in    this    mixture    for    1    hour; 
they  are  then  generally   well   bleached, 
and  only  require  to  be  thoroughly  rinsed 
and  worked.      For  bleaching  straw  it  is 
best  to  soak  the  goods  in  caustic  soda, 
and  afterwards  to  make  use  of  chloride 
of  lime  or  Javelle  water.      The  excess  of 


chlorine  is  afterwards  removed  by  hypo- 
sulphite of  soda. 

Feathers. — Place  the  feathers  from 
3  to  4  hours  in  a  tepid  dilute  solution 
of  bichromate  of  potassa,  to  which, 
cautiously,  some  nitric  acid  has  been 
added  (a  small  quantity  only).  To 
remove  a  greenish  hue  induced  by  this 
solution,  place  them  in  a  dilute  solu- 
tion of  sulphuric  acid,  in  water,  whereby 
the  feathers  become  perfectly  white  and 

Bleaching  Solution. — Aluminum  hypo- 
chloride,  or  Wilson's  bleaching  liquid,  is 
produced  by  adding  to  a  clear  solution  of 
lime  chloride  a  solution  of  aluminum 
sulphate  (alumina,  alum)  as  long  as  a 
precipitate  keeps  forming.  By  mutual 
decomposition  aluminum  chloride  re- 
sults, which  remains  in  solution,  and 
lime  sulphate  (gypsum),  which  separates 
out  in  the  form  of  an  insoluble  salt. 


I. — Soft  soap 40  parts 

Amyl  alcohol 50  parts 

Methylated  spirit.        20  parts 
Water 1,000  parts 

II.— Soft  soap 30  parts 

Sulphureted     pot- 
ash            2  parts 

Amyl  alcohol 32  parts 

Water 1,000  parts 

III. — Soft  soap 15  parts 

Sulphureted     pot- 
ash         29  parts 

Water 1,000  parts 


See  Laundry  Preparations. 


See  Photography. 


See  Styptics. 


See  Turpentine. 


See  Veterinary  Formulas. 


See  Stone,  Artificial. 


See  Soldering. 


See  Paper. 



To  distinguish  blue  from  green  at 
night,  use  either  the  light  of  a  magnesium 
wire  for  this  purpose  or  take  a  number 
of  Swedish  (parlor)  matches,  light  them, 
and  as  soon  as  they  flash  up,  observe  the 
2  colors,  when  the  difference  can  be  easily 

See  Dyes. 


See  Laundry  Preparations. 


See  Steel. 


Use  a  solution  of  sodium  carbonate 
and  water,  with  a  little  red  ink  mixed  in. 
This  gives  a  very  pleasing  pink  color  to 
the  changes  which,  at  the  same  time,  is 
very  noticeable.  The  amount  of  sodium 
carbonate  used  depends  upon  the  sur- 
face of  the  blue-print  paper,  as  some 
coarse-grained  papers  will  look  better  if 
less  soda  is  used  and  vice  versa.  How- 
ever, the  amount  of  powdered  soda  held 
on  a  small  coin  dissolved  in  a  bottle  of 
water  gives  good  results. 


See  Photography. 


See  Photography,  under  Toning. 


Take  a  piece  of  soft  linen  or  borated 
gauze,  rub  some  vaseline  upon  one  side 
of  it,  quickly  pour  upon  it  some  chloro- 
form, apply  it  to  the  unopened  boil  or 
carbuncle,  and  place  a  bandage  over  all. 
It  smarts  a  little  at  first,  but  this  is  soon 
succeeded  by  a  pleasing,  cool  sensation. 
The  patient  is  given  a  bottle  of  the  rem- 
edy, and  directed  to  change  the  cloth 
often.  In  from  2  hours  to  1  day  the 
boil  (no  matter  how  indurated)  softens 
and  opens. 

Boiler  Compounds 

There  are  three  chemicals  which  are 
known  to  attack  boiler  scale.  These  are 
caustic  soda,  soda  ash,  and  tannic-acid 
compounds,  the  last  being  derived  from 
sumac,  catechu,  and  the  exhausted  bark 
liquor  from  tanneries. 

Caustic  soda  in  large  excess  is  inju- 
rious to  boiler  fittings,  gaskets,  valves, 


etc.  That  it  is  injurious,  in  reasonable 
excess,  to  the  boiler  tubes  themselves  is 
yet  to  be  proved.  Foaming  and  priming 
may  be  caused  through  excess  of  caustic 
soda  or  soda  ash,  as  is  well  known  by 
every  practical  engineer.  Tannic  acid 
is  to  be  condemned  and  the  use  of  its 
salts  is  not  to  be  recommended.  It  may 
unite  with  the  organic  matter,  present  in 
the  form  of  albuminoids,  and  with  cal- 
cium and  magnesium  carbonates.  That 
it  removes  scale  is  an  assured  fact;  that 
it  removes  iron  with  the  scale  is  also 
assured,  as  tannic  acid  corrodes  an  iron 
surface  rapidly. 

Compounds  of  vegetable  origin  are 
widely  advertised,  but  they  often  contain 
dextrine  and  gum,  both  of  which  are 
dangerous,  as  they  coat  the  tubes  with  a 
compact  scale,  not  permitting  the  water 
to  reach  the  iron.  Molasses  is  acid  and 
should  not  be  used  in  the  boiler.  Starch 
substances  generally  should  be  avoided. 
Kerosene  must  be  dangerous,  as  it  is 
very  volatile  and  must  soon  leave  the 
boiler  and  pass  over  and  through  the 

There  are  two  materials  the  use  of 
which  in  boilers  is  not  prohibited  through 
action  upon  the  metal  itself  or  on  ac- 
count of  price.  These  are  soda  ash  and 
caustic  soda.  Sodium  triphosphate  and 
sodium  fluoride  have  both  been  used  with 
success,  but  their  cost  is  several  hundred 
per  cent  greater  than  soda  ash.  If  pre- 
scribed as  per  analysis,  in  slight  excess, 
there  should  be  no  injurious  results 
through  the  use  of  caustic  soda  and  soda 
ash.  It  would  be  practicable  to  manu- 
facture an  intimate  mixture  of  caustic 
soda  and  carbonate  of  soda,  containing 
enough  of  each  to  soften  the  average 
water  of  a  given  district. 

There  is  a  great  deal  of  fraud  in  con- 
nection with  boiler  compounds  gener- 
ally. The  better  class  of  venders  ad- 
vertise to  prepare  a  special  compound  for 
special  water.  This  is  expensive,  save  on 
a  large  scale,  in  reference  to  a  partic- 
ular water,  for  it  would  mean  a  score  or 
more  of  tanks  with  men  to  make  up  the 
mixtures.  The  less  honest  of  the  boiler- 
compound  guild  consign  each  sample  of 
water  to  the  sewer  and  send  the  regular 
goods.  Others  have  a  stock  analysis 
which  is  sent  to  customers  of  a  given 
locality,  whether  it  contains  iron,  lime, 
or  magnesium  sulphates  or  carbonates. 

Any  expense  for  softening  water  in 
excess  of  3  cents  per  1,000  gallons  is  for 
the  privilege  of  using  a  ready-made  soft- 
ener. Every  superintendent  in  charge 
of  a  plant  should  insist  that  the  com- 
pound used  be  pronounced  by  competent 

authority  free  from  injurious  materials, 
and  that  it  be  adapted  to  the  water  in 

Boiler  compounds  should  contain  only 
such  ingredients  as  will  neutralize  the 
scale-forming  salts  present.  They  should 
be  used  only  by  prescription,  so  many 
gallons  per  1,000  gallons  of  feed  water. 
A  properly  proportioned  mixture  of  soda 
ought  to  answer  the  demands  of  all  plants 
depending  upon  that  method  of  softening 
water  in  limestone  and  shale  regions. 

The  honest  boiler  compounds  are, 
however,  useful  for  small  isolated  plants, 
because  of  the  simplicity  of  their  action. 
For  plants  of  from  75  to  150  horse  power 
two  24-hour  settling  tanks  will  answer 
the  purpose  of  a  softening  system.  Each 
of  these,  capable  of  holding  a  day's  sup- 
ply, provided  with  a  soda  tank  in  com- 
mon, a,nd  with  sludge  valves,  has  pad- 
dles for  stirring  the  contents.  Large 
plants  are  operated  on  this  principle, 
serving  boilers  of  many  thousand  horse 
power.  Such  a  system  has  an  advan- 
tage over  a  continuous  system,  in  that 
the  exact  amount  of  chemical  solutions 
required  for  softening  the  particular 
water  can  be  applied.  For  some  varia- 
tions of  such  a  system,  several  companies 
have  secured  patents.  The  fundamen- 
tal principles,  nowever,  have  been  used 
for  many  years  and  are  not  patentable. 

Prevention  of  Boiler  Scale. — The  lime 
contained  in  the  feed  water,  either  as  bi- 
carbonate or  as  sulphate,  is  precipitated 
in  the  shape  of  a  light  mud,  but  the  walls 
of  the  boiler  remain  perfectly  bright 
without  being  attacked  in  any  manner. 
While  under  ordinary  atmospheric  pres- 
sure calcium  chromate  in  solution  is  pre- 
cipitated by  soda  or  Glauber's  salt  as 
calcium  carbonate  or  as  calcium  sul- 

Ehate;  the  latter  is  separated  under 
igher  pressure  by  chromates  as  calcium 
chromate.  An  excess  of  chromates  or 
chromic  acid  does  not  exercise  any  dele- 
terious action  upon  the  metal,  nor  upon 
the  materials  used  for  packing.  By  the 
slight  admixture  of  chromates,  two 
pounds  are  sufficient  for  a  small  boiler 
for  weeks;  no  injurious  ingredients  are 
carried  in  by  the  wet  steam,  the  injection 
water,  on  the  contrary,  having  been 
found  to  be  chemically  pure. 

Protecting  Boiler  Plates  from  Scale. — 
I. — For  a  5-horsc-power  boiler,  fed 
with  water  which  contains  calcic  sul- 
phate, take  catechu,  2  pounds;  dex- 
trine, 1  pound;  crystallized  soda,  2 
pounds;  potash,  £  pound;  cane  sugar,  £ 
pound;  alum,  J  pound;  gum  arabic,  £ 


II. — For  a  boiler  of  the  same  size,  fed 
with  water  which  contains  lime:  Tur- 
meric, 2  pounds;  dextrine,  1  pound;  so- 
dium bicarbonate,  2  pounds;  potash,  £ 
pound;  alum,  £  pound;  molasses,  | 

III. — For  a  boiler  of  the  same  size,  fed 
with  water  which  contains  iron:  Gam- 
boge, 2  pounds;  soda,  2  pounds;  dex- 
trine, 1  pound;  potash,  V pound;  sugar, 
£  pound;  alum,  A  pound;  gum  arabic,  £ 

IV. — For  a  boiler  of  the  same  size,  fed 
with  sea  water:  Catechu,  2  pounds; 
Glauber's  salt,  2  pounds;  dextrine,  2 
pounds;  alum,  £  pound;  gum  arabic,  £ 

When  these  preparations  are  used  add 
1  quart  of  water,  and  in  ordinary  cases 
charge  the  boiler  every  month;  but  if  the 
incrustation  is  very  bad,  charge  every 
two  weeks. 

V. — Place  within  the  boiler  of  100 
horse  power  1  bucketful  of  washing  soda; 
put  in  2  gallons  of  kerosene  oil  (after 
closing  the  blow-off  cock),  and  fill  the 
boiler  with  water.  Feed  in  at  least  1 
quart  of  kerosene  oil  every  day  through  a 
sight-feed  oil  cup  attached  to  the  feed 

Eipe  near  the  boiler— i.  e.,  between  the 
eater  and  the  boiler — so  that  the  oil  is 
not  entrapped  within  the  heater.  If  it 
is  inconvenient  to  open  the  boiler,  then 
dissolve  the  washing  soda  in  hot  water 
and  feed  it  in  with  the  pump  or  through  a 
tallow  cock  (attached  between  the  eject- 
or and  the  valve  in  the  suction  pipe) 
when  the  ejector  is  working. 

VI. — A  paint  for  protecting  boiler  plates 
from  scale,  and  patented  in  Germany,  is 
composed  of  10  pounds  each  of  train  oil, 
horse  fat,  paraffine,  and  of  finely  ground 
zinc  white.  To  this  mixture  is  added  40 
pounds  of  graphite  and  10  pounds  of 
soot  made  together  into  a  paste  with 
1£  gallons  of  water,  and  about  a  pound 
of  carbolic  acid.  The  horse  fat  and  the 
zinc  oxide  make  a  soap  difficult  to  fuse, 
which  adheres  strongly  to  the  plates,  and 
binds  the  graphite  and  the  soot.  The 
paraffine  prevents  the  water  from  pene- 
trating the  coats.  The  scale  which  forms 
on  this  application  can  be  detached,  it  is 
said,  with  a  wooden  mallet,  without  in- 
juring the  paint. 

VII. — M.  E.  Asselin,  of  Paris,  recom- 
mends the  use  of  glycerine  as  a  preventive. 
It  increases  the  solubility  of  combinations 
of  lime,  and  especially  of  the  sulphate. 
It  forms  with  these  combinations  soluble 
compounds.  When  the  quantity  of  lime 
becomes  so  great  that  it  can  no  longer 
be  dissolved,  nor  form  soluble  combina- 
tions, it  is  deposited  in  a  gelatinous  sub- 

stance, which  never  adheres  to  the  sur- 
face of  the  iron  plates.  The  gelatinous 
substances  thus  formed  are  not  carried 
with  the  steam  into  the  cylinder  of  the 
engine.  M.  Asselin  advises  the  employ- 
ment of  1  pound  of  glycerine  for  every 
300  pounds  or  400  pounds  of  coal  burnt. 

Prevention  of  Electrolysis. — In  order 
to  prevent  the  eating  away  of  the  sheets 
and  tubes  by  electrolytic  action,  it  has 
long  been  the  practice  of  marine  engi- 
neers to  suspend  slabs  of  zinc  in  their 
boilers.  The  zinc,  being  more  suscepti- 
ble to  the  electrolytic  action  than  the 
iron,  is  eaten  away,  while  the  iron  re- 
mains unimpaired.  The  use  of  zinc  in 
this  way  has  been  found  also  to  reduce 
the  trouble  from  boiler  scale.  Whether 
it  be  due  to  the  formation  of  hydrogen 
bubbles  between  the  heating  surfaces 
and  incipient  scale,  to  the  presence  in  the 
water  of  the  zinc  salts  resulting  from  the 
dissolution  of  the  zinc,  or  to  whatever 
cause,  it  appears  to  be  a  general  conclu- 
sion among  those  who  have  used  it  that 
the  zinc  helps  the  scale,  as  well  as  the 
corrosion.  Nobody  has  ever  claimed 
for  it  that  it  prevented  the  attachment  of 
scale  altogether,  but  the  consensus  of 
opinion  is  that  it  "helps  some." 


It  hardly  pays  to  reduce  pressure  on 
boilers,  except  in  very  extreme  cases,  but 
if  it  can  be  done  by  throttling  before  the 
steam  reaches  the  cylinder  of  the  engine 
it  would  be  an  advantage,  because  this 
retains  the  heat  units  due  to  the  higher 
pressure  in  the  steam,  and  the  throttling 
has  a  slight  superheating  effect.  As  a 
matter  of  fact,  tests  go  to  show  that  for 
light  loads  and  high  pressure  a  throt- 
tling engine  may  do  better  than  an  auto- 
matic cut-off.  The  ideal  arrangement 
is  to  throttle  the  steam  for  light  loads;  for 
heavier  loads,  allow  the  variable  cut-off 
to  come  into  play.  This  practice  has 
been  carried  into  effect  by  tne  design  of 
Mr.  E.  J.  Armstrong,  in  which  he  ar- 
ranges the  shaft  governor  so  that  there  is 
negative  lead  up  to  nearly  one-quarter 
cut-off,  after  which  the  lead  becomes 
positive,  and  this  has  the  effect  of  throt- 
tling the  steam  for  the  earlier  loads  and 
undoubtedly  gives  better  economy,  in 
addition  to  making  the  engine  run  more 


Bone  or  Ivory  Black. — All  bones  (and 
ivory  is  bone  in  a  sense)  consist  of  a 
framework  of  crystallized  matter  or 
bone  earth,  in  the  interstices  of  which 
organic  matter  is  embedded.  Hence  if 


bones  are  heated  red-hot  in  a  closed 
vessel,  the  organic  matter  is  destroyed, 
leaving  carbon,  in  a  finely  divided  state, 
lodged  in  the  bony  framework.  If  the 
heat  is  applied  gradually  the  bone  re- 
tains its  shape,  but  is  quite  black  and  of 
much  less  weight  than  at  first.  This 
bone  black  or  animal  charcoal  is  a  sub- 
stance which  has  great  power  of  absorb- 
ing coloring  matter  from  liquids,  so  that 
it  is  largely  used  for  bleaching  such  liquids. 
For  example,  in  the  vast  industry  of  beet- 
sugar  manufacture  the  solutions  first 
made  are  very  dark  in  color,  but  after  fil- 
tration through  animal  charcoal  will  give 
colorless  crystals  on  evaporation.  Chem- 
ical trades  require  such  large  quantities 
of  bone  charcoal  that  its  production  is 
a  large  industry  in  itself.  As  in  breaking 
up  the  charred  bones  a  considerable 
amount  of  waste  is  produced,  in  the  form 
of  dust  and  small  grains  which  cannot  be 
used  for  bleaching  purposes,  this  waste 
should  be  worked  up  into  a  pigment. 
This  is  done  by  dissolving  out  the  mineral 
with  hydrochloric  acid,  and  then  rinsing 
and  drying  the  carbon. 

The  mineral  basis  of  bones  consists 
mainly  of  the  phosphates  of  lime  and 
magnesia,  salts  soluble  in  not  too  dilute 
hydrochloric  acid.  A  vat  is  half  filled 
with  the  above-mentioned  waste,  which 
is  then  just  covered  with  a  mixture  of 
equal  volumes  of  commercial  hydro- 
chloric acid  and  water.  As  the  mineral 
matter  also  contains  carbonates,  a  lively 
effervescence  at  once  ensues,  and  small 
quantities  of  hydrofluoric  acid  are  also 
formed  from  the  decomposition  of  cal- 
cium fluoride  in  the  bones.  Now  hydro- 
fluoric acid  is  a  very  dangerous  sub- 
stance, as  air  containing  even  traces  of  it 
is  very  injurious  to  the  lungs.  Hence  the 
addition  of  hydrochloric  acid  should  be 
done  in  the  open  air,  and  the  vat  should 
be  left  by  itself  until  the  evolution  of 
fumes  ceases.  A  plug  is  then  pulled  out 
at  the  bottom  and  the  carbon  is  thor- 
oughly drained.  It  is  then  stirred  up 
with  water  and  again  drained,  when  it 
has  fully  settled  to  the  bottom.  This 
rinsing  with  clear  water  is  repeated  till  all 
the  hydrochloric  acid  is  washed  away 
and  only  pure  carbon  remains  in  the  vat. 
As  for  pigment-making  purposes  it  is 
essential  that  the  carbon  should  be  as 
finely  divided  as  possible,  it  is  as  well  to 
grind  the  washed  carbon  in  an  ordinary 
color  mill.  Very  little  power  is  required 
for  this  purpose,  as  when  once  the  bone 
earth  is  removed  the  carbon  particles 
have  little  cohesion.  The  properly 
ground  mass  forms  a  deep-black  mud, 
which  can  be  left  to  dry  or  be  dried  by 

artificial  heat.  When  dry,  the  purified 
bone  black  is  of  a  pure  black  and  makes 
a  most  excellent  pigment. 

Bone  black  is  put  upon  the  market 
under  all  sorts  of  names,  such  as  ivory 
black,  ebur  ustum,  Frankfort  black,  neu- 
tral black,  etc.  All  these  consist  of 
finely  ground  bone  black  purified  from 
mineral  matter.  If  leather  scraps  or 
dried  blood  are  to  be  worked  up,  iron 
tubes  are  employed,  closed  at  one  end, 
and  with  a  well-fitting  lid  with  a  small 
hole  in  it  at  the  other.  As  these  bodies 
give  off  large  volumes  of  combustible 
gas  during  the  charring,  it  is  a  good  plan 
to  lead  the  vapors  from  the  hole  by  a 
bent  tube  so  that  they  can  be  burnt  and 
help  to  supply  the  heat  required  and  so 
save  fuel.  Leather  or  blood  gives  a  char- 
coal which  hardly  requires  treatment 
with  hydrochloric  acid,  for  the  amount 
of  mineral  salts  present  is  so  small  that 
its  removal  appears  superfluous. 


Place  a  stethoscope  on  one  side  of  the 
supposed  fracture,  and  a  tuning  fork  on 
the  other.  When  the  latter  is  vibrated, 
and  there  is  no  breakage,  the  sound  will 
be  heard  distinctly  through  bone  and 
stethoscope.  Should  any  doubt  exist, 
comparison  should  be  made  with  the 
same  bone  on  the  other  side  of  the  body. 
This  test  shows  the  difference  in  the 
power  of  conducting  sound  possessed  by 
bone  and  soft  tissue. 


See  Ivory. 


See  Fats. 


See  Soap. 


See  Polishes. 


See  Fertilizers. 


See  Adhesives. 


See  Adhesives. 



The  Preservation  of  Books  in  Hot 
Climates. — Books  in  hot  climates  quickly 
deteriorate  unless  carefully  guarded. 
There  are  three  destructive  agencies: 
(1)  damp,  (2)  a  small  black  insect,  (3) 



(1)  Books  which  are  kept  in  a  damp 
atmosphere    deteriorate    on    account    of 
molds  and  fungi  that  grow  rapidly  when 
the    conditions    are    favorable.      Books 
are  best  kept  on  open,  airy,  well-lighted 
shelves.      When  there  has   been  a   pro- 
longed spell  of  moist  weather  their  covers 
should   be   wiped,   and   they  should   be 
placed  in  the  sun  or  before  a  fire  for  a 
few  hours.      Damp  also  causes  the  bind- 
ings and  leaves  of  some  books  to  sep- 

(2)  A  small  black  insect,  one-eighth  of 
an  inch  long  and  a  sixteenth  of  an  inch 
broad,  somewhat  resembling  a  beetle,  is 
very    destructive,    and    books    will    be 
found,    if   left    untouched,    after   a    few 
months  to  have  numerous  holes  in  the 
covers  and  leaves.     If  this  insect  be  al- 
lowed plenty  of  time  for  its  ravages  it 
will  make  so  many  holej  that  bindings 
originally  strong  can  be  easily  torn  to 
pieces.     All  damage  may  be  prevented 
by  coating  the  covers  of  books  with  the 
varnish     described     under     (3).      When 
books  are  found  to  Contain  the  insects 
they  should  be  well  wrapped  and  placed 
in  the  sun  before  varnishing. 

(3)  The  appearance  of  a  fine  binding 
may  be  destroyed  in  a  single  night  by 
cockroaches.     The  lettering  of  the  bind- 
ing may,  in  two  or  three  days,  be  com- 
pletely obliterated. 

The  following  varnishes  have  been  found 
to  prevent  effectually  the  ravages  of 
cockroaches  and  of  all  insects  that  feed 
upon  books: 

I. — Dammar  resin 2    ounces 

Mastic 2    ounces 

Canada  balsam 1     ounce 

Creosote $  ounce 

Spirit  of  wine 20    fl.  ounces 

Macerate  with  occasional  shaking  for 
a  few  days  if  wanted  at  once,  but  for  a 
longer  time  when  possible,  as  a  better 
varnish  will  result  after  a  maceration  of 
several  months. 

II. — Corrosive  sublimate,  1  ounce;  car- 
bolic acid,  1  ounce;  methylated  or  rum 
spirit,  1  quart. 

Where  it  is  necessary  to  keep  books  or 
paper  of  any  description  in  boxes,  cup- 
boards, or  closed  bookcases,  some  naph- 
thalene balls  or  camphor  should  be  al- 
ways present  with  them.  If  camphor 
be  used  it  is  best  to  wrap  it  in  paper, 
otherwise  it  volatilizes  more  quickly  than 
is  necessary.  In  dry  weather  the  doors 
of  closed  bookcases  should  be  left  open 
occasionally,  as  a  damp,  still  atmosphere 
is  most  favorable  for  deterioration. 

How  to  Open  a  Book.— Never  force  the 
back  of  the  book.  Hold  the  book  with 

its  back  on  a  smooth  or  covered  table; 
let  the  front  board  down,  then  the  other, 
holding  the  leaves  in  one  hand  while  you 
open  a  few  leaves  at  the  back,  then  a  few 
at  the  front,  and  so  on,  alternately  open- 
ing back  and  front,  gently  pressing  open 
the  sections  till  you  reach  the  center  of 
the  volume.  Do  this  two  or  three  times 
and  you  will  obtain  the  best  results. 
Open  the  volume  violently  or  carelessly 
in  any  one  place  and  you  will  probably 
break  the  back  or  cause  a  start  in  the 


See  Disinfectants. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 


See  Varnishes. 


See  Insecticides. 


See  Shoe  Dressings. 

See  Lubricant. 


See  Waterproofing. 


I.  —  Sprinkling  borax  is  not  only 
cheaper,  but  also  dissolves  less  in  solder- 
ing than  pure  borax. 

The  borax  is  heated  in  a  metal  vessel 
until  it  has  lost  its  water  of  crystallization 
and  mixed  with  calcined  cooking  salt 
and  potash — borax,  8  parts;  cooking 
salt,  3  parts;  potash,  3  parts.  Next  i; 
is  pounded  in  a  mortar  into  a  fine  pow- 
der, constituting  the  sprinkling  borax. 

II. — Another  kind  of  sprinkling  borax 
is  prepared  by  substituting  glass-gall  for 
the  potash.  Glass-gall  is  the  froth  float- 
ing on  the  melted  glass,  which  can  be 
skimmed  off. 

The  borax  is  either  dusted  on  in  pow- 
der form  from  a  sprinkling  box  or 
stirred  with  water  before  use  into  a  thin 


See  Food. 


See  Insecticides. 


See  Dentifrices. 




See  Lacquer. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 
ods, under  Miscellaneous  Methods. 


See  Stoppers. 

See  Varnishes. 


See  Photography. 


See  Beverages. 


See  Alloys. 


See  Pyrotechnics. 


See  Adhesives. 


See  Beverages. 


For  the  detection  of  sawdust  in  bran 
use  a  solution  of  1  part  of  phloroglucin 
in  15  parts  of  alcohol,  15  parts  of  water, 
and  10  parts  of  syrupy  phosphoric  acid. 
Place  2  parts  of  the  solution  in  a  small 
porcelain  dish,  add  a  knifepointful  of 
the  bran  and  heat  moderately.  Saw- 
dust is  dyed  red  while  bran  parts  only 
seldom  acquire  a  faint  red  color.  By  a 
microscopic  examination  of  the  reddish 
parts,  sawdust  will  be  readily  recognized. 


Magic  Bottles. — 

The  mystery  of  the  "wonderful  bot- 
tle," from  which  can  be  poured  in  suc- 
cession port  wine,  sherry,  claret,  water, 
champagne,  or  ink,  at  the  will  of  the  op- 
erator, is  easily  explained.  The  mate- 
rials consist  of  an  ordinary  dark-colored 
pint  wine  bottle,  seven  wine  glasses 
of  different  patterns,  and  the  chemicals 
described  below: 

Solution  A:  A  mixture  of  tincture  of 
ferric  chloride,  drachms  vi;  hydro- 
chloric acid,  drachms  ii. 

Solution  B:  Saturated  solution  of  am- 
monium sulphocyanide,  drachm  i. 

Solution  C:  Strong  solution  of  ferric 
chloride,  drachm  i. 

Solution  D:  A  weak  solution  of  am- 
monium sulphocyanide. 

Solution  E:  Concentrated  solution  of 
lead  acetate. 

Solution  F:  Solution  of  ammonium 
sulphide,  drachm  i;  or  pyrogallic  acid, 
drachm  i. 

Package  G:  Pulverized  potassium  bi- 
carbonate, drachm  iss. 

Having  poured  two  teaspoonfuls  of 
solution  A  into  the  wine  bottle,  treat  the 
wine  glasses  with  the  different  solutions, 
noting  and  remembering  into  which 

? lasses  the  several  solutions  are  placed, 
nto  No.  1  wine  glass  pour  one  or  two 
drops  of  solution  B;  into  No.  2  glass 
pour  one  or  two  drops  of  solution  C;  into 
No.  3  one  or  two  drops  of  Solution  D; 
leave  No.  4  glass  empty;  into  No.  5  glass 
pour  a  few  drops  of  Solution  E;  into  No. 
6  glass  place  a  few  grains  of  Package  G; 
into  No.  7  glass  pour  a  little  of  solution  F. 
Request  some  one  to  bring  you  some 
cold  drinking  water,  and  to  guarantee 
that  it  is  pure  show  that  your  wine  bot- 
tle is  (practically)  empty.  Fill  it  up 
from  the  carafe,  and  having  asked  the 
audience  whether  you  shall  produce  wine 
or  water,  milk  or  ink,  etc.,  you  may  ob- 
tain any  of  these  by  pouring  a  little  of 
the  water  from  the  bottle  into  the  pre- 
pared glass.  Thus  No.  1  glass  gives  a 
port-wine  color;  No.  2  gives  a  sherry 
color;  No.  3  gives  a  claret  color;  No.  4  is 
left  empty  to  prove  that  the  solution  in 
the  bottle  is  colorless;  No.  5  produces 
milk;  No.  6,  effervescing  champagne: 
No.  7,  ink. 

Bottle-Capping  Mixtures. — 
I. — Soak  7  pounds  of  good  gelatin  in 
10  ounces  of  glycerine  and  60  ounces  of 
water,  and  heat  over  a  water  bath  until 
dissolved,  and  add  any  desired  color. 
Pigments  may  be  used,  and  various  tints 
can  be  obtained  by  the  use  of  aniline 
colors.  The  resulting  compound  should 
be  stored  in  jars.  To  apply  liquefy  the 
mass  and  dip  the  cork  and  portion  of 
the  neck  of  the  bottle  into  the  liquid;  it 
sets  very  quickly. 

II. — Gelatin... 1  ounce 

Gum  arabic 1  ounce 

Boric  acid 20  grains 

Starch 1  ounce 

Water 16  fluidounces 

Mix  the  gelatin,  gum  arabic,  and 
boric  acid  with  14  fluidounces  of  cold 
water,  stir  occasionally  until  the  gum  is 
dissolved,  heat  the  mixture  to  boiling, 
remove  the  scum,  and  strain.  Also  mix 
the  starch  intimately  with  the  remainder 
of  the  water,  and  stir  this  mixture  into 
the  hot  gelatin  mixture  until  a  uniform 
product  results.  As  noted  above,  the 
composition  may  be  tinted  with  any  suit- 
able dye.  Before  using,  it  must  be  soft- 
ened by  the  application  of  heat. 



III.— Shellac .. .      3    ounces 

Venice  turpentine     14  ounces 

Boric  acid 72    grains 

Powdered  talcum.     3    ounces 

Ether 6    fluidrams 

Alcohol 12^  fluidounces 

Dissolve  the  shellac,  turpentine,  and 
boric  acid  in  the  mixed  alcohol  and  ether, 
color  with  a  spirit-soluble  dye,  and  add 
the  talcum.  During  use  the  mixture 
must  be  agitated  frequently. 

Show  Bottles.— 

I. — Place  in  a  cylindrical  bottle  the 
following  liquids  in  the  order  named: 

First,  sulphuric  acid,  tinted  blue  with 
indigo;  second,  chloroform;  third,  glyc- 
erine, slightly  tinted  with  caramel; 
fourth,  castor  oil,  colored  with  alkanet 
root;  fifth,  40-per-cent  alcohol,  slightly 
tinted  with  aniline  green;  sixth,  cod- 
liver  oil,  containing  1  per  cent  of  oil  of 
turpentine.  The  liquids  are  held  in 
place  by  force  of  gravity,  and  alternate 
with  fluids  which  are  not  miscible,  so 
that  the  strata  of  layers  are  clearly  de- 
fined and  do  not  mingle  by  diffusion. 

II. — Chromic  acid 1  drachm 

Commercial    "muri- 
atic" acid 2  ounces 

Nitric  acid 2  ounces 

Water,     enough     to 

make 3  gallons 

The  color  is  magenta. 
The  following  makes  a  fine  pink  for 
show  carboys: 

III.— Cobalt  oxide 2  parts 

Nitric  acid,  c.  p 1  part 

Hydrochloric  acid.. ..    1  part 
Mix  and  dissolve,  and  to  the  solution 

Strongest     water     of 

ammonia. . 6  parts 

Sulphuric  acid 1  part 

Water,  distilled,  q.  s. 

to  make 400  parts 

This  should  be  left  standing  in  a  dark, 
cool  place  for  at  least  a  month  before  put- 
ting in  the  window. 

IV. — Green. — Copper  sulphate,  300 
parts,  by  weight;  hydrochloric  acid,  450 
parts,  by  weight;  distilled  water,  to  4,500 
parts,  by  weight. 

V.— Blue.— Copper  sulphate,  480  parts, 
by  weight;  sulphuric  acid,  60  parts,  by 
weight;  distilled  water,  to  450  parts,  by 

VI.  —  Yellowish  Brown.  —  Potassium 
dichromate,  120  parts,  by  weight;  nitric 
acid,  150  parts,  by  weight;  distilled  wa- 
ter, to  4,500  parts,  by  weight. 

VII. — Yellow. — Potassium  dichromate, 
30  parts,  by  weight;  sodium  bicarbon- 

ate, 225  parts,  by  weight;  distilled  water, 
to  4,500  parts,  by  weight. 

VIII. — Red. — Liquid  ferric  chloride, 
officinal,  60  parts,  by  weight:  co:  cen- 
trated  ammonium-acetate  solution,  120 
parts,  by  weight;  acetic  acid,  30  per 
cent,  30  parts,  by  weight;  distilled  water, 
to  9,000  parts,  by  weight. 

IX. — Crimson. — Potassium  iodide,  7.5 
parts,  by  weight;  iodine,  7.5  parts,  by 
weight;  hydrochloric  acid,  60  parts,  by 
weight;  distilled  water,  to  4,500  parts, 
by  weight. 

All  the  solutions  IV  to  IX  should  be 
filtered.  If  distilled  water  be  used  these 
solutions  should  keep  for  five  to  ten  years. 
In  order  to  prevent  them  from  freezing, 
either  add  10  per  cent  of  alcohol,  or  re- 
duce the  quantity  of  water  by  10  per  cent. 

A  Cheap  and  Excellent  Warming 
Bottle. — Mix  sodium  acetate  and  sodium 
hyposulphate  in  the  proportion  of  1  part 
of  the  former  to  9  parts  of  the  latter,  and 
with  the  mixture  fill  an  earthenware  bottle 
about  three-quarters  full.  Close  the  ves- 
sel well  with  a  cork  and  place  it  either 
in  hot  water  or  in  the  oven,  and  let  re- 
main until  the  salts  within  melt.  For 
at  least  a  half  day  the  jug  will  radiate  its 
heat,  and  need  only  be  well  shaken  from 
time  to  time  to  renew  its  heat-giving 

Bottle  Deodorizer.  —  Powdered  '  black 
mustard  seed  is  successfully  employed. 
Pour  a  little  of  it  with  some  lukewarm 
water  into  the  receptacle,  rinsing  it  after- 
wards with  water.  If  necessary,  repeat 
the  process. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 


Formulas  for  the  making  of  Brass  will  be 
found  under  Alloys. 

Colors  for  Polished  Brass. — The  brass 
objects  are  put  into  boiling  solutions 
composed  of  different  salts,  and  the  in- 
tensity of  the  shade  obtained  is  depend- 
ent upon  the  duration  of  the  immersion. 
WTith  a  solution  composed  of 

Sulphate  of  copper.  . .    120  grains 

Hydrochlorate  of  am- 
monia        30  grains 

Water 1  quart 

greenish  shades  are  obtained.  With  the 
following  solution  all  the  shades  of  brown 
from  orange  brown  to  cinnamon  are  ob- 



Chlorate  of  potash .  .  .    150  grains 
Sulphate  of  copper.  .  .    150  grains 

Water 1  quart 

The  following  solution  gives  the  brass 
first  a  rosy  tint  and  then  colors  it  violet 
and  blue: 

Sulphate  of  copper.  .  .    435  grains 
Hyposulphite  of  soda  300  grains 

Cream  of  tartar 150  grains 

Water 1  pint 

Upon  adding  to  the  last  solution 
Ammoniacal  sulphate 

of  iron 300  grains 

Hyposulphite  of  soda  300  grains 
there  are  obtained,  according  to  the  dura- 
tion of  the  immersion,  yellowish,  orange, 
rosy,  then  bluish  shades.  Upon  polar- 
izing the  ebullition  the  blue  tint  gives 
way  to  yellow,  and  finally  to  a  pretty 
gray.  Silver,  under  the  same  circum- 
stances, becomes  very  beautifully  col- 
ored. After  a  long  ebullition  in  the 
following  solution  we  obtain  a  yellow- 
brown  shade,  and  then  a  remarkable  fire 

Chlorate  of  potash ...    75  grains 
Carbonate  of  nickel .  .    30  grains 

Salt  of  nickel 75  grains 

Water 16  ounces 

The  following  solution  gives  a  beau- 
tiful, dark-brown  color: 

Chlorate  of  potash  .  .      75  grains 

Salt  of  nickel 150  grains 

Water 10  ounces 

The  following  gives,  in  the  first  place; 
a  red,  which  passes  to  blue,  then  to  pale 
lilac,  and  finally  to  white: 

Orpiment. 75  grains 

Crystallized  sal  sodae  150  grains 

Water 10  ounces 

The  following  gives  a  yellow  brown: 

Salt  of  nickel 75  grains 

Sulphate  of  copper.  .      75  grains 
Chlorate  of  potash  .  .      75  grains 

Water 10  ounces 

On  mixing  the  following  solutions, 
sulphur  separates  and  the  brass  becomes 
covered  with  iridescent  crystallizations: 

I. — Cream  of  tartar 75  grains 

Sulphate  of  copper.  .      75  grains 

Water 10  ounces 

II. — Hyposulphite  of  soda  225  grains 

Water 5  ounces 

Upon   leaving   the   brass   objects   im- 
mersed   in   the   following   mixture   con- 
tained in  corked   vessels  they  at  length 
acquire  a  very  beautiful  blue  color: 
Hepar  of  sulphur  ....    15  grains 

Ammonia 75  grains 

Water 4  ounces 

Miscellaneous  Coloring  of  Brass. — 
Yellow  to  bright  red:  Dissolve  2  parts 
native  copper  carbonate  with  1  part 
caustic  soda  in  10  parts  water.  Dip  for 
a  few  minutes  into  the  liquor,  the  va- 
rious shades  desired  being  obtained 
according  to  the  length  of  time  of  the 
immersion.  Green:  Dissolve  1  part  cop- 
per acetate  (verdigris),  1  part  blue 
vitriol,  and  1  part  alum  in  10  parts  of 
water  and  boil  the  articles  therein. 
Black:  For  optical  articles,  photographic 
apparatus,  plates,  rings,  screws,  etc., 
dissolve  45  parts  of  malachite  (native 
copper  carbonate)  in  1,000  parts  of  sal 
ammoniac.  For  use  clean  and  remove 
the  grease  from  the  article  by  pickling 
and  dip  it  into  the  bath  until  the  coating 
is  strong  enough.  The  bath  operates 
better  and  quicker  if  heated.  Should 
the  oxidation  be  a  failure  it  should  be 
removed  by  dipping  into  the  brass 

A  verdigris  color  on  brass  is  produced 
by  treating  the  articles  with  dilute  acids, 
acetic  acid,  or  sulphuric  acid,  and  drying. 

Brown  in  all  varieties  of  shades  is  ob- 
tained by  immersing  the  metal  in  solu- 
tions of  nitrates  or  ferric  chloride  after 
it  has  been  corroded  with  dilute  nitric 
acid,  cleaned  with  sand  and  water,  and 
dried.  The  strength  of  the  solutions 
governs  the  deepness  of  the  resulting 

Violet  is  caused  by  immersing  the  thor- 
oughly cleaned  objects  in  a  solution  of 
ammonium  chloride. 

Chocolate  color  results  if  red  ferric 
oxide  is  strewn  on  and  burned  off,  fol- 
lowed by  polishing  with  a  small  quantity 
of  galena. 

Olive  green  is  produced  by  blacken- 
ing the  surface  with  a  solution  of  iron  in 
hydrochloric  acid,  polishing  with  galena, 
and  coating  hot  with  a  lacquer  composed 
of  1  part  varnish,  4  parts  cincuma,  and  1 
part  gamboge. 

A  steel-blue  coloring  is  obtained  by 
means  of  a  dilute  boiling  solution  of 
chloride  of  arsenic,  and  a  blue  one  by  a 
treatment  with  strong  hyposulphite  of 
soda.  Another  formula  for  bluing 
brass  is:  Dissolve  10  parts  of  antimony 
chloride  in  200  parts  of  water,  and  add  30 
parts  of  pure  hydrochloric  acid.  Dip  the 
article  until  it  is  well  blued,  then  wash 
and  dry  in  sawdust. 

Black  is  much  used  for  optical  brass 
articles  and  is  produced  by  coating  with 
a  solution  of  platinum  or  auric  chloride 
mixed  with  nitrate  of  tin. 

Coloring  Unpolished  Brass. — A  yellow 
color  of  handsome  effect  is  obtained  on 



unpolished  brass  by  means  of  antimony- 
chloride  solution.  This  is  produced  by 
finely  powdering  gray  antimony  and  boil- 
ing it  with  hydrochloric  acid.  With 
formation  of  hydrogen  sulphide  a  solu- 
tion of  antimony  results,  which  must  not 
be  diluted  with  water,  since  a  white  pre- 
cipitate of  antimony  oxychloride  is  im- 
mediately formed  upon  admixture  of 
water.  For  dilution,  completely  satu- 
rated cooking-salt  solution  is  employed, 
using  for  1  part  of  antimony  chloride  2 
parts  of  salt  solution. 

Coloring  Fluid  for  Brass. — Caustic 
soda,  33  parts;  water,  24  parts;  hydraled 
carbonate  of  copper,  5.5  parts. 

Dissolve  the  salt  in  water  and  dip  the 
metal  in  the  solution  obtained.  The  in- 
tensity of  the  color  will  be  proportional 
to  the  time  of  immersion.  After  remov- 
ing the  object  from  the  liquid,  rinse  with 
water  and  dry  in  sawdust. 

Black  Color  on  Brass. — A  black  or  ox- 
idized surface  on  brass  is  produced  by  a 
solution  of  carbonate  of  copper  in  am- 
monia. The  work  is  immersed  and  al- 
lowed to  remain  until  the  required  tint 
is  observed.  The  carbonate  of  copper  is 
best  used  in  a  plastic  condition,  as  it  is 
then  much  more  easily  dissolved.  Plas- 
tic carbonate  of  copper  may  be  .mixed  as 
follows:  Make  a  solution  of  blue  vitriol 
(sulphate  of  copper)  in  hot  water,  and 
add  a  strong  solution  of  common  washing 
soda  to  it  as  long  as  any  precipitate 
forms.  The  precipitate  is  allowed  to 
settle,  and  the  clear  liquid  is  poured  off. 
Hot  water  is  added,  and  the  mass  stirred 
and  again  allowed  to  settle.  This  oper- 
ation is  repeated  six  or  eight  times  to  re- 
move the  impurities.  After  the  water 
has  been  removed  during  the  last  pour- 
ing, and  nothing  is  left  but  an  emulsion 
of  the  thick  plastic  carbonate  in  a  small 
quantity  of  water,  liquid  ammonia  is 
added  until  everything  is  dissolved  and  a 
clear,  deep-blue  liquid  is  produced.  If 
too  strong,  water  may  be  added,  but  a 
strong  solution  is  better  than  a  weak  one. 
If  it  is  desired  to  make  the  solution  from 
commercial  plastic  carbonate  of  copper 
the  following  directions  may  be  followed: 
Dissolve  1  pound  of  the  plastic  carbonate 
of  copper  in  2  gallons  of  strong  ammonia. 
This  gives  the  required  strength  of  so- 

The  brass  which  it  is  desired  to  black- 
en is  first  boiled  in  a  strong  potash  solu- 
tion to  remove  grease  and  oil,  then  well 
rinsed  and  dipped  in  the  copper  solution, 
which  has  previously  been  heated  to 
from  150°  to  175°  F.  This  solution,  if 
heated  too  hot,  gives  off  all  the  ammonia. 

The  brass  is  left  in  the  solution  until  the 
required  tint  is  produced.  The  color 
produced  is  uniform,  black,  and  tena- 
cious. The  brass  is  rinsed  and  dried  in 
sawdust.  A  great  variety  of  effects  may 
be  produced  by  first  finishing  the  brass 
before  blackening,  as  the  oxidizing  proc- 
ess does  not  injure  the  texture  of  the 
metal.  A  satisfactory  finish  is  produced 
by  first  rendering  the  surface  of  the 
brass  matt,  either  by  scratch-brush  or 
similar  methods,  as  the  black  finish  thus 
produced  by  the  copper  solution  is  dead 
— one  of  the  most  pleasing  effects  of  an 
oxidized  surface.  Various  effects  may  also 
be  produced  by  coloring  the  entire  article 
and  then  buffing  the  exposed  portions. 

The  best  results  in  the  use  of  this  so- 
lution are  obtained  by  the  use  of  the  so- 
called  red  metals — i.  e.,  those  in  which 
the  copper  predominates.  The  reason 
for  this  is  obvious.  Ordinary  sheet  brass 
consists  of  about  2  parts  of  copper  and  1 
part  of  zinc,  so  that  the  large  quantity  of 
the  latter  somewhat  hinders  the  produc- 
tion of  a  deep-black  surface.  Yellow 
brass  is  colored  black  by  the  solution, 
but  it  is  well  to  use  some  metal  having  a 
reddish  tint,  indicating  the  presence  of  a 
large  amount  of  copper.  The  varieties 
of  sheet  brass  known  as  gilding  or  bronze 
work  well.  Copper  also  gives  excellent 
results.  Where  the  best  results  are  de- 
sired on  yellow  brass  a  very  light  electro- 
plate of  copper  before  the  oxidizing 
works  well  and  gives  an  excellent  black. 
With  the  usual  articles  made  of  yellow 
brass  this  is  rarely  done,  but  the  oxida- 
tion carried  out  directly. 

Black  Finish  for  Brass. — I. — A  hand- 
some black  finish  may  be  put  on  brass 
by  the  following  process:  Dissolve  in 
1,000  parts  of  ammonia  water  45  parts  of 
natural  malachite,  and  in  the  solution  put 
the  object  to  be  blackened,  after  first 
having  carefully  and  thoroughly  cleaned 
the  same.  After  letting  it  stand  a  short 
time  gradually  warm  the  mixture,  ex- 
amining the  article  from  time  to  time 
to  ascertain  if  the  color  is  deep  enough. 
Rinse  and  let  dry. 

II. — The  blacking  of  brass  may  be 
accomplished  by  immersing  it  in  the  fol- 
lowing solution  and  then  heating  over 
a  Bunsen  burner  or  a  spirit  flame: 
Add  a  saturated  solution  of  ammo- 
nium carbonate  to  a  saturated  copper- 
sulphate  solution,  until  the  precipitate 
resulting  in  the  beginning  has  almost  en- 
tirely dissolved.  The  immersion  and 
heating  are  repeated  until  the  brass 
turns  dark;  then  it  is  brushed  and  dipped 
in  negative  varnish  or  dull  varnish. 



To  Give  a  Brown  Color  to  Brass. — I. — 
In  1.000  parts  oi  rain  or  distilled  water 
dissolve  5  parts  each  of  verdigris  (copper 
acetate)  and  ammonium  chloride.  Let 
the  solution  stand  4  hours,  then  add  1,500 
parts  of  water.  Remove  the  brass  to  be 
Drowned  from  its  attachment  to  the  fix- 
tures and  make  the  surface  perfectly 
bright  and  smooth  and  free  from  grease. 
Place  it  over  a  charcoal  fire  and  heat  un- 
til it  "sizzes"  when  touched  with  the 
dampened  finger.  The  solution  is  then 
painted  over  the  surface  with  a  brush  or 
,  swabbed  on  with  a  rag.  If  one  swab- 
bing does  not  produce  a  sufficient  depth 
of  color,  repeat  the  heating  and  the  ap- 
plication of  the  liquid  until  a  fine  durable 
brown  is  produced.  For  door  plates, 
knobs,  and  ornamental  fixtures  gener- 
ally, this  is  one  of  the  handsomest  as  well 
as  the  most  durable  surfaces,  and  is 
easily  applied. 

II. — A  very  handsome  brown  may  be 
produced  on  brass  castings  by  immersing 
the  thoroughly  cleaned  and  dried  articles 
in  a  warm  solution  of  15  parts  of  sodium 
hydrate  and  5  parts  of  cupric  carbonate 
in  100  parts  of  water.  The  metal  turns 
dark  yellow,  light  brown,  and  finally 
dark  brown,  with  a  greenish  shimmer, 
and,  when  the  desired  shade  is  reached, 
is  taken  out  of  the  bath,  rinsed,  and  dried. 

III. — Paint  the  cleaned  and  dried  sur- 
face uniformly  with  a  dilute  solution  of 
ammonium  sulphide.  When  this  coat- 
ing is  dry,  it  is  rubbed  over,  and  then 
painted  with  a  dilute  ammoniacal  so- 
lution of  arsenic  sulphide,  until  the 
required  depth  of  color  is  attained. 
If  the  results  are  not  satisfactory  the 
painting  can  be  repeated  after  washing 
over  with  ammonia.  Prolonged  im- 
mersion in  the  second  solution  produces 
a  grayish-green  film,  which  looks  well, 
and  acquires  luster  when  polished  with 
a  cloth. 

Refinishing  Gas  Fixtures. — Gas  fix- 
tures which  have  become  dirty  or  tar- 
nished from  use  may  be  improved  in  ap- 
pearance by  painting  with  bronze  paint 
and  then,  if  a  still  better  finish  is  re- 
quired, varnishing  after  the  paint  is 
thoroughly  dry  with  some  light-colored 
varnish  that  will  give  a  hard  and  brilliant 

If  the  bronze  paint  is  made  up  with 
ordinary  varnish  it  is  liable  to  become 
discolored  from  acid  which  may  be  pres- 
ent in  the  varnish.  One  method  pro- 
posed tor  obviating  this  is  to  mix  the 
varnish  with  about  five  times  its  volume 
of  spirit  of  turpentine,  add  to  the  mixture 
dried  sJaked  lime  in  the  proportion  of 

about  40  grains  to  the  pint,  agitate  well, 
repeating  the  agitation  several  times,  and 
finally  allowing  the  suspended  matter  to 
settle  and  decanting  the  clear  liquid. 
The  object  of  this  is  to  neutralize  any 
acid  which  may  be  present.  To  deter- 
mine how  effectively  this  has  been  done 
the  varnish  may  be  chemically  tested. 

Steel  Blue  and  Old  Silver  on  Brass.— 
For  the  former  dissolve  100  parts  of  car- 
bonic carbonate  in  750  parts  of  ammonia 
and  dilute  this  solution  with  distilled 
water,  whereupon  the  cleaned  articles 
are  dipped  into  the  liquid  by  means  of  a 
brass  wire.  After  two  to  three  minutes 
take  them  out,  rinse  in  clean  water,  and 
dry  in  sawdust.  Old  silver  on  brass  is 
produced  as  follows:  The  articles  are 
first  silvered  and  next  painted  with  a  thin 
paste  consisting  of  graphite,  6  parts; 
pulverized  hematite,  1  part;  and  tur- 
pentine. Use  a  soft  brush  and  dry  well; 
then  brush  off  the  powder.  Oxidized 
silver  is  obtained  by  dipping  the  silvered 
goods  into  a  heated  solution  of  liver  of 
sulphur,  5  parts;  ammonia  carbonate,  10 
parts;  and  water,  10, 000  parts.  Only  sub- 
stantially silvered  objects  are  suited  for 
oxidation,  as  a  weak  silvering  is  taken 
cff  by  this  solution.  Unsatisfactory  col- 
oring is  removed  with  potassium-cya- 
nide solution.  It  is  advisable  to  lay  the 
articles  in  hydrogen  sulphide-ammonia 
solution  diluted  with  water,wherein  they 
acquire  a  blue  to  a  deep-black  shade. 

Tombac  Color  on  Brass. — This  is  pro- 
duced by  immersion  in  a  mixture  of  cop- 
per carbonate,  10  parts;  caustic  soda,  30 
parts;  water,  200  parts.  This  layer  will 
only  endure  wiping  with  a  cloth,  not  vig- 
orous scouring  with  sand. 

Graining  of  Brass. — Brass  parts  of 
timepieces  are  frequently  provided  with 
a  dead  grained  surface.  For  this  pur- 
pose they  are  fastened  with  flat-headed 
pins  on  cork  disks  and  brushed  with  a 
paste  of  water  and  finest  powdered 
pumice  stone.  Next  they  are  thor- 
oughly washed  and  placed  in  a  solution 
of  10  quarts  of  water,  30  grains  of  mer- 
curic nitrate,  and  60  grains  of  sulphuric 
acid.  In  this  amalgamating  solution 
the  objects  become  at  once  covered  with 
a  layer  of  mercury,  which  forms  an  amal- 
gam with  the  copper,  while  the  zinc 
passes  into  solution.  After  the  articles 
have  again  been  washed  they  are  treated 
with  graining  powder,  which  consists  of 
silver  powder,  tartar,  and  cooking  salt. 
These  substances  must  be  pure,  dry,  and 
very  finely  pulverized.  The  mixing  is 
done  with  moderate  heat.  According 



co  whether  a  coarser  or  finer  grain  is  de- 
sired, more  cooking  salt  or  more  tartar 
must  be  contained  in  the  powder.     The 
ordinary  proportions  are: 
Silver  powder..      28  28     28  parts 

Tartar. 283   110-140     85  parts 

Cooking  salt.  ..    900  370  900  parts 

This  powder  is  moistened  with  water 
and  applied  to  the  object.  Place  the  article 
with  the  cork  support  in  a  flat  dish  and 
rub  on  the  paste  with  a  stiff  brush  while 
turning  the  !ish  incessantly.  Gradu- 
ally fresh  portions  of  graining  powder 
are  put  on  until  the  desired  grain  is  ob- 
tained. These  turn  out  the  rounder  the 
more  the  dish  and  brush  are  turned. 
When  the  right  grain  is  attained,  rinse 
off  with  water,  and  treat  the  object  with 
a  scratch  brush,  with  employment  of  a 
decoction  of  saponaria.  The  brushes 
must  be  moved  around  in  a  circle  in 
brushing  with  the  pumice  stone,  as  well 
as  in  rubbing  on  the  graining  powder 
and  in  using  the  scratch  brush.  The 
required  silver  powder  is  produced  by 
precipitating  a  diluted  solution  of  silver 
nitrate  with  some  strips  of  sheet  copper. 
The  precipitated  silver  powder  is  washed 
out  on  a  paper  filter  and  dried  at  moder- 
ate heat. 

The  Dead,  or  Matt,  Dip  for  Brass.— 

The  dead  dip  is  used  to  impart  a  satiny 
or  crystalline  finish  to  the  surface.  The 
bright  dip  gives  a  smooth,  shiny,  and  per- 
fectly even  surface,  but  the  dead  dip  is 
the  most  pleasing  of  any  dip  finish,  and 
can  be  used  as  a  base  for  many  secondary 

The  dead  dip  is  a  mixture  of  oil  of 
vitriol  (sulphuric  acid)  and  aqua  fortis 
(nitric  acid)  in  which  there  is  enough 
sulphate  of  zinc  (white  vitriol)  to  saturate 
the  solution.  It  is  in  the  presence  of  the 
sulphate  of  zinc  tnat  the  essential  differ- 
ence between  the  bright  and  the  dead  dip 
exists.  Without  it  the  dead  or  matt  sur- 
face cannot  be  obtained. 

The  method  generally  practiced  is  to 
add  the  sulphate  of  zinc  to  the  mixed 
acids  (sulphuric  and  nitric),  so  that  some 
remains  undissolved  in  the  bottom  of  the 
vessel.  It  is  found  that  the  sulphate  of 
zinc  occurs  in  small  crystals  having  the 
appearance  of  very  coarse  granulated 
sugar.  These  crystals  readily  settle  to  the 
bottom  of  the  vessel  and  do  not  do  the 
work  of  matting  properly.  If  they  are 
finely  pulverized  the  dip  is  slightly  im- 
proved, but  it  is  impossible  to  pulverize 
such  material  to  a  fineness  that  will  do 
the  desired  work.  The  use  of  sulphate 
of  zinc,  then,  leaves  much  to  be  desired. 

The  most  modern  method  of  making 

up  the  dead  dip  is  to  produce  the  sul- 
phate of  zinc  directly  in  the  solution 
and  in  the  precipitated  form.  It  is  well 
known  that  the  most  finely  divided  ma- 
terials are  those  which  are  produced  by 
precipitation,  and  ?n  the  dead  dip  it  is 
very  important  ha*  h?  sulphate  of  zinc 
shall  be  finely  d;v  did  so  that  it  will  not 
immediately  settle  to  he  bottc  m.  There- 
fore it  chould  be  precipitated  so  that 
when  it  is  mixed  with  the  acids  it  will  not 
settle  immediately.  The  method  of  mak- 
ing the  sulphate  of  zinc  directly  in  the 
solution  is  as  follows: 

Take  1  gallon  of  yellow  aqua  fortis 
(38°  F.)  and  place  in  a  stone  crock 
which  is  surrounded  with  cold  water. 
The  cold  water  is  to  keep  the  heat, 
formed  by  the  reaction,  from  evaporating 
the  acid.  Add  metallic  zinc  in  small 
pieces  until  the  acid  will  dissolve  no 
more.  The  zinc  may  be  in  any  conven- 
ient form — sheet  clippings,  lumps,  gran- 
ulated, etc.,  that  may  be  added  little  by 
little.  If  all  is  added  at  once  it  will  boil 
over.  ^When  the  acid  will  dissolve  no 
more  zinc  it  will  be  found  that  some  of 
the  acid  has  evaporated  by  the  heat,  and 
it  will  be  necessary  to  add  enough  fresh 
acid  to  make  up  to  the  original  gallon. 
When  this  is  done  add  1  gallon  of  strong 
oil  of  vitriol.  The  mixture  should  be 
stirred  with  a  wooden  paddle  while  the 
oil  of  vitriol  is  being  added. 

As  the  sulphuric  acid  is  being  added 
the  solution  begins  to  grow  milky,  and 
finally  the  whole  has  the  consistency  of 
thick  cream.  This  is  caused  by  the  sul- 
phuric acid  (oil  of  vitriol)  precipitating 
out  the  sulphate  of  zinc.  Thus  the  very 
finely^  divided  precipitate  of  sulphate  of 
zinc  is  formed.  If  one  desires  to  use 
known  quantities  of  acid  and  zinc  the 
following  amounts  may  be  taken:  Oil  of 
vitriol,  1  gallon;  aqua  fortis  (38°  F.),  1 
gallon;  metallic  zinc,  6  ounces. 

In  dissolving  the  zinc  in  the  aqua  for- 
tis it  is  necessary  to  be  sure  that  none  re- 
mains undissolved  in  the  bottom. 

The  dead  or  matt  dip  is  used  hot,  and. 
therefore,  is  kept  in  a  stone  crock  sur- 
rounded with  hot  water.  The  articles  to 
be  matted  are  polished  and  cleaned,  and 
the  dip  thoroughly  stirred  with  a  wooden 
paddle,  so  as  to  bring  up  the  sulphate  of 
zinc  which  has  settled.  Dip  the  work  in 
the  solution  and  allow  it  to  remain  until 
the  matt  is  obtained.  This  is  a  point 
which  can  be  learned  only  by  experience. 
When  the  brass  article  is  first  introduced 
there  is  a  rapid  action  on  the  surface,  but 
in  a  few  seconds  this  slows  down.  Re- 
move the  article  and  rinse  and  immedi- 
ately dip  into  the  usual  bright  dip.  This 



is  necessary  for  the  reason  that  the  dead 
dip  produces  a  dark  coating  upon  the 
surface,  which,  were  it  left  on,  would  not 
show  the  real  effect  or  the  color  of  the 
metal.  The  bright  dip,  however,  re- 
moves this  and  exposes  the  true  dead 

The  usual  rule  for  making  up  the  dead 
dip  is  to  use  equal  parts  of  oil  of  vitriol 
and  aqua  fortis;  but  these  may  be  altered 
to  suit  the  case.  More  oil  of  vitriol  gives 
a  finer  matt,  while  a  larger  quantity  of 
aqua  fortis  will  give  a  coarser  matt. 
When  the  dip  becomes  old  it  is  unneces- 
sary to  add  more  zinc,  as  a  little  goes  into 
the  solution  each  time  anything  is  dipped. 
After  a  while,  however,  the  solution  be- 
comes loaded  with  copper  salts,  and 
should  be  thrown  away. 

A  new  dip  does  not  work  well,  and 
will  not  give  good  results  when  used  at 
once.  It  is  usual  to  allow  it  to  remain 
over  night,  when  it  will  be  found  to  be  in 
a  better  working  condition  in  the  morn- 
ing. A  new  dip  will  frequently  refuse  to 
work,  and  the  addition  of  a  little  water 
will  often  start  it.  The  water  must  be 
used  sparingly,  however,  and  only  when 
necessary.  Water,  as  a  usual  thing, 
spoils  a  dead  dip,  and  must  be  avoided. 
After  a  while  it  may  be  necessary  to  add 
a  little  more  aqua  fortis,  and  this  may  be 
introduced  as  desired.  Much  care  is 
needed  in  working  the  dead  dip,  and  it 
requires  constant  watching  and  experi- 
ence. The  chief  difficulty  in  working 
the  dead  dip  is  to  match  a  given  article. 
The  only  way  that  it  can  be  done  is  to 
"cut  and  try,"  and  add  aqua  fortis  or  oil 
of  vitriol  as  the  case  requires. 

The  dead  or  matt  dip  can  be  obtained 
only  upon  brass  or  German  silver;  in 
other  words,  only  on  alloys  which  con- 
tain zinc.  The  best  results  are  obtained 
upon  yellow  brass  high  in  zinc. 

To  Improve  Deadened  Brass  Parts. — 
Clock  parts  matted  with  oilstone  and 
oil,  such  as  the  hour  wheels,  minute 
wheels,  etc.,  obtain,  by  mere  grinding,  a 
somewhat  dull  appearance,  with  a  sensi- 
tive surface  which  readily  takes  spots. 
This  may  be  improved  by  preparing  the 
following  powder,  rubbing  a  little  of  it 
on  a  buff  stick,  and  treating  the  deadened 
parts,  which  have  been  cleansed  with 
benzine,  by  rubbing  with  slight  pressure 
on  cork.  This  imparts  to  the  articles  a 
handsome,  permanent,  metallic  matt 
luster.  The  smoothing  powder  consists 
of  2  parts  of  jewelers'  red  and  8  parts  of 
lime  carbonate,  levigated  in  water,  and 
well  dried.  Jewelers'  red  alone  may  be 
employed,  but  this  requires  some  prac- 

tice and  care,  especially  in  the  treatment 
of  wheels,  because  rays  are  liable  to 
form  from  the  teeth  toward  the  center. 

Pickle  for  Brass. — Stir  10  parts  (by 
weight)  of  shining  soot  or  snuff,  10  parts 
of  cooking  salt,  and  10  parts  of  red  tar- 
tar with  250  parts  of  nitric  acid,  and 
afterwards  add  250  parts  of  sulphuric 
acid;  or  else  mix  7  parts  of  aqua  fortis 
(nitric  acid)  with  10  parts  of  English 
sulphuric  acid.  For  the  mixing  ratio  of 
the  acid,  the  kind  and  alloy  of  the  metal 
should  be  the  guidance,  and  it  is  best 
found  out  by  practical  trials.  The  bet- 
ter the  alloy  and  the  less  the  percentage 
of  zinc  or  lead,  the  handsomer  will  be 
the  color.  Genuine  bronze,  for  instance, 
acquires  a  golden  shade.  In  order  to 
give  brass  the  appearance  of  handsome 
gilding  it  is  often  coated  with  gold  var- 
nish by  applying  same  thinly  with  a  brush 
or  sponge  and  immediately  heating  the 
metal  over  a  coal  fire. 

Pickling  Brass  to  Look  Like  Gold.— 
To  pickle  brass  so  as  to  make  it  resem- 
ble gold  allow  a  mixture  of  6  parts  of 
chemically  pure  nitric  acid  and  1  part  of 
English  sulphuric  acid  to  act  for  some 
hours  upon  the  surface  of  the  brass;  then 
wash  with  a  warm  solution,  20  parts  of 
tartar  in  50  parts  of  water,  and  rub  off 
neatly  with  dry  sawdust.  Then  coat 
the  article  with  the  proper  varnish. 

Pickle  for  Dipping  Brass. — To  im- 
prove the  appearance  of  brass,  tombac, 
and  copper  goods,  they  are  usually 
dipped.  For  this  purpose  they  are  first 
immersed  in  diluted  oil  of  vitriol  (brown 
sulphuric  acid),  proportion,  1  to  10;  next 
in  a  mixture  of  10  parts  of  red  tartar;  10 
parts  of  cooking  salt;  250  parts  of  Eng- 
lish sulphuric  acid,  as  well  as  250  parts  of 
aqua  fortis  (only  for  a  moment),  rinsing 
off  well  in  water  and  drying  in  sawdust. 
For  obtaining  a  handsome  matt  gold 
color  ^j  part  of  zinc  vitriol  (zinc  sul- 
phate) is  still  added  to  the  pickle. 

Restoration  of  Brass  Articles.— The 
brass  articles  are  first  freed  from  adher- 
ing dirt  by  the  use  of  hot  soda  lye;  if 
bronzed  they  are  dipped  in  a  highly  dilute 
solution  of  sulphuric  acid  and  rinsed  in 
clean  water.  Next  they  are  yellowed  in 
a  mixture  of  nitric  acid,  75  parts;  sul- 
phuric acid,  100  parts;  shining  lamp- 
black, 2  parts;  cooking  salt,  1  part;  then 
rinsed  and  polished  and,  to  prevent 
oxidation,  coated  with  a  colorless  spirit 
varnish,  a  celluloid  varnish  being  best 
for  this  purpose. 

Tempering  Brass. — If  hammered  too 
brittle  brass  can  be  tempered  and  made 



of  a  more  even  hardness  throughout  by 
warming  it,  as  in  tempering  steel;  but 
the  heat  must  not  be  nearly  so  great. 
Brass,  heated  to  the  blue  heat  of  steel,  is 
almost  soft  again.  To  soften  brass,  heat 
it  nearly  to  a  dull  red  and  allow  it  to  cool, 
or,  if  time  is  an  object,  it  may  be  cooled 
by  plunging  into  water. 

Drawing  Temper  from  Brass. — Brass 
is  rendered  hard  by  hammering  or  roll- 
ing, therefore  when  a  brass  object  re- 
quires to  be  tempered  the  material  must 
be  prepared  before  the  article  is  shaped. 
Temper  may  be  drawn  from  brass  by 
heating  it  to  a  cherry  red  and  then  sim- 
ply plunging  it  into  water,  the  same  as 
though  steel  were  to  be  tempered. 


See  Adhesives. 


See  Polishes. 


See  Solders. 


See  Plating. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 


See  Plating. 


See  Castings. 


See  Plating. 


See  Dog  Biscuit. 


See  also  Dentifrices. 

Remedies  for  Fetid  Breath.— Fetid 
breath  may  be  due  to  the  expelled  air 
(i.  e.,  to  disease  of  the  respirational  tract), 
to  gases  thrown  off  from  the  digestive 
tract,  or  to  a  diseased  mouth.  In  the 
first  two  cases  medication  must  be  di- 
rected to  the  causative  diseases,  with  the 
last,  antisepsis  principally  arid  the  neu- 
tralization of  the  saliva,  also  the  removal 
of  all  residual  food  of  dental  caries. 

I. — Potassium  perman- 
ganate       1  part 

Distilled  water..  .  .    10  parts 

Mix  and  dissolve.  Add  from  5  to  8 
drops  of  this  solution  to  a  glass  of  water 
and  with  it  gargle  the  mouth. 

II. — Infusion  of  sal  via  250  parts 

Glycerine 30  parts 

Tincture  of  myrrh     12  parts 
Tincture  of  laven- 
der       12  parts 

Labarraque's  so- 
lution        30  parts 

Mix.     Rinse    the    mouth    frequently 
with  this  mixture. 
III. — Decoction  of  cham- 

omile 30  parts 

Glycerine 80  parts 

Chlorinated  water.   15  parts 
Mix.      Use   as    a   gargle   and    mouth 

IV. — Peppermint  water  500  parts 
Cherry-laurel  wa- 
ter       60  parts 

Borax 25  parts 

Mix  and  dissolve.  Use  as  gargle  and 
mouth  wash. 

V.— Thymol 3  parts 

Spirit  of  cochlea- 

ria 300  parts 

Tincture  of  rhat- 

any 100  parts 

Oil  of  peppermint     15  parts 

Oil  of  cloves 10  parts 

Mix.  Gargle  and  wash  mouth  well 
with  10  drops  in  a  glass  of  water. 

VI.— Salol 5  parts 

1    Alcohol 1,000  parts 

Tincture  of  white 

canella 30  parts 

Oil    of    pepper- 
mint            1  part 

Mix.     Use  as  a  dentifrice. 
VII. — Hydrogen  perox- 
ide       25  parts 

Distilled  water. .  .    100  parts 
Mix.     Gargle  the  mouth  twice  daily 
with  2  tablespoonfuls  of  the  mixture  in  a 
glass  of  water. 
VIII. — Sodium    bicarbon- 
ate        2  parts 

Distilled  water. ...    70  parts 
Spirit  of  cochlearia  30  parts 
Mix    a    half-teaspoonful    in    a    wine- 
glassful  of  water.      Wash  mouth  two  or 
three  times  daily. 


To  stain  brick  flat  the  color  of  brown- 
stone,  add  black  to  Venetian  red  until 
the  desired  shade  is  obtained.  If  color 
ground  in  oil  is  used,  thin  with  turpen- 
tine, using  a  little  japan  as  a  drier.  If 
necessary  to  get  the  desired  shade  add 
yellow  ocher  to  the  mixture  of  red  and 
black.  If  the  work  is  part  old  and  part 
new,  rub  the  wall  down,  using  a  brick 



for  a  rubber,  until  the  surface  is  uniform, 
and  keep  it  well  wet  while  rubbing  with 
cement  water,  made  by  stirring  Portland 
cement  into  water  until  the  water  looks 
the  color  of  the  cement.  This  opera- 
tion fills  the  pores  of  the  brick  and  makes 
a  smooth,  uniform  surface  to  paint  on. 
Tinge  the  wash  with  a  little  dry  Vene- 
tian red  and  lampblack.  This  will  help 
bring  the  brick  to  a  uniform  color,  so  that 
an  even  color  can  be  obtained  with  one 
coat  of  stain. 


See  Ceramics. 


See  Stone,  Artificial. 


See  Polishes. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 
ods and  Household  Formulas. 


See  Waterproofing. 


See  Ceramics. 


See  Paint. 


See  Hair  Preparations. 


See  Pyrotechnics. 



See  Roots. 


See  Alloys. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 


See  Plating. 


See  Antiseptics. 


Bromoform  is   insoluble  in  dilute  al- 
cohol, but  may  be  dissolved  by  the  aid  of 
glycerine.      The  following  formula    has 
een  devised: 

Bromoform 1     part 

Alcohol 2    parts 

Compound  tincture  of 

cardamon 2     parts 

Glycerine U  parts 

Some  other  formulas  are: 

Syrup  of  Bromofcrm. — Bromoform, 
5  parts;  alcohol  (95  per  cent),  45  parts; 
glycerine,  150  parts;  syrup,  800  parts. 
Mix  in  the  order  given  and  place  the  con- 
tainer in  warm  water  until  the  syrup  be- 
comes perfectly  clear. 

Emulsion  of  Bromoform. — Add  3  parts 
of  bromoform  to  20  parts  of  expressed  oil 
of  almond;  emulsify  this  mixture  in  the 
usual  manner  with  2  parts  of  powdered 
tragacanth,  4  parts  of  powdered  acacia, 
and  sufficient  water,  using  for  the  com- 
pleted emulsion  a  total  of  120  parts  of 
water,  and  add,  finally,  4  parts  of  cherry- 
laurel  water. 

Bromoform  Rum. — Bromoform,  1.2 
parts;  chloroform,  0.8  parts;  rum,  suffi- 
cient to  make  120  parts.  Claimed  to 
be  an  effective  remedy  in  the  treatment  of 
whooping  cough. 


See  Alloys. 


See  Casting. 


See  Plaster. 


See  Polishes. 


See  Cleaning  Compounds. 

Bronze  Powders,  Liquid 

Bronzes,  Bronze  Substitutes, 

and  Bronzing 


Gold  bronze  is  a  mixture  of  equal 
parts  of  oxide  of  tin  and  sulphur,  which 
are  heated  for  some  time  in  an  earthen 
retort.  Silver  bronze  is  a  mixture  of 
equal  parts  of  bismuth,  tin,  and  mercury, 
which  are  fused  in  a  crucible,  adding  the 
mercury  only  when  the  tin  and  the  bis- 
muth are  in  fusion.  Next  reduce  to  a 
very  fine  powder.  To  apply  these 
bronzes,  white  of  egg,  gum  arabic,  or 
varnish  is  used.  It  is  preferable  to  ap- 
ply them  dry  upon  one  of  the  above- 
named  mediums  serving  as  size,  than  to 
mix  them  with  the  liquids  themselves,  for 
in  the  latter  case  their  luster  is  impaired. 

Simple  Coloring  of  Bronze  Powder. — 
In  order  to  impart  different  colors  to 



bronze  powders,  such  as  pale  yellow, 
dark  yellow  to  copper  red.  the  powder  is 
heated  with  constant  stirring  in  flat  iron 
pans  until  through  the  oxidation  of  the 
copper — the  bronzes  consist  of  the  brass 
powder  of  an  alloy  from  which  the  so- 
called  Dutch  gold  is  produced — the  de- 
sired shade  of  color  is  reached.  As  a 
rule  a  very  small  quantity  of  fat,  wax,  or 
even  paraffine  is  added  in  this  operation. 
The  bronze  powders  are  employed  to 
produce  coatings  or  certain  finishes  on 
metals  themselves  or  to  give  articles  of 
wood,  stone,  pasteboard,  etc.,  a  metallic 

General  Directions  for  Bronzing. — The 
choice  of  bronze  powders  is  determined 
by  the  degree  of  brilliancy  to  be  ob- 
tained. The  powder  is  mixed  with 
strong  gum  water  or  isinglass,  and  laid 
on  with  a  brush  or  pencil,  almost  but  not 
absolutely  dry.  A  piece  of  soft  leather, 
wrapped  around  the  finger,  is  dipped  into 
the  powder  and  rubbed  over  the  work; 
when  all  this  has  been  covered  with  the 
bronze  it  must  be  left  to  dry,  and  the 
loose  powder  is  then  cleared  away  with 
a  hair  pencil. 


Liquid  Bronzes. — I. — For  the  produc- 
tion of  liquid  bronze,  acid-free  varnish 
should  be  used,  as  bronze  ground  with 
ordinary  varnish  will  form  verdigris. 
For  the  deacidification  of  dammar  rosin 
pour  1,000  parts  of  petroleum  benzine 
over  350  parts  of  finely  ground  dammar 
rosin,  and  dissolve  by  repeated  shaking. 
Next  add  to  the  solution  250  parts  of  a 
10-per-cent  aqueous  solution  of  caustic 
soda  and  shake  up  well  for  10  minutes. 
After  standing  for  a  short  time  two 
strata  will  have  formed,  the  upper  one 
consisting  of  benzine-rosin  solution  and 
the  lower,  aqueous  one  containing  the 
resinic  acid  dissolved  as  soda  salts.  Pour 
off  the  benzine  layers  and  agitate  again 
assiduously  with  250  parts  of  the  10-per- 
cent caustic-soda  solution.  Now  set 
aside  for  a  complete  classification  and 
separation  of  the  two  liquids.  The 
dammar  solution  siphoned  off  will  be  per- 
fectly free  from  acid.  To  obtain  gold- 
bronze  varnish  add  to  the  deacidified 
dammar  solution  about  250  parts  of 
bronze  or  brocade  per  liter. 

II. — Or  else  carefully  mix  100  parts  of 
finely  ground  dammar  rosin  with  30  parts 
of  calcined  soda  and  heat  to  fusion,  in 
which  state  it  is  maintained  2  or  3  hours 
with  frequent  stirring.  Let  cool,  grind 
the  turbid  mass  obtained,  and  pour  a  little 
coal  benzine  or  petroleum  benzine  over 

it  in  a  flask.  By  repeated  shaking  of  the 
flask  the  soluble  portion  of  the  molten 
mass  is  dissolved;  filter  after  allowing  to 
settle;  into  the  filtrate  put  300  to  400 
parts  of  bronze  powder  of  any  desired 
shade,  the  brocades  being  especially  well 
adapted  for  this  purpose.  If  the  metallic 
powder  remains  distributed  over  the 
mass  for  a  long  time  it  is  of  the  right 
consistency;  if  it  deposits  quickly  it  is 
too  thin  and  a  part  of  the  solvent  must 
be  evaporated  before  stirring  in  the 
bronze  powder. 

III. — A  liquid  bronze,  which,  while 
it  contains  no  metallic  constituent,  yet 
possesses  a  metallic  luster  and  a  bronze 
appearance,  and  answers  excellently  for 
many  purposes,  is  made  as  follows: 
Dissolve  by  the  aid  of  gentle  heat  10 
parts  of  aniline  red  and  5  parts  of  aniline 
purple  in  100  parts  of  alcohol.  When 
solution  is  complete,  add  5  parts  of  ben- 
zoic  acid,  raise  the  heat,  and  let  boil 
from  5  to  10  minutes,  or  until  the  green- 
ish color  of  the  mixture  passes  over  to  a 
clear  bronze  brown.  For  "marbling" 
or  bronzing  paper  articles,  this  answers 
particularly  well. 

Incombustible  Bronze  Tincture. — 
Finely  pulverize  5  parts,  by  weight,  of 
prime  Dammar  rosin  and  1.5  parts  of 
ammonia  soda.  Heat  gently,  and  stir  fre- 
quently, until  no  more  carbonic  acid  bub- 
bles up.  Cool  and  pulverize  again.  Put 
the  powder  into  a  glass  carboy,  and  pour 
over  it  50  parts  of  carbon  tetrachloride; 
let  'this  stand  for  2  days,  stirring  fre- 
quently. Then  filter.  Ten  parts  of  the 
fluid  are  mixed  with  5  parts  of  metallic 
bronze  of  any  desired  shade,  and  put 
into  bottles.  Shake  well  before  using. 

General  Formulas  for  Bronzing  Prepa- 
rations.— I. — Take  240  parts  subacetate 
of  copper,  120  parts  oxide  of  zinc  in  pow- 
der form,  60  parts  borax,  60  parts  salt- 
peter, and  3.5  parts  corrosive  sublimate. 
Prepare  a  paste  from  it  with  oil,  stir  to- 
gether, and  continue  working  with  boiled 
linseed  oil  and  turpentine. 

II. — Dissolve  120  parts  sulphate  of 
copper  and  add  120  parts  chipping  of 
tin;  stir  well  and  gather  the  precipitating 
copper.  After  complete  drying,  grind 
very  finely  in  boiled  linseed  oil  and  tur- 

III. — Melt  in  a  crucible  60  parts  sul- 
phur and  60  parts  stannic  acid;  stir  with 
a  clay  tube  until  the  mixture  takes  on  the 
appearance  of  Dutch  gold  and  pour  out. 
When  cold  mix  the  color  with  boiled  lin- 
seed oil  and  turpentine,  adding  a  small 
quantity  of  drier.  These  three  bronzes 
must  be  covered  with  a  pale,  resistant 



lacquer,  otherwise  they  will  soon  tarnish 
in  rooms  where  gas  is  burned, 

Florentine  Bronzes.  —I.— To  produce  a 
Florentine  bronzing,  apply  to  the  articles, 
which  must  have  previously  been  dipped, 
a  varnish  composed  of  cherry  gum  lac 
dissolved  in  alcohol.  This  varnish  is 
put  on  with  a  brush,  and  after  that  the 
bronzed  piece  is  passed  through  the 

II. — If  the  article  is  of  brass  it  must 
be  given  a  coat  of  copper  by  means  of 
the  battery.  Next  dip  a  brush  in  olive 
oil  and  brush  the  piece  uniformly;  let 
dry  for  5  or  6  hours  and  place  in  saw- 
dust. Then  heat  the  article  on  a  mod- 
erate charcoal  dust  fire. 

Preparation  of  French  Bronze. — 
French  bronze  may  be  prepared  by  re- 
ducing to  a  powder  hematite,  5  parts, 
and  plumbago,  8  parts,  and  mixing  into  a 
paste  with  spirit  of  wine.  Apply  the 
composition  with  a  soft  brush  to  the 
article  to  be  bronzed  and  set  it  aside  for 
some  hours.  By  polishing  with  a  toler- 
ably hard  brush  the  article  will  assume 
the  beautiful  appearance  of  real  bronze. 
The  desired  tint  may  be  regulated  by  the 
proportions  of  the  ingredients. 

How  to  Bronze  Metals. — Prepare  a 
solution  of  1*  ounces  of  sodium  hyposul- 
phite in  1  pint  of  water  and  add  to  the 
same  a  solution  of  1A  ounces  of  lead 
acetate  dissolved  in  1  pint  of  water. 

If,  instead  of  lead  acetate,  an  equal 
weight  of  sulphuric  acid  (1*  ounces)  is 
added  to  the  sodium  hyposulphite  and 
the  process  carried  on  as  before,  the 
brass  becomes  coated  with  a  very  beau- 
tiful red,  which  changes  to  green,  and 
finally  a  splendid  brown  with  a  green 
and  red  iridescence.  This  last  is  a  very 
durable  coating  and  may  be  especially 
recommended.  It  is  very  difficult  to 
obtain  exact  shades  by  this  process  with- 
out some  experience.  The  thorough 
cleansing  of  all  articles  from  grease  by 
boiling  in  potash  is  absolutely  necessary 
to  success.  By  substituting  other  metal 
salts  for  the  lead  acetate  many  changes 
in  tints  and  quality  of  the  coatings  can 
also  be  effected. 

When  this  mixture  is  heated  to  a  tem- 
perature a  little  below  the  boiling  point 
it  precipitates  sulphide  of  lead  in  a  state 
of  fine  division.  If  some  metal  is  pres- 
ent some  of  the  lead  is  precipitated  on 
the  surface  and,  according  to  the  thick- 
ness of  the  layer,  different  colors  are  pro- 
duced. To  produce  an  even  color  the 
articles  must  be  evenly  heated.  By  im- 
mersion of  brass  articles  for  5  minutes 

the  same  may  be  coated  with  colors 
varying  from  gold  to  copper  red,  then  to 
carmine,  dark  red,  and  from  light  blue 
to  blue  white,  and  at  last  a  reddish  white, 
depending  on  the  time  the  metal  remains 
in  the  solution  and  the  temperature  used. 
Iron  objects  treated  in  this  solution  take 
a  steel-blue  color,  zinc  a  brown  color.  In 
the  case  of  copper  objects  a  golden  yellow 
cannot  be  obtained. 

New  Bronzing  Liquid. — Dissolve  10 
parts  of  fuchsine  and  5  parts  of  aniline 
purple  in  100  parts  of  alcohol  (95  percent) 
and  add  to  the  solution  5  parts  of  ben- 
zoic  acid.  Boil  the  whole  for  10  min- 
utes until  the  color  turns  bronze  brown. 
This  liquid  can  be  applied  to  all  metals 
and  dries  quickly. 

A  Bronze  for  Brass. — Immerse  the 
articles,  freed  from  dirt  and  ^grease,  in  a 
cold  solution  of  10  parts  01  potassium 
permanganate,  50  parts  of  iron  sulphate, 
5  parts  of  hydrochloric  acid  in  1,000 
parts  of  water.  Let  remain  30  seconds, 
then  withdraw,  rinse,  and  let  dry  in  fine, 
soft  sawdust.  If  the  articles  have  be- 
come too  dark,  or  if  a  reddish-brown 
color  be  desired,  immerse  for  about  1 
minute  in  a  warm  (140°  F.)  solution  of 
chromic  acid,  10  parts;  hydrochloric 
acid,  10  parts;  potassium  permanganate, 
10  parts;  iron  sulphate,  50  parts;  water, 
1,000  parts.  Treat  as  before.  If  the 
latter  solution  alone  be  used  the  product 
will  be  a  brighter  dark-yellow  or  red- 
dish-brown color.  By  heating  in  a  dry- 
ing oven  the  tone  of  the  colors  is  im- 
proved. * 

To  Bronze  Copper. — This  process  is 
analogous  to  the  one  practiced  at  the 
Mint  of  Paris  for  bronzing  medals. 

Spread  on  the  copper  object  a  solution 
composed  of: 

Acetate     or     chlorhy- 

drate  of  ammonia.  .      30  parts 

Sea  salt 10  parts 

Cream  of  tartar 10  parts 

Acetate  of  copper  ....      10  parts 
Diluted  acetic  acid.  .  .    100  parts 
Let  dry  for  24  to  48  hours  at  an  ordi- 
nary temperature.      The  surface  of  the 
metal  will  become  covered  with  a  series 
of  varying  tints.      Brush    with  a  waxed 
brush.      The  green  portions  soaked  with 
chlorhydrate  of  ammonia  will  assume  a 
blue   coloring,    and    those    treated    with 
carbonate  will  be  thick  and  darkened. 

Bronzing  and  Patinizing  of  Small  Zinc 
Articles. — Coatings  of  bronze  tones  and 
patina  shades  may  be  produced  on  zinc 
oy  means  of  various  liquids,  but  the 



articles,  before  being  worked  upon, 
should  be  rubbed  down  with  very  fine 
glass  or  emery  paper,  to  make  them  not 
only  perfectly  metallic,  but  also  some- 
what rough,  as  a  consequence  of  which 
the  bronze  or  patina  coatings  will  adhere 
much  better.  The  best  bronze  or  pa- 
tina effects  on  bronze  are  obtained  by 
electroplating  the  article  with  a  fairly 
thick  deposit  of  brass  rich  in  copper  and 
then  treating  it  like  genuine  bronze.  The 
solutions  used,  however,  must  always  be 
highly  diluted,  otherwise  they  may  eat 
entirely  through  the  thin  metallic  coat- 

Bronzing  of  Zinc. — Mix  thoroughly  30 
parts  of  sal  ammoniac,  10  parts  of 
oxalate  of  potash,  and  1,000  parts  of 
vinegar.  Apply  with  a  brush  or  a  rag 
several  times,  until  the  desired  tint  is 

Bronze  Gilding  on  Smooth  Moldings. — 
A  perfect  substitute  for  dead  gilding  can- 
not be  obtained  by  bronzing,  because  of 
the  radically  different  reflection  of  the 
light,  for  the  matt  gilding  presents  to  the 
light  a  perfectly  smooth  surface,  while 
in  bronzing  every  little  scale  of  bronze 
reflects  the  light  in  a  different  direction. 
In  consequence  of  this  diffusion  of  light, 
all  bronzing,  even  the  best  executed,  is 
somewhat  darker  and  dimmer  than  leaf 
gilding.  This  dimness,  it  is  true,  ex- 
tends over  the  whole  surface,  and  there- 
fore is  not  perceptible  to  the  layman,  and 
cannot  be  called  an  evil,  as  the  genuine 
leaf  gold  is  so  spotted  that  a  bronzed 
surface  is  cleaner  than  a  gilt  one.  The 
following  process  is  the  best  known  at 
present:  Choose  only  the  best  bronze, 
which  is  first  prepared  thick  with  pure 
spirit.  Next  add  a  quantity  of  water 
and  stir  again.  After  the  precipitation, 
which  occurs  promptly,  the  water  is 
poured  off  and  renewed  repeatedly  by 
fresh  water.  When  the  spirit  has  been 
washed  out  again  in  this  manner,  the  re- 
maining deposit,  i.  e.,  the  bronze,  is 
thinned  with  clean,  good  gold  size.  The 
bronze  must  be  thin  enough  just  to 
cover.  The  moldings  are  coated  twice, 
the  second  time  commencing  at  the  op- 
posite end.  Under  no  circumstances 
should  the  dry,  dead  gilding  give  off 
color  when  grasping  it  firmly.  If  it  does 
that,  either  the  size  is  inferior  or  the  so- 
lution too  weak  or  the  mixture  too  thick. 

Incombustible  Bronze  Tincture. — Five 
parts  of  prime  dammar  rosin  and  1.5 
parts  of  ammonia  soda,  very  finely  pul- 
verized. Heat  gently,  with  frequent 
stirring,  until  the  evolution  of  carbonic 
acid  ceases.  Then  take  from  the  fire, 

and  when  cool  pulverize  again.  Put 
the  powder  into  a  glass  carboy,  and  pour 
over  it  50  parts  of  carbon  tetrachloride; 
let  this  stand  for  2  days,  stirring  fre- 
quently, then  filter.  Ten  parts  of  the 
nuid  are  to  be  mixed  with  each  5  parts 
of  metallic  bronze  of  any  desired  shade, 
and  put  into  bottles.  Shake  the  tincture 
well  before  using. 

Bronzing  Engraved  Ornaments.  — 
Take  bronze  and  stir. with  it  pale  copal 
varnish  diluted  one-half  with  turpentine. 
With  this  paint  the  ornaments  neatly. 
In  £  hour  the  bronze  will  have  dried. 
The  places  from  which  the  bronze  is  to 
be  removed,  i.  e.,  where  the  bronze  has 
overrun  the  polished  surface,  are  dabbed 
with  a  small  rag  soaked  with  kerosene, 
taking  care  that  it  is  not  too  wet,  so  as 
to  prevent  the  kerosene  from  running 
into  the  ornament.  After  a  short  while 
the  bronze  will  have  dissolved  and  can 
be  wiped  off  with  a  soft  rag.  If  this 
does  not  remove  it  entirely,  dab  and  wipe 
again.  Finally  finish  wiping  with  an 
especially  soft,  clean  rag.  Kerosene 
does  not  attack  polish  on  wood.  The 
bronze  must  become  dull  and  yet  adhere 
firmly,  under  which  condition  it  has  a 
hardened  color.  If  it  does  not  become 
dull  the  varnish  is  too  strong  and  should 
be  diluted  with  turpentine. 

Durable  Bronze  on  Banners. — To 
render  bronzes  durable  on  banners,  etc., 
the  ground  must  be  primed  with  gum 
arable  and  a  little  glycerine.  Then  ap- 
ply the  bronze  solution,  prepared  with 
dammar  and  one-tenth  varnish.  In- 
stead of  gum  arabic  with  glycerine,  gela- 
tine glue  may  also  be  employed  as  an 


The  following  recipe  is  used  in  making 
imitation  gold  bronzes: 

Sandarac 50  parts 

Mastic 10  parts 

Venice  turpentine. . .        5  parts 

Alcohol 135  parts 

In  the  above  dissolve: 
Metanil   yellow  and 

gold  orange 0.4  parts 

and  add 

Aluminum,        finely 

powdered 20  parts 

and  shake. 

If  a  deeper  shade  is  desired  it  is  well 
to  use  ethyl  orange  and  gold  orange  in 
the  same  proportion,  instead  of  the  dyes. 
For  the  production  of  imitation  copper 
bronze  take  the  above-mentioned  rosin 
mixture  and  dissolve  therein  only  gold 



orange  0.8  parts,  and  add  aluminum  20 
parts,  whereby  a  handsome  copper  color 
is  produced.  Metanil  yellow  0.4  parts 
without  gold  orange  gives  with  the  same 
amount  of  lacquer  a  greenish  tone  of 
bronze.  The  pigments  must  not  be 
made  use  of  in  larger  quantities,  because 
the  luster  of  the  bronze  is  materially 
affected.  Only  pigments  of  certain 
properties,  such  as  solubility  in  alcohol, 
relative  constancy .  to  reductive  agents, 
are  suitable;  unsuitable  are,  for  instance, 
naphthol  yellow,  phenylene-diamin,  etc. 
Likewise  only  a  lacquer  of  certain  com- 
position is  fit  for  use,  other  lacquers  of 
commerce,  such  as  zapon  (celluloid) 
lacquer  being  unsuitable.  The  bronzes 
prepared  in  this  manner  excel  in  luster 
and  color  effect;  the  cost  is  very  low. 
They  are  suitable  for  bronzing  low- 
priced  articles,  as  tinware,  toys,  etc. 
Under  the  action  of  sun  and  moisture  the 
articles  lose  some  of  their  luster,  but  ob- 
jects kept  indoors  such  as  figures  of  plas- 
ter of  Paris,  inkstands,  wooden  boxes, 
etc.,  retain  their  brilliancy  for  years. 

Some  use  powdered  aluminum  and  yel- 
low organic  dyestuffs,  such  as  gold  orange. 
These  are  employed  together  with  a  var- 
nish of  certain  composition,  which  im- 
parts the  necessary  gloss  to  the  mixture. 


To  Color  Bronze. — Bronze  articles  ac- 
quire handsome  tempering  colors  by 
heating.  In  order  to  impart  an  old  ap- 
pearance to  new  objects  of  bronze,  they 
may  be  heated  over  a  flame  and  rubbed 
with  a  woolen  rag  dipped  in  finely  pow- 
dered graphite,  until  the  desired  shade 
is  attained.  Or  else  a  paste  is  applied 
on  the  article,  consisting  of  graphite  5 
parts  and  bloodstone  15  parts,  with  a  suf- 
ficient quantity  of  alcohol.  After  24 
hours  brush  off  the  dry  powder.  A  hot 
solution  composed  of  sal  ammoniac  4 
parts,  sorrel  salt  1  part,  vinegar  200 
parts,  may  also  be  brushed  on.  Another 
way  is  to  dip  the  pieces  into  a  boiling  so- 
lution of  cupric  acetate  20  parts,  and  sal 
ammoniac  10  parts,  dissolved  in  60  to 
100  parts  of  vinegar. 

Patent  bronzes  (products  colored  by 
means  of  aniline  dyes)  have  hitherto 
been  used  in  the  manufacture  of  toys  and 
de  luxe  or  fancy  paper,  but  makers  of 
wall  or  stained  paper  have  recently  given 
their  attention  to  these  products.  Wall 
—or  moire — paper  prepared  with  these 
dyes  furnishes  covers  or  prints  of  silken 
gloss  with  a  peculiar  double-color  effect 
in  which  the  metallic  brilliancy  charac- 
teristic of  bronze  combines  with  the 
shades  of  the  tar  pigments  used.  Very 

beautiful  reliefs,  giving  rise  to  the  most 
charming  play  of  colors  in  perpendicular 
or  laterally  reflected  light,  are  produced 
by  pressing  the  paper  lengths  or  web 
painted  with  aniline-bronze  dyes.  The 
brass  brocade  and  tin  bronzes  serve  as 
bases  for  the  aniline  dyes;  of  the  tar  pig- 
ments only  basic  aniline  dyes  soluble  in 
alcohol  are  used.  In  coloring  the  pul- 
verized bronze  care  must  be  taken  that 
the  latter  is  as  free  as  possible  from  or- 
ganic fats.  Tar  dyes  should  be  dis- 
solved in  as  concentrated  a  form  as  pos- 
sible in  alcohol  and  stirred  with  the 
bronze,  the  pigment  being  then  fixed  on 
the  vehicle  with  an  alcoholic  solution  of 
tannin.  The  patent  bronze  is  then 
dried  by  allowing  the  alcohol  to  evapo- 
rate. This  method  of  coloring  is  purely 
mechanical,  as  the  tar  dyes  do  not  com- 
bine with  the  metallic  bronze,  as  is  the 
case  with  pigments  in  which  hydrate  of 
alumina  is  used.  A  coating  of  aniline 
bronze  of  this  kind  is  therefore  very  sen- 
sitive to  moisture,  unless  spread  over 
the  paper  surface  with  a  suitable  protect- 
ive binding  medium,  or  protected  by  a 
transparent  coat  of  varnish,  which  of 
course  must  not  interfere  with  the  special 
color  effect. 

Pickle  for  Bronzes. — Sulphuric  acid, 
1,000  parts;  nitric  acid,  500  parts;  soot, 
10  parts;  sea  salt,  5  parts. 

Imitation  Japanese  Bronze. — When 
the  copper  or  coppered  article  is  per- 
fectly dry  and  the  copper  or  copper 
coating  made  brilliant,  which  is  produced 
by  rubbing  with  a  soft  brush,  put  graph- 
ite over  the  piece  to  be  bronzed  so 
that  the  copper  is  simply  dyed.  Wipe 
off  the  raised  portions  with  a  damp  cloth, 
so  that  the  copper  makes  its  appearance. 
Next  put  on  a  thin  coat  of  Japanese  var- 
nish; wipe  the  relief  again  and  let  dry. 
Apply  1  or  2  coats  after  the  first  is  per- 
fectly dry.  Handsome  smoked  hues 
may  be  obtained  by  holding  the  bronze 
either  over  the  dust  of  lighted  peat  or 
powdered  rosin  thrown  on  lighted  coal, 
so  as  to  obtain  a  smoke  which  will  change 
the  color  of  the  varnish  employed.  The 
varnish  must  be  liquid  enough  to  be 
worked  easily,  for  this  style  of  bronzing 
is  only  applicable  to  brass. 

Green  Bronze  on  Iron. — Abietate  of 
silver,  1  part;  essence  of  lavender,  19 
parts.  Dissolve  the  abietate  of  silver  in 
the  essence  of  lavender.  After  the  arti- 
cles have  been  well  pickled  apply  the 
abietate-of-silver  solution  with  a  brush; 
next  place  the  objects  in  a  stove  and  let 
the  temperature  attain  about  150°  C. 

Blue   Bronze. — Blue   bronze    is    pro- 



duced  by  the  wet  process  by  coloring 
white  bronze  (silver  composition)  with 
aniline  blue.  A  blue-bronze  color  can  be 
produced  in  the  ordinary  way  from  white- 
bronze  color,  the  product  of  pure  Eng- 
lish tin,  and  with  an  alum  solution  con- 
sisting of  20  parts  of  alum  in  4,500  parts 
of  water  boiled  for  5  hours  and  washed 
clean  and  dried.  The  bronze  prepared 
in  this  manner  is  placed  in  a  porcelain 
dish,  mixed  with  a  solution  of  15  parts  of 
aniline  blue  in  1,500  parts  of  alcohol, 
stirring  the  bronze  powder  and  liquid 
until  the  alcohol  has  evaporated  entire- 
ly and  the  bronze  color  becomes  dry. 
This  manipulation  must  be  repeated  6 
or  8  times,  until  the  desired  blue  shade 
is  reached.  When  the  bronze  is  dark 
enough  it  is  washed  out  in  warm  water, 
and  before  entirely  dry  1  tablespoonful 
of  petroleum  is  poured  on  2  pounds  of 
bronze,  which  is  intimately  mixed  and 
spread  out  into  a  thin  layer,  exposed  to 
the  air,  whereby  the  smell  is  caused  to 
disappear  in  a  few  days. 

Bronzing  with  Soluble  Glass.— To 
bronze  wood,  porcelain,  glass,  and  metal 
by  means  of  a  water-glass  solution,  coat 
the  article  with  potash  water-glass  of 
30°  Be.  and  sprinkle  on  the  respective 
bronze  powder. 

Brown  Oxidation  on  Bronze. — Genu- 
ine bronze  can  be  beautifully  oxidized  by 
painting  it  with  a  solution  of  4  parts  of 
sal  ammoniac  and  1  part  of  oxalium 
(oxalate  of  potash)  in  200  parts  of  vine- 
gar, allowing  it  to  dry,  and  repeating  the 
operation  several  times.  These  articles, 
protected  against  rain,  soon  lose  the  un- 
pleasant glaring  metallic  luster  and  as- 
sume instead  a  soft  brown  tint,  which 
bronze  articles  otherwise  acquire  only 
after  several  years'  exposure  to  the  at- 
mosphere. A  beautiful  bronze  color 
which  will  remain  unaffected  by  heat 
can  be  imparted  to  bronze  articles  by  the 
following  process:  The  object  is  first 
washed  in  a  solution  of  1  part  of  crystal- 
lized verdigris  and  2  parts  of  sal  ammo- 
niac in  260  parts  of  water,  and  then  dried 
before  an  open  fire  till  the  green  color 
begins  to  disappear.  The  operation  is 
repeated  10  to  20  times,  but  with  a  solu- 
tion of  1  part  of  verdigris  crystals  and  2 
parts  of  sal  ammoniac  in  600  parts  of 
water.  The  color  of  the  article,  olive 
green  at  first,  gradually  turns  to  brown, 
which  will  remain  unaltered  even  when 
exposed  to  strong  heat. 


See  also  Plating  for  general  methods 
of  bronzing,  and  Varnishes. 

Gold  and  Silver  Bronze  Powders. — 
Genuine  gold  bronze  is  produced  from 
the  waste  and  parings  obtained  in  gold 
beating.  The  parings,  etc.,  are  ground 
with  honey  or  a  gum  solution,  upon  a 
glass  plate  or  under  ha.rd  granite  stones, 
into  a  very  fine  powder,  which  is  re- 
peatedly washed  out  with  water  and 
dried.  There  are  various  shades  of  gold 
bronze,  viz.,  red,  reddish,  deep  yellow, 
pale  yellow,  as  well  as  greenish.  These 
tints  are  caused  by  the  various  percent- 
ages of  gold  or  the  various  mixtures  of 
the  gold  with  silver  and  copper. 

By  the  use  of  various  salt  solutions  or 
acidulated  substances  other  shades  can 
be  imparted  to  bronze.  In  water  con- 
taining sulphuric  acid,  nitric  acid,  or 
hydrochloric  acid,  it  turns  a  bright  yel- 
low; by  treatment  with  a  solution  of  crys- 
tallized verdigris  or  blue  vitriol  in  water 
it  assumes  more  of  a  reddish  hue;  other 
tints  are  obtained  with  the  aid  of  cooking 
salt,  tartar,  green  vitriol,  or  saltpeter  in 

Gold  bronze  is  also  obtained  by  dis- 
solving gold  in  aqua  regia  and  mixing 
with  a  solution  of  green  vitriol  in  water, 
whereupon  the  gold  falls  down  as  a  me- 
tallic powder  which  may  be  treated  in 
different  ways.  The  green  vitriol,  how- 
ever, must  be  dissolved  in  boiling  water 
and  mixed  in  a  glass,  drop  by  drop,  with 
sulphuric  acid  and  stirred  until  the  basic 
iron  sulphate  separating  in  flakes  has  re- 
dissolved.  Another  way  of  producing 
gold  bronze  is  by  dissolving  gold  in  aqua 
regia  and  evaporating  the  solution  in  a 
porcelain  dish.  When  it  is  almost  dry 
add  a  little  pure  hydrochloric  acid  and 
repeat  this  to  drive  out  all  the  free  chlo- 
rine and  to  produce  a  pure  hydrochlorate 
of  gold.  The  gold  salt  is  dissolved  in 
distilled  water,  taking  \  liter  per  ducat 
(3J  grams  fine  gold);  into  this  solution 
drop,  while  stirring  by  means  of  a  glass 
rod,  an  8°  solution  (by  Beaume)  of  an- 
timony chloride,  as  long  as  a  precipitate 
forms.  This  deposit  is  gold  bronze, 
which,  dried  after  removal  of  all  liquids, 
is  chiefly  employed  in  painting,  for  bronz- 
ing, and  for  china  and  glass  decoration. 

Metallic  gold  powder  is,  furthermore, 
obtained  by  dissolving  pure  and  alloyed 
gold  in  aqua  regia  and  precipitating  it 
again  by  an  electro-positive  metal,  such 
as  iron  or  zinc,  which  is  placed  in  the  liq- 
uid in  the  form  of  rods.  The  gold  is 
completely  separated  thereby.  The  rods 
must  be  perfectly  clean  and  polished 
bright.  The  color  of  the  gold  bronze 
depends  upon  the  proportions  of  the  gold. 
In  order  to  further  increase  the  brilliancy 
the  dried  substance  may  still  be  ground. 



Mosaic  Gold. — Mosaic  gold,  generally 
a  compound  of  tin,  64.63  parts,  and  sul- 
phur, 35.37  parts,  is  odorless  and  taste- 
less, and  dissolves  only  in  chlorine  solu- 
tion, aqua  regia,  and  boiling  potash  lye. 
It  is  employed  principally  for  bronz- 
ing plaster-of-Paris  figures,  copper,  and 
brass,  by  mixing  it  with  6  parts  of  bone 
ashes,  rubbing  it  on  wet,  or  applying  it 
with  varnish  or  white  of  egg  in  the  prep- 
aration of  gold  paper  or  for  gilding 
cardboard  and  wood.  Mosaic  gold  of 
golden-yellow  color  is  produced  by  heat- 
ing 6  parts  of  sulphur  and  16  parts  of 
tin  amalgam  with  equal  parts  of  mer- 
cury and  4  parts  of  sulphur;  8  parts  of 
precipitate  from  stannic  muriate  (stannic 
acid)  and  4  parts  of  sulphur  also  give  a 
handsome  mosaic  gold. 

The  handsomest,  purest,  and  most 
gold-like  mosaic  gold  is  obtained  by 
melting  12  parts  of  pure  tin,  free  from 
lead,  and  mixing  with  6  parts  of  mercury 
to  an  amalgam.  This  is  mixed  with  7 
parts  of  flowers  of  sulphur  and  6  parts  of 
sal  ammoniac,  whereupon  the  mass  is 
subjected  for  several  hours  to  a  heat 
which  at  first  does  not  attain  redness, 
but  eventually  when  no  more  fumes  are 
generated  is  increased  to  dark -red  heat. 
This  operation  is  conducted  either  in  a 
glass  retort  or  in  an  earthenware  cru- 
cible. The  sal  ammoniac  escapes  first 
on  heating,  next  vermilion  sublimates 
and  some  stannic  chloride,  while  the 
mosaic  gold  remains  on  the  bottom,  the 
upper  layer,  consisting  of  lustrous, 
golden,  delicately  translucent  leaflets, 
being  the  handsomest  mosaic  gold. 

Genuine  Silver  Bronze. — This  is  ob- 
tained by  the  finely  ground  waste  from 
beating  leaf  silver  or  by  dissolving  silver 
in  aqua  fortis.  This  solution  is  then 
diluted  with  water  and  brightly  scoured 
copper  plates  are  put  in,  whereby  the 
silver  precipitates  as  a  metallic  powder. 

Imitation  Silver  Bronze. — This  is  ob- 
tained through  the  waste  in  beating  imi- 
tation leaf  silver,  which,  finely  ground, 
is  then  washed  and  dried.  In  order  to 
increase  the  luster  it  is  ground  again  in  a 
dry  condition. 

Mosaic  Silver.  —  Mosaic  silver  is  an 
amalgam  of  equal  parts  of  mercury,  bis- 
muth, and  tin.  One  may  also  melt  50 
parts  of  good  tin  in  a  crucible,  and  as 
soon  as  it  becomes  liquid  add  50  parts 
of  bismuth,  stirring  all  with  an  iron  wire 
until  the  bismuth  is  fused  as  well.  As 
soon  as  this  occurs  the  crucible  must  be 
removed  from  the  fire;  then  stir  in,  as 
long  as  the  contents  are  still  liquid,  25 
parts  of  mercury  and  mix  the  whole  mass 

evenly  until  it  can  be  ground  on  a  stone 

See  Varnishes. 

See  Paints. 


See  Wood. 


See  Photography. 


See  Ointments. 

See  Plating. 

See  Brick  Stain. 


See  Cosmetics. 


HOW    TO    TAKE    CARE    OF    PAINT 


It  is  a  good  plan  to  fill  the  varnish  brush 
before  putting  it  in  the  keeper. 

Whitewash  or  kalsomine  brushes 
should  not  be  put  into  newly  slaked 
lime  or  hot  kalsomine. 

Cement-set  brushes  should  never  be 
put  in  any  alcohol  mixture,  such  as  shel- 
lacs and  spirit  stains. 

Varnish  brushes  should  be  selected 
with  a  view  to  their  possessing  the  follow- 
ing qualities:  1st,  excellence  of  mate- 
rial; 2d,  excellence  of  make,  which 
includes  fullness  of  hair  or  bristles  and 
permanency  of  binding;  3d,  life  and 
spring,  or  elasticity  sufficient  to  enable 
the  varnisher  to  spread  the  varnish  with- 
out reducing  it  with  turpentine;  and 
4th,  springing,  when  in  use,  to  a  true 
chisel  edge. 

Temperature  for  Brushes. — The  bris- 
tles of  every  brush  are  held  in  place  by 
the  handle.  It  passes  through  the  shank 
of  the  brush  and  is  kiln-dried  to  fit 
perfectly.  If  it  shrinks,  however,  its 
outward  tension  is  lost  and  the  bristles 
loosened.  For  this  reason  the  first 
principle  in  brush  care  is  to  keep  the 
tool,  when  it  is  new  or  not  soaking,  in  a 
cool  place,  out  of  hot  rooms,  and  any 
temperature  that  would  tend  to  shrink 
the  wood  of  the  handle. 

Cleaning  Paint  Brushes. — No  new 
brush  should  be  dipped  in  the  paint 
and  put  to  work  without  first  being 



cleaned.  By  working  it  with  a  brisk 
movement  back  and  forth  through  the 
hand  most  of  the  dust  and  loose  hairs 
will  be  taken  out.  A  paint  brush,  when 
thus  thoroughly  dry  cleaned,  should  be 
placed  in  water  for  a  few  minutes,  not 
long  enough  to  soak  or  swell  it,  but  only 
until  wet  through,  and  then  swung  and 
shaken  dry.  It  is  then  ready  to  dip  in 
the  paint,  and  although  some  of  the  hairs 
may  still  be  loose,  most  of  them  will 
come  out  in  the  first  few  minutes'  work- 
ing and  can  be  easily  picked  from  the 

Cleaning  Varnish  Brushes. — Varnish 
brushes,  and  brushes  used  in  varnish 
stain,  buggy  paint,  and  all  color  in  var- 
nish require  different  handling  than 
paint  brushes.  They  should  be  more 
thoroughly  dry  cleaned,  in  order  that 
all  loose  hairs  may  be  worked  out. 
After  working  them  through  the  hand  it 
is  a  good  thing  to  pass  the  brush  back 
and  forth  over  a  sheet  of  sandpaper. 
This  rough  surface  will  pull  out  the  loose 
bristles  and  smooth  down  the  rough 
ends  of  the  chisel  point.  The  brush 
should  then  be  washed  by  working  it  for 
a  few  minutes  in  clean  turpentine  and 
swinging  it  dry.  It  should  never  be  put 
in  water.  For  carriage  work  and  fine 
varnishing  the  brush  should  be  broken 
in  on  the  rubbing  coat  in  order  to  work 
out  all  the  dust  particles  before  it  is  used 
on  the  finishing  coats. 

Setting  the  Paint -Brush  Bristles.— 
For  the  first  2  or  3  days  new  brushes 
require  special  care  while  at  rest.  They 
should  be  dipped  in  raw  oil  or  the 
paint  itself  and  smoothed  out  carefully, 
then  laid  on  their  sides  over  night.  The 
chisel-pointed  brushes  should  be  set  at 
an  incline,  the  handle  supported  just 
enough  to  allow  the  brush  to  lie  along 
the  point.  This  is  done  to  prevent  twist- 
ing of  the  bristles,  and  to  keep  the  shape 
of  the  brush.  It  is  necessary  to  do 
this  only  2  or  3  times  before  the  shape 
becomes  set. 

Paint  Brushes  at  Rest. — An  impor- 
tant principle  in  brush  care  is  never  to 
leave  the  brush  on  end  while  at  rest. 
Even  for  temporary  rest  during  a  job 
the  brush  should  never  stand  on  end. 
At  night  it  should  always  be  placed  in  a 
"brush-keeper" — a  water-tight  box,  or  a 
paint  keg,  with  nails  driven  through  the 
sides  on  which  the  brushes  can  be  sus- 
pended in  water.  Holes  are  bored  in 
the  handles  so  the  brush  will  hang  free 
of  the  bottom,  but  with  the  bristles  en- 
tirely under  water.  Before  placing 

them  in  water  the  brushes  should  be 
wiped  so  as  not  to  be  too  full  of  paint, 
but  not  cleaned. 

Varnish  Brushes  at  Rest. — Varnish 
brushes  should  be  kept  at  rest  in  tur- 
pentine and  varnish,  or  better,  in  some 
of  the  varnish  that  the  brush  is  used  for. 
They  should  preferably  not  be  kept  in 
turpentine,  as  that  makes  the  brush 
**  lousy" — roughening  the  bristles. 

Washing  Brushes. — All  brushes  should 
be  washed  in  benzine  or  turpentine  and 
shaken  dry — not  whipped — when  it  is 
desired  to  change  from  one  color  to  an- 
other, or  from  one  varnish  to  another. 

To  Restore  Brushes. — A  good  remedy 
to  restore  lettering  brushes  which  have 
lost  their  elasticity  and  do  not  keep  a 
point,  is  as  follows: 

Put  the  pencil  in  oil  and  brush  it  sev- 
eral times  over  a  hot  iron  in  such  a  man- 
ner that  the  hairs  touch  the  iron  from 
each  side;  then  dip  the  pencil  quickly  in 
cold  water. 

A  Removable  Binding. — The  bristle 
bunch  of  brushes  is  bound  with  rope  so 
as  to  keep  them  together  for  use.  In- 
stead of  the  twine,  a  covering  of  rubber 
may  be  employed,  which  is  easily  slipped 
over  the  bristles  and  can  be  conveniently 
removed  again.  The  cleaning  of  the 
brush  is  much  facilitated  thereby,  and 
the  breadth  of  the  stripe  to  be  drawn 
with  the  brush  can  be  accurately  regu- 
lated, according  to  how  far  the  covering 
is  slipped  over  the  brush. 

See  also  Cleaning  Preparations  a--d 

See  Gelatin. 


See  Soap  Bubble  Liquid. 


Bubbles  of  air  often  adhere  to  molds 
immersed  in  depositing  solutions.  They 
may  be  prevented  by  previously  dipping 
the  object  into  spirits  of  wine,  or  be  re- 
moved by  the  aid  of  a  soft  brush,  or  by 
directing  a  powerful  current  of  the  liquid 
against  them  by  means  of  a  vulcanized 
india-rubber  bladder,  with  a  long  and 
curved  glass  tube  attached  to  it;  but  the 
liquid  should  be  free  from  sediment. 


See  Insecticides. 


See  Corn  Cures. 



See  also  Ointments  and  Turpentine. 

Mixture  for  Burns. — I. — A  mixture  of 
castor  oil  with  the  white  of  egg  is  recom- 
mended for  burns.  The  eggs  are  broken 
into  a  bowl  and  the  castor  oil  slowly 
poured  in  while  the  eggs  are  beaten. 
Enough  oil  is  added  to  make  a  thick, 
creamy  paste,  which  is  applied  to  the 
burn.  The  applications  are  repeated 
often  enough  to  prevent  their  becoming 
dry  or  sticky.  Leave  the  surface  un- 

II. — Put  27  parts,  by  measure,  of 
menthol  into  44  parts,  by  measure,  of 
witch  ha/el  (distillate)  and  apply  freely. 
A  good  plan  is  to  bandage  the  parts  and 
wet  the  wrappings  with  this  mixture. 

III. — A  very  efficacious  remedy  for 
burns  is  a  solution  of  cooking  salt  in 
water.  It  is  best  to  immerse  fingers, 
hands,  and  arms  in  the  solution,  which 
must  be  tolerably  strong.  For  burns  in 
the  face  and  other  parts  of  the  body, 
salt  water  poultices  are  applied. 


(See  also  Foods.) 

Butter  Color. — Orlean,  80  parts,  by 
weight;  curcuma  root  (turmeric),  80 
parts,  by  weight;  olive  oil,  240  parts,  by 
weight;  saffron,  1  part,  by  weight;  alco- 
hol, 5  parts,  by  weight.  The  orlean  and 
turmeric  are  macerated  with  olive  oil  and 
expressed.  The  weight  of  the  filtered 
liquid  is  made  up  again  to  240  parts,  by 
weight,  with  olive  oil,  next  the  filtered 
saffron-alcohol  extract  is  added,  and  the 
alcohol  is  expelled  again  by  heating  the 

Artificial  Butter.— I.— Carefully 
washed  beef  suet  furnishes  a  basis  for 
the  manufactures  of  an  edible  substitute 
for  natural  butter.  The  thoroughly 
washed  and  finely  chopped  suet  is  ren- 
dered in  a  steam-heated  tank;  1,000 
parts  of  fat,  300  parts  of  water,  1  part  of 
potassium  carbonate,  and  2  stomachs  of 
pigs  or  sheep,  are  taken.  The  temper- 
ature of  the  mixture  is  raised  to  113°  F. 
After  2  hours,  under  the  influence  of  the 
pepsin  in  the  stomachs,  the  membranes 
are  dissolved  and  the  fat  is  melted  and 
rises  to  the  top  of  the  mixture.  After 
the  addition  of  a  little  salt  the  melted  fat 
is  drawn  off,  stood  to  cool  so  as  to  allow 
the  stearine  and  palmitin  to  separate, 
and  then  pressed  in  bags  in  a  hydraulic 
press.  Forty  to  50  per  cent  of  solid 
stearine  remains,  while  50  to  60  per  cent 

of  fluid  oleopalmitin  (so-called  "oleo- 
margarine'') is  pressed  out.  The  "oleo 
oil"  is  then  mixed  with  10  per  cent  of  its 
weight  of  milk  and  a  little  butter  color 
and  churned.  The  product  is  then 
worked,  salted,  and  constituted  the 
"oleomargarine,"  or  butter  substitute. 
Leaf  lard  can  be  worked  in  the  same  way 
as  beef  suet,  and  will  yield  an  oleopal- 
mitin suitable  for  churning  up  into  a 
butter  substitute. 

II. — Fat  from  freshly  slaughtered  cattle 
after  thorough  washing  is  placed  in  clean 
water  and  surrounded  with  ice,  where  it 
is  allowed  to  remain  until  all  animal  heat 
has  been  removed.  It  is  then  cut  into 
small  pieces  by  machinery  and  cooked  at 
a  temperature  of  about  150°  F.  (65.6°  C.) 
until  the  fat  in  liquid  form  has  separated 
from  the  tissue,  then  settled  until  it  is 
perfectly  clear.  Then  it  is  drawn  into 
the  graining  vats  and  allowed  to  stand 
for  a  day,  when  it  is  ready  for  the  presses. 
The  pressing  extracts  the  stearine,  leav- 
ing a  product  commercially  known  as 
oleo  oil  which,  when  churned  with  cream 
or  milk,  or  both,  and  with  usually  a  pro- 

Eortion   of  creamery  butter,   the   whole 
eing  properly  salted,  gives  the  new  food 
product,  oleomargarine. 

III. — In  making  butterine  use  neutral 
lard,  which  is  made  from  selected  leaf 
lard  in  a  very  similar  manner  to  oleo  oil, 
excepting  that  no  stearine  is  extracted. 
This  neutral  lard  is  cured  in  salt  brine 
for  from  48  to  70  hours  at  an  ice-water 
temperature.  It  is  then  taken  and,  with 
the  desired  proportion  of  oleo  oil  and  fine 
butter,  is  churned  with  cream  and  milk, 
producing  an  article  which  when  proper- 
ly salted  and  packed  is  ready  for  the 
market.  In  both  cases  coloring  matter 
is  used,  which  is  the  same  as  that  used  by 
dairymen  to  color  their  butter.  At  cer- 
tain seasons  of  the  year — viz.,  in  cold 
weather,  a  small  quantity  of  sesame  oil 
or  salad  oil  made  from  cottonseed  oil  is 
used  to  soften  the  texture  of  the  product. 
IV. — "Ankara"  is  a  substance  which 
in  general  appearance  resembles  a  good 
article  of  butter,  being  rather  firmer  at 
ordinary  temperatures  than  that  sub- 
stance, approaching  the  consistency  of 
cocoa  butter.  It  is  quite  odorless,  but  in 
taste  it  resembles  that  of  a  fair  article  of 
butter  and,  what  is  more,  its  behavior 
under  heat  is  very  similar  to  that  of  but- 
ter— it  browns  and  forms  a  sort  of  spume 
like  that  of  fat.  Ankara  consists  of  a 
base  of  cocoa  butter,  carrying  about  10 
per  cent  of  milk,  colored  with  yolk  of  egg. 
While  not  derived  from  milk,  on  the  one 
hand,  nor  does  it  come  from  a  single 
vegetable  or  animal  fat  on  the  other,  an- 



kara  may  be  considered  as  belonging  to 
the  category  of  the  margarines.  An- 
kara is  obtained  in  the  market  in  the  form 
of  cakes  or  tablets  of  2  pounds  in  weight. 

V. — Fresh  butter,  150  parts,  by  weight; 
animal  fat,  80  parts,  by  weight;  sun- 
flower oil,  40  parts,  by  weight;  cocoanut 
oil,  30  parts,  by  weight. 

yi.— Fresh  butter,  100  parts,  by 
weight;  animal  fat,  100  parts,  by  weight; 
sunflower  oil,  80  parts,  by  weight;  cocoa- 
nut  oil,  20  parts,  by  weight. 

VII.—  Fresh  butter,  50  parts,  by 
weight;  animal  fat,  150  parts,  by  weight; 
sunflower  oil,  80  parts,  by  weight;  cocoa- 
nut  oil,  20  parts,  by  weight. 

It  is  seen  that  these  three  varieties 
contain  respectively  50,  33,  and  about  16 
per  cent  of  cow's  butter.  The  appear- 
ance of  the  mixture  is  nearly  perfect. 

Formulas  V  to  VII  are  for  a  Russian  arti- 
ficial butter  called  "  Perepusk." 

To  Impart  the  Aroma  and  Taste  of 
Natural  Butter  to  Margarine. — In  order 
to  give  margarine  the  aroma  and  flavor  of 
cow  butter,  add  to  it  a  fatty  acid  product, 
which  is  obtained  by  saponification  of 
butter,  decomposition  of  the  soap,  and 
distillation  in  the  vacuum  at  about  140° 
F.  The  addition  of  the  product  is  made 
upon  emulsification  of  the  fats  with  milk. 
The  margarine  will  keep  for  months. 

Harmless  Butter  Color. — Alum,  pul- 
verized finely,  30  parts;  extract  of  tur- 
meric, 1  part.  With  the  extract  damp- 
en the  powder  as  evenly  as  possible,  then 
spread  out  and  dry  over  some  hot  sur- 
face. When  dry,  again  pulverize  thor- 
oughly. Protect  the  product  from  the 
light.  As  much  of  the  powder  as  will 
lie  on  the  point  of  a  penknife  is  added 
to  a  churnful  of  milk,  or  cream,  before 
churning,  and  it  gives  a  beautiful  golden 
color,  entirely  harmless.  To  make  the 
extract  of  turmeric  add  1  part  of  pow- 
dered turmeric  to  5  parts  of  alcohol,  and 
let  macerate  together  for  fully  a  week. 

To  Sweeten  Rancid  Butter.— I.— Wash 
the  butter  first  with  fresh  milk  and  after- 
wards with  spring  water,  carefully  work- 
ing out  the  residual  water. 

II. — Add  25  to  30  drops  of  lime  chlor- 
ide to  every  2  pounds  of  butter,  work  the 
mass  up  thoroughly,  then  wash  in  plenty 
of  fresh,  cold  water,  and  work  out  the 
residual  water. 

III. — Melt  the  butter  in  a  water  bath, 
along  with  some  freshly  burned  animal 
charcoal,  coarsely  powdered  and  care- 
fully sifted  to  free  it  from  dust.  After 
this  has  remained  in  contact  for  a  few 
minutes,  the  butter  is  strained  through 
a  clean  flannel.  If  the  rancid  odor  is 

not   completely  removed,    complete   the 

An  English  Margarine. — A  mixture  of 
edible  fats  of  suitable  consistency,  e.  g., 
oleo  oil,  5  parts;  neutral  lard,  7  parts;  and 
butter,  1  part;  is  mixed  with  albuminous 
"batter,"  4  parts,  with  the  addition  of  1 
part  of  salt  as  a  preservative.  If  the 
albuminous  constituent  be  composed  of 
the  whites  and  yolks  of  eggs  beaten  to  a 
foam  the  product  will  have  the  consist- 
ency and  color  of  butter.  The  molten 
fats  are  added  to  the  egg  batter  and  the 
whole  is  stirred  at  a  temperature  suffi- 
cient to  produce  coagulation  of  the  albu- 
men (150-200°  F.).  The  mass  is  then 
cooled  gradually  with  continuous  stir- 
ring, and  the  salt  is  worked  in. 

Olive-Oil  Paste. — If  an  ounce  of  peeled 
garlic  be  rubbed  up  into  a  pulp,  in  a 
clean  Wedgwood  mortar,  and  to  this  be 
added  from  3  to  4  ounces  of  good  olive 
oil,  with  constant  rubbing  up  with  the 
pestle,  the  oil  becomes  converted  into  a 
pasty  mass,  like  butter.  It  is  possible 
that  the  mucilage  obtainable  from  other 
bulbs  of  the  Lilium  tribe  would  prove 
equally  efficient  in  conferring  semi- 
solidity  on  the  oil,  without  imparting  any 
strong  smell.  The  above  composition  is 
largely  used  by  the  Spanish  peasantry, 
instead  of  butter,  which  runs  liquid  in 
the  Spanish  summer.  It  is  known  as 
"aleoli."  The  more  easily  solidified 
portion  of  olive  oil  is  stearine,  and  this 
may  be  cheaply  prepared  from  mutton 
fat.  If  added,  in  certain  proportions,  to 
olive  oil,  it  would  certainly  raise  its  melt- 
ing point. 


Buttermilk  powder,  10  parts;  vinegar, 
1  part;  syrup  of  buckthorn,  1  part.  Dis- 
solve the  powder  in  the  water  and  add 
the  vinegar  and  syrup.  The  powder  is 
prepared  as  follows:  Sodium  chloride, 
50  parts;  milk  sugar,  100  parts;  potas- 
sium nitrate,  5  parts;  alum,  5  parts. 


See  Foods. 


See  Foods. 


See  Agate. 


See  Alloys. 



Preservation  and  Use  of  Calcium 
Carbide. — Calcium  carbide  is  readily  at- 
tacked by  the  air  and  the  moisture  con- 
tained in  the  generators  and  consequent- 
ly decomposes  during  the  storing,  with 
formation  of  acetylene  gas.  Aside  from 
the  loss,  this  decomposition  is  also  at- 
tended with  dangers.  One  of  the  oldest 
methods  of  preservation  is  the  saturation 
of  the  carbide  with  petroleum.  In  using 
such  carbide  a  layer  of  petroleum  forms 
on  the  surface  of  the  water  in  the  gener- 
ator, which  prevents  the  water  from 
evaporating,  thus  limiting  the  subse- 
quent generation  of  acetylene  from  the 
remaining  carbide.  Instead  of  petro- 
leum many  other  substances  have  been 
proposed  which  answer  the  purpose 
equally  well,  e.  g.,  toluol,  oils,  solid  bodies, 
which  previously  have  to  be  liquefied, 
such  as  stearine,  paraffine,  rosin,  etc. 

Of  a  different  nature  is  a  medium  of- 
fered by  Letang  of  Paris.  He  em- 
ploys sugar  or  saccharine  bodies  to  which 
he  adds,  if  necessary,  a  little  petroleum, 
turpentine,  vaseline,  or  varnish  of  any 
kind,  as  well  as  chalk,  limestone,  talc, 
sulphur,  or  sand.  The  carbide  is  coated 
with  this  mixture.  The  saccharine  sub- 
stances dissolve  in  the  generating  water, 
and  also  have  a  dissolving  action  on  the 
slaked  lime,  which  is  formed  by  the  de- 
composition of  the  carbide  which  admits 
of  its  easy  removal. 

According  to  another  process  carbide 
is  put  on  the  market  in  such  a  shape 
that,  without  weighing,  merely  by  count- 
ing or  measuring  one  is  in  a  position  to 
use  equivalent  quantities  for  every  charge. 
Gearing  casts  molten  carbide  in  the 
shape  of  bars,  and  pours  a  layer  of  gela- 
tin, glue,  and  water  soluble  varnish 
over  the  carbide  bars.  Others  make 
shells  containing  a  certain  quantity  of 
reduced  carbide.  For  this  ordinary  and 
varnished  pasteboard,  wax  paper,  tin- 
foil, thin  sneet  zinc,  and  similar  sub- 
stances may  be  used  which  ward  off 
atmospheric  moisture,  thus  protecting 
the  carbide  from  premature  decompo- 
sition. Before  use,  the  cartridge-like 
shell  is  pierced  or  cut  open,  so  that  the 
water  can  get  at  the  contents.  The 
more  or  less  reduced  carbide  is  filled  in 
the  shell,  either  without  any  admixture 
or  united  into  a  compact  mass  by  a  bind- 
ing agent,  such  as  colophony,  pitch,  tar, 
sand,  etc. 

Deodorization  of  Calcium  Carbide. — 
Calcium  carbide  is  known  to  possess  a 

very  unpleasant  odor  because  It 
stantly  develops  small  quantities  of  im- 
pure acetylene  in  contact  with  the  mois- 
ture of  tne  air.  Le  Roy,  of  Rouen, 
proposes  for  portable — especially  bicy- 
cle— lamps,  in  which  the  evil  is  more 
noticeable  than  in  large  plants,  simply  to 
pour  some  petroleum  over  the  carbide 
and  to  pour  off  the  remainder  not  ab- 
sorbed. The  petroleum,  to  which  it  is 
well  to  add  some  nitro-benzol  (mir- 
bane  essence),  prevents  the  access  of  air 
to  the  carbide,  but  permits  a  very  satis- 
factory generation  of  gas  on  admission  of 

See  Paints. 


See  Leather. 


See  Photography. 


Fragrant  Naphthalene  Camphor. — 
Naphthalene  white, 

in  scales 3,000  parts 

Camphor 1,000  parts 

Melt  on  the  steam  bath  and  add  to  the 
hot  mass: 

Coumarin 2  parts 

Mirbane  oil 10  parts 

Cast  in  plates  or  compressed  tablets. 
The  preparation  is  employed  as  a  moth 

Powdered  Camphor  in.  Permanent 
Form. — I. — Powder  the  camphor  in  the 
usual  manner,  with  the  addition  of  a 
little  alcohol.  When  it  is  nearly  reduced 
to  the  proper  degree  of  fineness  add  a 
few  drops  of  fluid  petrolatum  and  imme- 
diately triturate  again.  In  this  manner 
a  powder  as  fine  as  flour  is  obtained, 
which  does  not  cake  together.  This 
powdered  camphor  may  be  used  for  all 
purposes  except  for  solution  in  alcohol, 
as  it  will  impart  to  the  latter  a  faint  opal- 
escence,  owing  to  the  insolubility  of  the 

II. — Take  equal  parts  of  strong  ether 
and  alcohol  to  reduce  the  camphor  to 
powder.  It  is  claimed  for  this  method 
that  it  only  takes  one-half  of  the  time 
required  when  alcohol  alone  is  used,  and 
that  the  camphor  dries  more  quickly. 
Before  sifting  add  1  per  cent  of  white 
vaseline  and  5  per  cent  of  sugar  of  milk. 
Triturate  fairly  dry,  spread  out  in  the  air, 
say  15  minutes,  ^  then  pass  through  a 
moderately  fine  wire  sieve,  using  a  stubby 
shaving  brush  to  assist  in  working  it 



Camphor  Pomade  — 

Oil  of  bitter  almonds.      1     drachm 

Oil  of  cloves 20     drops 

Camphor li  ounces 

White  wax 4     ounces 

Lard,  orepared 1     pound 

Melt  the  wax  and  lard  together,  then 
add  the  camphor  in  saturated  solution 
in  spirit;  put  in  the  oils  when  nearly 

Camphor  Ice. — 

L— White  wax 16  parts 

Benzoated  suet 48  parts 

Camphor,  powdered.      8  parts 
Essential  oil,  to  perfume. 
Melt    the     wax    and    suet    together. 
When  nearly  cold,  add  the  camphor  and 
perfume,  mix  well,  and  pour  into  molds. 

II. — Oil  of  a Imond 16  parts 

White  wax 4  parts 

Spermaceti 4  parts 

Paraffine 8  parts 

Camphor,  powdered.      1  part 
Perfume,  quantity  sufficient. 
Dissolve  the  camphor  in  the  oil  by  the 
aid  of  a  gentle  heat.      Melt  the  solids  to- 
gether, remove,  and  let  cool,  but  before 
the  mixture  begins  to  set  add  the  cam- 
phorated oil  and  the  perfume,  mix,  and 
pour  into  molds. 
III. — Stearine  (stearic  acid)     8  pounds 

Lard 10  pounds 

White  wax 5  pounds 

Spermaceti 5  pounds 

Melt  on  a  water  bath  in  an  earthen  or 
porcelain  dish;  strain  into  a  similar  ves- 
sel; add  a  solution  of  2  ounces  powdered 
borax  in  1  pound  of  glycerine,  previously 
warmed,  to  the  melted  substance  when  at 
the  point  of  cooling;  stir  well;  add  cam- 
phor, 2  pounds,  powdered  by  means  of 
alcohol,  3  ounces;  stir  well  and  pour  into 


See  Celluloid. 


See  Cholera  Remedies. 


See  Varnishes. 


The  following  is  a  formula  much  used 
by  German  canary-bird  raisers: 
Sweet  almonds, 

blanched 16  parts 

Pea  meal ,  ..   32  parts 

Butter,      fresh      (un- 

salted)  ...     3  parts 

Honey,  quantity  sufficient  to  make 

a  stiff  paste. 

The  ingredients  are  worked  into  a 
stiff  paste,  which  is  pressed  through  a 
colander  or  large  sieve  to  granulate  the 
mass.  Some  add  to  every  5  pounds, 
10  or  15  grains  of  saffron  and  the  yolks 
of  2  eggs. 

See  Veterinary  Formulas. 


Coloring  Ceresine  Candles  for  the 
Christmas  Tree. — For  coloring  these 
candles  only  dye  stuffs  soluble  in  oil 
can  be  employed.  Blue:  23-24  lav- 
ender blue,  pale  or  dark,  100-120  parts 
per  5,000  parts  of  ceresine.  Violet:  26 
fast  viole.t  R,  150  parts  per  5,000  parts  of 
ceresine.  Silver  gray:  29  silver  gray, 
150  parts  per  5,000  parts  of  ceresine. 
Yellow  and  orange:  30  wax  yellow,  me- 
dium, 200  parts  per  5,000  parts  of  cere- 
sine;  61  old  gold,  200  parts  per  5,000 
parts  of  ceresine.  Pink  and  red: 
27  peach-pink,  or  29  chamois,  about  100 
parts  per  5,000  parts  of  ceresine.  Green: 
16-17  brilliant  green,  33  May  green,  41 
May  green,  200-250  parts  per  5,000 
parts  of  ceresine.  The  above-named 
colors  should  be  ground  in  oil  and  the 
ceresine  tinted  with  them  afterwards. 

Manufacture  of  Composite  Paraffine 
Candles. — Three  parts  of  hydroxy- 
stearic  acid  are  dissolved  in  1  part  of  a 
suitable  solvent  (e.  g.,  stearic  acid),  and 
the  solution  is  mixed  with  paraffine  wax 
to  form  a  stock  for  the  manufacture  of 
composite  candles. 

Transparent  Candles. — The  following 
are  two  recipes  given  in  a  German 
patent  specification.  The  figures  de- 
note parts  by  weight: 

I. — Paraffine  wax,  70;  stearine,  15; 
petroleum,  15. 

II. — Paraffine  wax,  90;  stearine,  5; 
petroleum,  5.  Recipe  I  of  course  gives 
candles  more  transparent  than  does 
recipe  II.  The  15  per  cent  may  be  re- 
garded as  the  extreme  limit  consistent 
with  proper  solidity  of  the  candles. 

To  Prevent  the  Trickling  of  Burning 
Candles. — Dip  the  candles  in  the  fol- 
lowing mixture: 

Magnesium  sulphate     15  parts 

Dextrin 15  parts 

Water 100  parts 

The  solution  dries  quickly  and  does 
not  affect  the  burning  of  the  candle, 



Candle  Coloring. — Candles  are  colored 
either  throughout  or  they  sometimes 
consist  of  a  white  body  that  is  covered 
with  a  colored  layer  of  paraffine  wax. 
According  to  the  material  from  which 
candles  are  made  (stearine,  paraffine, 
or  ozokerite),  the  process  of  coloring 

Stearine,  owing  to  its  acid  character, 
dissolves  the  coal-tar  colors  much  more 
readily  than  do  the  perfectly  neutral  par- 
affine and  ozokerite  waxes.  For  coloring 
stearine  the  necessary  quantity  of  the 
color  is  added  to  the  melted  mass  and 
well  stirred  in;  if  the  solution  effected 
happens  to  be  incomplete,  a  small  addi- 
tion of  alcohol  will  prove  an  effective 
remedy.  It  is  also  an  advantage  to  dis- 
solve the  colors  previously  in  alcohol  and 
add  the  concentrated  solution  to  the 
melted  stearine.  The  alcohol  soon  evap- 
orates, and  has  no  injurious  effect  on 
the  quality  of  the  stearine. 

For  a  number  of  years  there  have  been 
on  the  market  so-called  "  fat  colors," 
formed  by  making  concentrated  solu- 
tions of  the  color,  and  also  special  prep- 
arations of  the  colors  in  stearine.  They 
are  more  easily  applied,  and  are,  there- 
fore, preferred  to  the  powdered  aniline 
colors,  which  are  apt  to  cause  trouble  by 
being  accidentally  distributed  in  soluble 
particles,  where  they  are  not  wanted. 
Since  paraffine  and  ozokerite  dissolve 
comparatively  little,  they  will  not  be- 
come colored,  and  so  must  be  colored 
indirectly.  One  way  is  to  dissolve  the 
color  in  oleic  acid  or  in  stearine  acid  and 
add  the  »olution  to  the  wax  to  be  col- 
ored. Turpentine  may  be  employed  for 
the  same  purpose.  Concerning  the  colors 
suitable  for  candles,  there  are  the  cosine 
colors  previously  mentioned,  and  also 
chroline  yellow,  auramine,  taniline  blue, 
tartrazine,  brilliant  green,  etc.  The 
latter,  however,  bleaches  so  rapidly  that 
it  can  hardly  be  recommended.  An 
interesting  phenomenon  is  the  change 
some  colors  undergo  in  a  warm  tem- 
perature; for  instance,  some  blues  turn 
red  at  a  moderate  degree  of  heat  (120° 
F.)  and  return  to  blue  only  when  com- 
pletely cooled  off;  this  will  be  noticed 
while  the  candle  mixture  is  being  melted 
previous  to  molding  into  candles. 


See  Fumigants. 

See  Confectionery. 


See  Confectionery. 


See  Waterproofing. 

See  Rubber. 


See  Paint. 

See  Bottle-Capping  Mixtures. 


See  Varnishes. 


Cloudless  Caramel  Coloring. — I. — 
When  it  is  perfectly  understood  that  in 
the  manufacture  of  caramel,  sugar  is  to 
be  deprived  of  the  one  molecule  of  its 
water  of  constitution,  it  will  be  apparent 
that  heat  must  not  be  carried  on  to  the 
point  of  carbonization.  Cloudy  cara- 
mel is  due  to  the  fact  that  part  of  the 
sugar  has  been  dissociated  and  reduced 
to  carbon,  which  is  insoluble  in  water. 
Hence  the  cloudiness.  Caramel  may  be 
made  on  a  small  scale  in  the  following 
manner:  Place  4  or  5.  ounces  of  granu- 
lated sugar  in  a  shallow  porcelain-lined 
evaporating  dish  and  apply  either  a 
direct  heat  or  that  of  an  oil  bath,  con- 
tinuing the  heat  until  caramelization 
takes  place  or  until  tumescence  ceases 
and  the  mass  has  assumed  a  dark-brown 
color.  Then  carefully  add  sufficient 
water  to  bring  the  viscid  mass  to  the 
consistence  of  a  heavy  syrup.  Extreme 
care  must  be  taken  and  the  face  and 
hands  protected  during  the  addition  of 
the  water,  owing  to  the  intensity  of  the 
heat  of  the  mass,  and  consequent  sput- 

II. — The  ordinary  sugar  coloring 
material  is  made  from  sugar  or  glucose 
by  heating  it,  while  being  constantly 
stirred,  up  to  a  temperature  of  about 
405°  F.  A  metal  pan  capable  of  holding 
nearly  ten  times  as  much  as  the  sugar 
used,  is  necessary  so  as  to  retain  the 
mass  in  its  swollen  condition.  As  soon 
as  it  froths  up  so  as  nearly  to  fill  the  pan, 
an  action  which  occurs  suddenly,  the  fire 
must  instantly  be  extinguished  or  re- 
moved. The  finished  product  will  be 
insoluble  if  more  than  about  15  per  cent 
of  its  weight  is  driven  off  by  the  heat. 


See  Food. 


See  Confectionery. 




Perfumed  Carbolic  Acid. — 
I. — Carbolic  acid  (cryst.).     1  ounce 

Alcohol 1  ounce 

Oil  bergamot 10  minims 

Oil  eucalyptus 10  minims 

Oil  citronella 3  minims 

Tincture  cudbear. ...    10  minims 

Water,  to  make 10  ounces 

Set  aside  for  several  days,  and  then 
filter  through  fuller's  earth. 
II. — Carbolic  acid  (cryst.)     4  drachms 

Cologne  water 4  drachms 

Dilute  acetic  acid. ...      9  ounces 
Keep  in  a  cool  place  for  a  few  days, 
and  filter. 

Treatment  of  Carbolic-Acid  Burns. — 
Thoroughly  wash  the  hands  with  alco- 
hol, and  the  burning  and  tingling  will 
almost  immediately  cease.  Unless  em- 
ployed immediately,  however,  the  alco- 
hol has  no  effect.  When  the  time 
elapsed  since  the  burning  is  too  great 
for  alcohol  to  be  of  value,  brush  the 
burns  with  a  saturated  solution  of  picric 
acid  in  water. 

Decolorization  of  Carbolic  Acid. — To 
decolorize  the  acid  the  following  simple 
method  is  recommended.  For  purify- 
ing carbolic  acid  which  has  already  be- 
come quite  brown-red  on  account  of 
having  been  kept  in  a  tin  vessel,  the  re- 
ceptacle is  exposed  for  a  short  time  to 
a  temperature  of  25°  C.  (77°  F.),  thus 
causing  only  a  part  of  the  contents  to 
melt.  In  this  state  the  acid  is  put  into 
glass  funnels  and  left  to  stand  for  10  to 
12  days  in  a  room  which  is  likewise 
kept  at  the  above  temperature.  Clear 
white  crystals  form  from  the  drippings, 
which  remained  unchanged,  protected 
from  air  and  light,  while  by  repeating 
the  same  process  more  clear  crystals  are 
obtained  from  the  solidified  dark  col- 
ored mother  lye.  In  this  manner  75  to 
80  per  cent  of  clear  product  is  obtained 

Disguising  Odor  of  Carbolic  Acid.-— 
Any  stronger  smelling  substance  will  dis- 
guise the  odor  of  carbolic  acid,  to  an  ex- 
tent at  least,  but  it  is  a  difficult  odor  to 
disguise  on  account  of  its  persistence. 
Camphor  and  some  of  the  volatile  oils, 
such  as  peppermint,  cajeput,  caraway, 
clove,  and  wintergreen  may  be  used. 

To  Restore  Reddened  Carbolic  Acid. 
— Demont's  method  consists  in  melting 
the  acid  on  the  water  bath,  adding  12  per 
cent  of  alcohol  of  95  per  cent,  letting  cool 
down  and,  after  the  greater  part  of  the 
substance  has  crystallized  out,  decanting 

the  liquid  residue.  The  crystals  ob- 
tained in  this  manner  are  snowy  white, 
and  on  being  melted  yield  a  nearly  color- 
less liquid.  The  alcohol  may  be  recov- 
ered by  redistillation  at  a  low  tempera- 
ture. This  is  a  rather  costly  procedure. 


See  Soap. 


See  also  Paints  and  Wood. 

Preparation  of  Carbolineum.  — I.  — Melt 
together  50  parts  of  American  rosin  (F) 
and  150  parts  of  pale  paraffine  oil  (yel- 
low oil),  and  add,  with  stirring,  20  parts 
of  rosin  oil  (rectified). 

II. — Sixty  parts,  by  weight,  of  black 
coal  tar  oil  of  a  specific  gravity  higher 
than  1.10;  25  parts,  by  weight,  of  creo- 
sote oil;  25  parts,  by  weight,  of  beech- 
wood  tar  oil  of  a  higher  specific  weight 
than  0.9.  Mix  together  and  heat  to 
about  347°  F.,  or  until  the  fumes  given 
off  begin  to  deposit  soot.  The  resulting 
carbolineum  is  brown,  and  of  somewhat 
thick  consistency;  when  cool  it  is  ready 
for  use  and  is  packed  in  casks.  This 
improved  carbolineum  is  applied  to  wood 
or  masonry  with  a  brush;  the  surfaces 
treated  dry  quickly,  very  soon  loose  the 
odor  of  the  carbolineum,  and  are  effec- 
tively protected  from  dampness  and  for- 
mation of  fungi. 


See  Photography. 


See  Photography. 


See  Wood. 

See  Boil  Remedy. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 


See  Adhesives  under  Cements  and 
Waterproof  Glues. 


See  Waterproofing. 


See  Pain  Killers. 


See  Household  Formulas. 


See  Soap. 




See  Leather. 


See  Cosmetics. 


See  Steel. 


Dried  Casein,  its  Manufacture  and 
Uses. — For  the  production  of  casein, 
skimmed  milk  or  buttermilk  is  used, 
articles  of  slight  value,  as  they  cannot  be 
employed  for  feeding  hogs  or  for  making 
cheese,  except  of  a  very  inferior  sort,  of 
little  or  no  alimentive  qualities.  This 
milk  is  heated  to  from  70°  to  90°  C. 
(175°-195°  F.),  and  sulphuric  or  hydro- 
chloric acid  is  added  until  it  no  longer 
causes  precipitation.  The  precipitate 
is  washed  to  free  it  from  residual  lactose, 
redissolved  in  a  sodium  carbonate  solu- 
tion, and  again  precipitated,  this  time  by 
lactic  acid.  It  is  again  washed,  dried, 
and  pulverized.  It  takes  8  gallons  of 
skimmed  milk  to  make  1  pound  of  dry 

In  the  manufacture  of  fancy  papers, 
or  papers  that  are  made  to  imitate  the 
appearance  of  various  cloths,  laces, 
ana  silks,  casein  is  very  widely  used. 
It  is  also  largely  used  in  waterproof- 
ing tissues,  for  preparation  of  water- 
proof products,  and  various  articles 
prepared  from  agglomeration  of  cork 
(packing  boards,  etc.).  With  lime  water 
casein  makes  a  glue  that  resists  heat, 
steam,  etc.  It  also  enters  into  the  manu- 
facture of  the  various  articles  made  from 
artificial  ivory  (billiard  balls,  combs, 
toilet  boxes,  etc.),  imitation  of  celluloid, 
meerschaum,  etc.,  and  is  finding  new 
uses  every  day. 

Casein,  as  known,  may  act  the  part 
of  an  acid  and  combine  with  bases  to 
form  caseinates  or  caseates;  among  these 
compounds,  caseinates  of  potash,  of 
soda,  and  of  ammonia  are  the  only  ones 
soluble  in  water;  all  the  others  are  insol- 
uble and  may  be  readily  prepared  by 
double  decomposition.  Thus,  for  ex- 
ample, to  obtain  caseinate  of  alumina  it 
is  sufficient  to  add  to  a  solution  of  casein 
in  caustic  soda,  a  solution  of  sulphate  of 
alumina;  an  insoluble  precipitate  of  ca- 
sein, or  caseinate  of  alumina,  is  instantly 

This  precipitate  ought  to  be  freed 
from  the  sulphate  of  soda  (formed  by 
double  decomposition),  by  means  of  pro- 
longed washing.  Pure,  ordinary  cellu- 

lose may  be  incorporated  with  it  by  this 
process,  producing  a  new  compound, 
cheaper  than  pure  cellulose,  although 
possessing  the  same  properties,  and  capa- 
ble of  replacing  it  in  all  its  applications. 

According  to  the  results  desired,  in 
transparency,  color,  hardness,  etc.,  the 
most  suitable  caseinate  should  be  select- 
ed. Thus,  if  a  translucent  compound  is 
to  be  obtained,  the  caseinate  of  alumina 
yields  the  best.  If  a  white  compound  is 
desired,  the  caseinate  of  zinc,  or  of  mag- 
nesia, should  be  chosen;  and  for  colored 
products  the  caseinates  of  iron,  copper, 
and  nickel  will  give  varied  tints. 

The  process  employed  for  the  new  prod- 
ucts, with  a  base  of  celluloid  and  casein- 
ate,  is  as  follows:  On  one  hand  casein  is 
dissolved  in  a  solution  of  caustic  soda  (100 
parts  of  water  for  10  to  25  parts  of  soda), 
and  this  liquid  is  filtered  to  separate  the 
matters  not  dissolved  and  the  impurities. 
On  the  other  hand,  a  salt  of  the  base  of 
which  the  caseinate  is  desired  is  dis- 
solved, and  the  solution  filtered.  It  is 
well  not  to  operate  on  too  concentrated  a 
solution.  The  two  solutions  are  mixed 
in  a  receptacle  provided  with  a  mechan- 
ical stirrer,  in  order  to  obtain  the  in- 
soluble caseinate  precipitate  in  as  finely 
divided  a  state  as  possible.  This  precip- 
itate should  be  washed  thoroughly,  so 
as  to  free  it  from  the  soda  salt  formed  by 
double  decomposition,  but  on  account  of 
its  gummy  or  pasty  state,  this  washing 
presents  certain  difficulties,  and  should 
DC  done  carefully.  After  the  washing 
the  mass  is  freed  from  the  greater  part 
of  water  contained,  by  draining,  followed 
by  drying,  or  energetic  pressing;  then  it 
is  washed  in  alcohol,  dried  or  pressed 
again,  and  is  ready  to  be  incorporated  in 
the  plastic  mass  of  the  celluloid. 

For  the  latter  immersion  and  washing 
it  has  been  found  that  an  addition  of  1  to 
5  per  cent  of  borax  is  advantageous,  for  it 
renders  the  mass  more  plastic,  and  facil- 
itates the  operation  of  mixing.  This 
may  be  conducted  in  a  mixing  appara- 
tus; but,  in  practice,  it  is  found  prefer- 
able to  effect  it  with  a  rolling  mill,  oper- 
ating as  follows: 

The  nitro-cellulose  is  introduced  in 
the  plastic  state,  and  moistened  with  a 
solution  of  camphor  in  alcohol  (40  to  50 
parts  of  camphor  in  50  to  70  of  alcohol 
for  100  of  nitro-cellulose)  as  it  is  prac- 
ticed in  celluloid  factories. 

This  plastic  mass  of  nitro-cellulose  is 
placed  in  a  rolling  mill,  the  cylinders  of 
which  are  slightly  heated  at  the  same 
time  as  the  cdseinate,  prepared  as  above; 
then  the  whole  mass  is  worked  by  the 
cylinders  until  the  mixture  of  the  two 



is  perfectly  homogeneous,  and  the  final 
mass  is  sufficiently  hard  to  be  drawn  out 
in  leaves  in  the  same  way  as  practiced 
for  pure  celluloid. 

These  leaves  are  placed  in  hydraulic 
presses,  where  they  are  compressed, 
first  hot,  then  cold,  and  the  block  thus 
formed  is  afterwards  cut  into  leaves  of  the 
thickness  desired.  These  leaves  are 
dried  in  an  apparatus  in  the  same  way 
as  ordinary  celluloid.  The  product 
resembles  celluloid,  and  has  all  its  prop- 
erties. At  90°  to  100°  C.  (194°  to  212° 
F.),  it  becomes  quite  plastic,  and  is 
easily  molded.  It  may  be  sawed,  filed, 
turned,  and  carved  without  difficulty, 
and  takes  on  a  superb  polish.  It  burns 
less  readily  than  celluloid,  and  its  com- 
bustibility diminishes  in  proportion  as 
the  percentage  of  casemate  increases; 
finally,  the  cost  price  is  less  than  that  of 
celluloid,  and  by  using  a  large  proportion 
of  caseinate,  products  may  be  manu- 
factured at  an  extremely  low  cost. 

Phosphate  of  Casein  and  its  Pro- 
duction.— The  process  is  designed  to 
produce  a  strongly  acid  compound  of 
phosphoric  acid  and  casein,  practically 
stable  and  not  hydroscopic,  which  may 
be  employed  as  an  acid  ingredient  in 
bakers'  yeast  and  for  other  purposes. 

The  phosphoric  acid  may  be  obtained 
by  any  convenient  method;  for  example, 
by  decomposing  dicalcic  or  monocalcic 
phosphate  with  sulphuric  acid.  The 
commercial  phosphoric  acid  may  also  be 

The  casein  may  be  precipitated  from 
the  skimmed  milk  by  means  of  a  suitable 
acid,  and  should  be  washed  with  cold 
water  to  remove  impurities.  A  casein- 
ate  may  also  be  employed,  such  as  a 
compound  of  casein  and  an  alkali  or 
an  alkaline  earth. 

The  new  compound  is  produced  in  the 
following  way:  A  sufficient  quantity  of 
phosphoric  acid  is  incorporated  with  the 
casein  or  a  caseinate  in  such  a  way  as  to 
insure  sufficient  acidity  in  the  resulting 
compound.  The  employment  of  23  to 
25  parts  by  weight  of  phosphoric  acid 
with  75  to  77  parts  of  casein  constitutes 
a  good  proportion. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  phosphoric 
acid  is  made,  and  the  casein  introduced 
in  the  proportion  of  25  to  50  per  cent  of 
the  weight  of  the  phosphoric  acid  pres- 
ent. The  mixture  is  then  heated  till  the 
curdled  form  of  the  casein  disappears, 
and  it  assumes  a  uniform  fluid  form. 
Then  the  mixture  is  concentrated  to  a 
syrupy  consistency.  The  remainder  of 
the  casein  or  of  the  caseinate  is  added 

and  mixed  /with  the  solution  until  it  is 
intimately  incorporated  and  the  mass 
becomes  uniform.  The  compound  is 
dried  in  a  current  of  hot  air,  or  in  any 
other  way  that  will  not  discolor  it,  and  it 
is  ground  to  a  fine  powder.  The  inti- 
mate union  of  the  phosphoric  acid  and 
casein  during  the  gradual  concentra- 
tion of  the  mixture  and  during  the  grind- 
ing and  drying,  removes  the  hydroscopic 
property  of  the  phosphoric  acid,  and 
produces  a  dry  and  stable  product, 
which  may  be  regarded  as  a  hyperphos- 
phate  of  casein.  When  it  is  mixed  with 
water,  it  swells  and  dissolves  slowly. 
When  this  compound  is  mingled  with  its 
equivalent  of  sodium  bicarbonate  it 
yields  about  17  per  cent  of  gas. 

See  Adhesives. 

See  Varnishes. 


To  Render  Shrunken  Wooden  Casks 
Watertight. — When  a  wooden  receptacle 
has  dried  up  it  naturally  cannot  hold  the 
water  poured  into  it  for  the  purpose  of 
swelling  it,  and  the  pouring  has  to  be 
repeated  many  times  before  the  desired 
end  is  reached.  A  much  quicker  way  is 
to  stuff  the  receptacle  full  of  straw  or  bad 
hay,  laying  a  stone  on  top  and  then  filling 
the  vessel  with  water.  Although  the 
water  runs  off  again,  the  moistened 
straw  remains  behind  and  greatly  assists 
the  swelling  up  of  the  wood. 


See  Gold. 


See  Castings. 


See  Plaster. 


See  Adhesives  and  Lutes. 


See  Modeling. 


Castings  Out  of  Various  Metals. — Un- 
til recent  years  metal  castings  were  all 
made  in  sand  molds;  that  is,  the  patterns 
were  used  for  the  impressions  in  the 
sand,  the  same  as  iron  castings  are  pro- 
duced to-day.  Nearly  all  of  the  softer 
metals  are  now  cast  in  brass,  copper, 
zinc,  or  iron  molds,  and  only  the  silver 



and  German  silver  articles,  like  wire 
real  bronze,  are  cast  the  old  way,  in  sand. 
Aluminum  can  be  readily  cast  in  iron 
molds,  especially  if  the  molds  have  been 
previously  heated  to  nearly  the  same 
temperature  as  the  molten  aluminum, 
and  after  the  molds  are  full  the  metal  is 
cooled  gradually  and  the  casting  taken 
out  as  soon  as  cooled  enough  to  prevent 
breaking  from  the  shrinkage.  Large 
bicycle  frames  have  been  successfully 
cast  in  this  manner. 

The  French  bronzes,  which  are  imi- 
tations, are  cast  in  copper  or  brass  molds. 
The  material  used  is  principally  zinc  and 
tin,  and  an  unlimited  number  of  castings 
can  be  made  in  the  mold,  but  if  a  real 
bronze  piece  is  to  be  produced  it  must  be 
out  of  copper  and  the  mold  made  in 
sand.  To  make  the  castings  hollow, 
with  sand,  a  core  is  required.  This  fills 
the  inside  of  the  figure  so  that  the  molten 
copper  runs  around  it,  and  as  the  core  is 
made  out  of  sand,  the  same  can  be  after- 
wards washed  out.  If  the  casting  is  to  be 
hollow  and  is  to  be  cast  in  a  metal  mold, 
then  the  process  is  very  simple.  The 
mold  is  filled  with  molten  metal,  and 
when  the  operator  thinks  the  desired 
thickness  has  cooled  next  to  the  walls,  he 
pours  out  the  balance.  An  experienced 
man  can  make  hollow  castings  in  this 
way,  and  make  the  walls  of  any  thick- 

Casket  hardware  trimmings,  which 
are  so  extensively  used  on  coffins,  es- 
pecially the  handles,  are  nearly  all  cast 
out  of  tin  and  antimony,  and  in  brass 
molds.  The  metal  used  is  brittle,  and 
requires  strengthening  at  the  weak  por- 
tions, and  this  is  mostly  done  with  wood 
filling  or  with  iron  rods,  which  are 
secured  in  the  molds  before  the  metal  is 
poured  in. 

Aluminum  castings,  which  one  has 
procured  at  the  foundries,  are  usually 
alloyed  with  zinc.  This  has  a  close  affin- 
ity with  aluminum,  and  alloys  readily; 
but  this  mixture  is  a  detriment  and 
causes  much  trouble  afterwards.  While 
this  alloy  assists  the  molder  to  produce 
his  castings  easily,  on  the  other  hand  it 
will  not  polish  well  and  will  corrode  in 
a  short  time.  Those  difficulties  may  be 
avoided  if  pure  aluminum  is  used. 

Plaster  of  Paris  molds  are  the  easiest 
made  for  pieces  where  only  a  few  cast- 
ings are  wanted.  The  only  difficulty  is 
that  it  requires  a  few  days  to  dry  the 
plaster  thoroughly,  and  that  is  abso- 
lutely necessary  to  use  them  successfully. 
Not  only  can  the  softer  metals  be  run 
into  plaster  molds,  but  gold  and  silver 
can  be  run  into  them.  A  plaster  mold 

should  be  well  smoked  over  a  gaslight, 
or  until  well  covered  with  a  layer  of  soot, 
and  the  metal  should  be  poured  in  as 
cool  a  state  as  it  will  run. 

To  Prevent  the  Adhesion  of  Modeling 
Sand  to  Castings. — Use  a  mixture  of 
finely  ground  coke  and  graphite.  Al- 
though the  former  material  is  highly  por- 
ous, possessing  this  quality  even  as  a 
fine  powder,  and  the  fine  pulverization 
is  a  difficult  operation,  still  the  invention 
attains  its  purpose  of  producing  an  ab- 
solutely smooth  surface.  This  is  ac- 
complished by  mixing  both  substances 
intimately  and  adding  melted  rosin, 
whereupon  the  whole  mass  is  exposed  to 
heat,  so  that  the  rosin  decomposes,  its 
carbon  residue  filling  up  the  finest  pores 
of  the  coke.  The  rosin,  in  melting, 
carries  the  fine  graphite  particles  along 
into  the  pores.  After  cooling  the  mass 
is  first  ground  in  edge  mills,  then  again  in 
a  suitable  manner  and  sifted.  Sur- 
prising results  are  obtained  with  this 
material.  It  is  advisable  to  take  pro- 
portionately little  graphite,  as  the  dif- 
ferent co-efficients  of  expansion  of  the 
two  substances  may  easily  exercise  a  dis- 
turbing action.  One-fifth  of  graphite, 
in  respect  to  the  whole  mass,  gives  the 
best  results,  but  it  is  advisable  to  add 
plenty  of  rosin.  The  liquid  mixture 
must,  before  burning,  possess  the  con- 
sistency of  mortar. 

Sand  Holes  in  Cast-Brass  Work.— 
Cast-brass  work,  when  it  presents  nu- 
merous and  deep  sand  holes,  should  be 
well  dipped  into  the  dipping  acid  before 
being  polished,  in  order  thoroughly  to 
clean  these  objectionable  cavities;  and 
the  polishing  should  be  pushed  to  an  ex- 
tent sufficient  to  obliterate  the  smaller 
sand  holes,  if  possible,  as  this  class  of 
work  looks  very  unsightly,  when  plated 
and  finished,  if  pitted  all  over  with  mi- 
nute hollows.  The  larger  holes  cannot, 
without  considerable  labor,  be  obliter- 
ated; indeed,  it  not  infrequently  happens 
that  in  endeavoring  to  work  out  such 
cavities  they  become  enlarged,  as  they 
often  extend  deep  into  the  body  of  the 
metal.  An  experienced  hand  knows 
how  far  he  dare  go  in  polishing  work  of 
this  awkward  character. 

Black  Wash  for  Casting  Molds.— 
Gumlac,  1  part;  wood  spirit,  2  parts; 
lampblack,  in  sufficient  quantity  to  color. 

How  to  Make  a  Plaster  Cast  of  a  Coin 
or  Medal. — The  most  exact  observ- 
ance of  any  written  or  printed  directions 
is  no  guarantee  of  success.  Practice 
alone  can  give  expertness  in  this  work 



The  composition  of  the  mold  is  of  the 
most  varied,  but  the  materials  most  gen- 
erally used  are  plaster  of  Paris  and  brick 
dust,  in  the  proportion  of  2  parts  of  the 
first  to  1  of  the  second,  stirred  in  water, 
with  the  addition  of  a  little  sal  ammo- 
niac. The  best  quality  of  plaster  for 
this  purpose  is  the  so-called  alabaster, 
and  the  brick  dust  should  be  as  finely 
powdered  as  possible.  The  addition  of 
clay,  dried  and  very  finely  powdered,  is 
recommended.  With  very  delicate  ob- 
jects the  proportion  of  plaster  may  be 
slightly  increased.  The  dry  material 
should  be  thoroughly  mixed  before  the 
addition  of  water. 

As  the  geometrically  exact  contour  of 
the  coin  or  medal  is  often  the  cause 
of  breaking  of  the  edges,  the  operator 
sometimes  uses  wax  to  make  the  edges 
appear  half  round  and  it  also  allows  the 
casting  to  be  more  easily  removed  from 
the  second  half  of  the  mold.  Each  half 
of  the  mold  should  be  about  the  thickness 
of  the  finger.  The  keys,  so  called,  of 
every  plaster  casting  must  not  be  for- 
gotten. In  the  first  casting  some  little 
half-spherical  cavities  should  be  scooped 
out,  which  will  appear  in  the  second  half- 
round  knobs,  and  which,  by  engaging 
with  the  depressions,  will  ensure  exact- 
ness in  the  finished  mold. 

After  the  plaster  has  set,  cut  a  canal 
for  the  flow  of  the  molten  casting  mate- 
rial, then  dry  the  mold  thoroughly  in 
an  oven  strongly  heated.  The  halves 
are  now  ready  to  be  bound  together  with 
a  light  wire.  When  bound  heat  the 
mold  gradually  and  slowly  and  let  the 
mouth  of  the  canal  remain  underneath 
while  the  heating  is  in  progress,  in  order 
to  prevent  the  possible  entry  of  dirt  or 
foreign  matter.  The  heating  should  be 
continued  as  long  as  there  is  a  suspicion 
of  remaining  moisture.  When  finally 
assured  of  this  fact,  take  out  the  mold, 
open  it,  and  blow  it  out,  to  make  sure  of 
absolute  cleanness.  Close  and  bind 
again  and  place  on  a  hearth  of  fine,  hot 
sa,nd.  The  mold  should  still  be  glowing 
when  the  casting  is  made.  The  ladle 
should  contain  plenty  of  metal,  so  as  to 
hold  the  heat  while  the  casting  is  being 
made.  The  presence  of  a  little  zinc  in 
the  metal  ensures  a  sharp  casting. 
Finally,  to  ensure  success,  it  is  always 
better  to  provide  two  molds  in  case  of 
accident.  Even  the  most*  practiced 
metal  molders  take  this  precaution,  es- 
pecially when  casting  delicate  objects. 

How  to  Make  Castings  of  Insects. — 
The  object — a  dead  beetle,  for  example 
— is  first  arranged  in  a  natural  position, 

and  the  feet  are  connected  with  an  oval 
rim  of  wax.  It  is  then  fixed  in  the  cen- 
ter of  a  paper  or  wooden  box  by  means  of 
Eieces  of  fine  wire,  so  that  it  is  perfectly 
-ee,  and  thicker  wires  are  run  from  the 
sides  of  the  box  to  the  object,  which  sub- 
sequently serve  to  form  air  channels  in 
the  mold  by  their  removal.  A  wooden 
stick,  tapering  toward  the  bottom,  is 
placed  upon  the  back  of  the  insect  to 
produce  a  runner  for  casting.  The  box 
is  then  filled  up  with  a  paste  with  3 
parts  of  plaster  of  Paris  and  1  of  brick 
dust,  made  up  with  a  solution  of  alum 
and  sal  ammoniac.  It  is  also  well  first  to 
brush  the  object  with  this  paste  to  pre- 
vent the  formation  of  air  bubbles.  Af- 
ter the  mold  thus  formed  has  set,  the 
object  is  removed  from  the  interior  by 
first  reducing  it  to  ashes.  It  is,  there- 
fore, allowed  to  dry,  very  slowly  at  first, 
by  leaving  in  the  shade  at  a  normal  tem- 
perature (as  in  India  this  is  much  higher 
than  in  our  zone,  it  will  be  necessary  to 
place  the  mold  in  a  moderately  warm 
place),  and  afterwards  heating  gradually 
to  a  red  heat.  This  incinerates  the  ob- 
ject, and  melts  the  waxen  base  upon 
which  it  is  placed.  The  latter  escapes, 
and  is  burned  as  it  does  so,  and  the  ob- 
ject, reduced  to  fine  ashes,  is  removed 
through  the  wire  holes  as  suggested 
above.  The  casting  is  then  made  in  the 
ordinary  manner. 

Casting  of  Soft  Metal  Castings.— I.— It 
is  often  difficult  to  form  flat  back  or  half 
castings  out  of  the  softer  metals  so  that 
they  will  run  full,  owing  mostly  to  the 
thin  edges  and  frail  connections.  In- 
stead of  using  solid  metal  backs  for  the 
molds  it  is  better  to  use  cardboard,  or 
heavy,  smooth  paper,  fastened  to  a 
wooden  board  fitted  to  the  back  of  the 
other  half  of  the  mold.  By  this  means 
very  thin  castings  may  be  produced  that 
would  be  more  difficult  with  a  solid 
metal  back. 

II. — To  obtain  a  full  casting  in  brass 
molds  for  soft  metal  two  important 
points  should  be  observed.  One  is  to 
have  the  deep  recesses  vented  so  the  air 
will  escape,  and  the  other  is  to  have  the 
mold  properly  blued.  The  bluing  is 
best  done  by  dipping  the  mold  in  sul- 
phuric acid,  then  placing  it  on  a  gas 
stove  until  the  mold  is  a  dark  color. 
Unless  this  bluing  is  done  it  will  be  im- 
possible to  obtain  a  sharp  casting. 

Drosses.— All  the  softer  grades  of 
metal  throw  off  considerable  dross, 
which  is  usually  skimmed  off;  especially 
with  tin  and  its  composition.  Should  much 
of  this  gather  on  the  top  of  the  molten 



metal,  the  drosses  should  all  be  saved, 
and  melted  down  when  there  is  enough 
for  a  kettle  full.  Dross  may  be  remelted 
five  or  six  times  before  all  the  good 
metal  is  out. 

Fuel. — Where  a  good  soft  coal  can  be 
had  at  a  low  price,  as  in  the  middle  West, 
this  is  perhaps  the  cheapest  and  easiest 
fuel  to  use;  and,  besides,  it  has  some  ad- 
vantages over  gas,  which  is  so  much  used 
in  the  East.  A  soft-coal  fire  can  be  regu- 
lated to  keep  the  metal  at  an  even  tem- 
perature, and  it  is  especially  handy  to 
keep  the  metal  in  a  molten  state  during 
the  noon  hour.  This  refers  particularly 
to  the  gas  furnaces  that  are  operated 
from  the  power  plant  in  the  shop;  when 
this  power  shuts  down  during  the  noon 
hour  the  metal  becomes  chilled,  and 
much  time  is  lost  by  the  remelting  after 
one  o'clock,  or  at  the  beginning  in  the 

Molds. — I. —  Brass  molds  for  the  cast- 
ing of  soft  metal  ornaments  out  of  bri- 
tannia,  pewter,  spelter,  etc.,  should  be 
made  out  of  brass  that  contains  enough 
zinc  to  produce  a  light-colored  brass. 
While  this  hard  brass  is  more  difficult 
for  the  mold  maker  to  cut,  the  superior- 
ity over  the  dark  red  copper-colored  brass 
is  that  it  will  stand  more  heat  and 
rougher  usage  and  thereby  offset  the 
extra  labor  of  cutting  the  hard  brass. 
The  mold  should  be  heavy  enough  to  re- 
tain sufficient  heat  while  the  worker 
is  removing  a  finished  casting  from  the 
mold  so  that  the  next  pouring  will  come 
full.  If  the  mold  is  too  light  it  cools 
more  quickly,  and  consequently  the  cast- 
ings are  chilled  and  will  not  run  full. 
Where  the  molds  are  heavy  enough  they 
will  admit  the  use  of  a  swab  and  water 
after  each  pouring.  This  chills  the 
casting  so  that  it  can  be  removed  easily 
with  the  plyers. 

II. — Molds  for  the  use  of  soft  metal 
castings  may  be  made  out  of  soft  metal. 
This  is  done  with  articles  that  are  not 
numerous,  or  not  often  used;  and  may 
be  looked  upon  as  temporary.  The 
molds  are  made  in  part  the  same  as  when 
of  brass,  and  out  of  tin  that  contains  as 
much  hardening  as  possible.  The  hard- 
ening consists  of  antimony  and  copper. 
This  metal  mold  must  be  painted  over 
several  times  with  Spanish  red,  which 
tends  to  prevent  the  metal  from  melt- 
ing. The  metal  must  not  be  used  too 
hot,  otherwise  it  will  melt  the  mold.  By 
a  little  careful  manipulation  many  pieces 
can  be  cast  with  these  molds. 

III. — New  iron  or  brass  molds  must 
be  blued  before  they  can  be  used  for 

|  casting  purposes.  This  is  done  by 
placing  the  mold  face  downward  on  a 
charcoal  fire,  or  by  swabbing  with  sul- 
phuric acid,  then  placing  over  a  gas 
name  or  charcoal  fire  until  the  mold  is 
perfectly  oxidized. 

IV. — A  good  substantial  mold  for 
small  castings  of  soft  metal  is  made  of 
brass.  ^  The  expense  of  making  the  cast 
mold  is  considerable,  however,  and,  on 
that  account,  some  manufacturers  are 
making  their  molds  by  electro-deposition. 
This  produces  a  much  cheaper  mold, 
which  can  be  made  very  quickly.  The 
electro-deposited  mold,  however,  is  very 
frail  in  comparison  with  a  brass  casting, 
and  consequently  must  be  handled  very 
carefully  to  keep  its  shape.  The  elec- 
tro-deposited ones  are  made  out  of  cop- 
per, and  the  backs  filled  in  with  a  softer 
metal.  The  handles  are  secured  with 

Plaster  Molds. — Castings  of  any  mefal 
can  be  done  in  a  plaster  mold,  provided 
the  mold  has  dried,  at  a  moderate  heat, 
for  several  days.  Smoke  the  mold  well 
with  a  brand  of  rosin  to  insure  a  full 
cast.  Where  there  are  only  one  or  two 
ornaments  or  figures  to  cast,  it  may  be 
done  in  a  mold  made  out  of  dental  plaster. 
After  the  mold  is  made  and  set  enough 
so  that  it  can  be  taken  apart,  it  should  be 
placed  in  a  warm  place  and  left  to  dry 
for  a  day  or  two.  When  ready  to  use 
the  inside  should  be  well  smoked  over 
a  gaslight;  the  mold  should  be  well 
warmed  and  the  metal  must  not  be  too 
hot.  Very  good  castings  may  be  ob- 
tained this  way;  the  only  objection  being 
the  length  of  time  needed  for  a  thorough 
drying  of  the  mold. 

Temperature  of  Metal.— Metals  for 
casting  purposes  should  not  be  over- 
heated. If  any  of  the  softer  metals  show 
blue  colors  after  cooling  it  is  an  indi- 
cation that  the  metal  is  too  hot.  The 
metal  should  be  heated  enough  so  that  it 
can  be  poured,  and  the  finished  casting 
have  a  bright,  clean  appearance.  The 
mold  may  be  very  warm,  then  the  metal 
need  not  be  so  hot  for  bright,  clean  cast- 
ings. Some  of  the  metals  will  not  stand 
reheating  too  often,  as  this  will  cause  them 
to  run  sluggish.  Britannia  metal  should 
not  be  skimmed  or  stirred  too  much, 
otherwise  there  will  be  too  much  loss  in 
the  dross. 


See  Modeling. 


See  Iron. 




Purifying  Rancid  Castor  Oil.— To 
clean  rancid  castor  oil  mix  100  parts  of 
the  oil  at  95°  F.  with  a  mixture  of  1  part 
of  alcohol  (96  per  cent)  and  1  part  of 
sulphuric  acid.  Allow  to  settle  for  24 
hours  and  then  carefully  decant  from 
the  precipitate.  Now  wash  with  warm 
water,  boiling  for  A  hour;  allow  to  settle 
for  24  hours  in  well  closed  vessels,  after 
which  time  the  purified  oil  may  be  taken 

How  to  Pour  Out  Castor  Oil. — Any  one 
who  has  tried  to  pour  castor  oil  from  a 
square,  5-gallon  can,  when  it  is  full, 
knows  how  difficult  it  is  to  avoid  a  mess. 
This,  however,  may  be  avoided  by  hav- 
ing a  hole  punched  in  the  cap  which 
screws  onto  the  can,  and  a  tube,  2  inches 
long  and  f  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  sol- 
dered on.  With  a  wire  nail  a  hole  is 
punched  in  the  top  of  the  can  between  the 
screw  cap  and  the  edge  of  the  can.  This 
will  admit  air  while  pouring.  Resting 
the  can  on  a  table,  with  the  screw-cap 
tube  to  the  rear,  the  can  is  carefully  tilted 
forward  with  one  hand  and  the  shop 
bottle  held  in  the  other.  In  this  way  the 
bottle  may  be  filled  without  spilling  any 
of  the  oil  and  that,  too,  without  a  funnel. 
It  is  preferable  to  rest  the  can  on  a  table 
when  pouring  from  a  1-  or  2-gallon 
square  varnish  can,  when  filling  shop 
bottles.  With  the  opening  to  the  rear, 
the  can  is  likewise  tilted  forward  slowly 
so  as  to  allow  the  surface  of  the  liquid  to 
become  "at  rest."  Even  mobile  liquids, 
such  as  spirits  of  turpentine,  may  be 
poured  into  shop  bottles  without  a  fun- 
nel. Of  course,  the  main  thing  is  that 
the  can  be  lowered  slowly,  otherwise  the 
first  portion  may  spurt  out  over  the  bot- 
tle. With  5-gallon  round  cans  it  is 
possible  to  fill  shop  bottles  in  the  same 
manner  by  resting  the  can  on  a  box  or 
counter.  When  a  funnel  is  used  for  non- 
greasy  liquids,  the  funnel  may  be  slightly 
raised  with  the  thumb  and  little  finger 
from  the  neck  of  the  bottle,  while  hold- 
ing the  bottle  by  the  neck  between  the 
middle  and  ring  fingers,  to  allow  egress 
of  air. 

Tasteless  Castor  Oil.— 

I.— Pure  castor  oil. .      1  pint 

Cologne  spirit .  .      3  fluidounces 
Oil     of     winter- 
green 40  minims 

Oil  of  sassafras.    20  minims 

Oil  of  anise 15  minims 

Saccharine 5  grains 

Hot  water,  a  sufficient  quantity. 
Place  the  castor  oil  in  a  gallon  bottle. 

Add  a  pint  of  hot  water  and  shake  vig- 
orously for  about  15  minutes.  Then 
pour  the  mixture  into  a  vessel  with  a 
stopcock  at  its  base,  and  allow  the  mix- 
ture to  stand  tor  12  hours.  Draw  off 
the  oil,  excepting  the  last  portion,  which 
must  be  rejected.  Dissolve  the  essential 
oils  and  saccharine  in  the  cologne  spirit 
and  add  to  the  washed  castor  oil. 

II. — First  prepare  an  aromatic  solution 
of  saccharine  as  follows: 

Refined  saccharine. .     25  parts 

Vanillin 5  parts 

Absolute  alcohol. . .  .    950  parts 
Oil  of  cinnamon  ....      20  parts 

Dissolve  the  saccharine  and  vanillin 
in  the  alcohol,  then  add  the  cinnamon  oil, 
agitate  well  and  filter.  Of  this  liquid  add 
20  parts  to  980  parts  of  castor  oil  and 
mix  by  agitation.  Castor  oil,  like  cod- 
liver  oil,  may  be  rendered  nearly  taste- 
less, it  is  claimed,  by  treating  it  as  fol- 
lows: Into  a  matrass  of  suitable  size  put 
50  parts  of  freshly  roasted  coffee,  ground 
as  fine  as  possible,  and  25  parts  of  puri- 
fied and  freshly  prepared  bone  or  ivory 
black.  Pour  over  the  mass  1,000  parts 
of  the  oil  to  be  deodorized  and  rendered 
tasteless,  and  mix.  Cork  the  container 
tightly,  put  on  a  water  bath,  and  raise 
the  temperature  to  about  140°  F.  Keep 
at  this  heat  from  15  to  20  minutes,  then 
let  cool  down,  slowly,  to  90°,  at  which 
temperature  let  stand  for  3  hours. 
Finally  filter,  and  put  up  in  small,  well- 
stoppered  bottles. 

III. — Vanillin 3  grains 

Garantose 4  grains 

Ol.  menth.  pip. ...      8  minims 

Alcoholis 3  drachms 

Ol.  ricinus 12  ounces 

Ol.      olivae       (im- 
ported),    quan- 
tity sufficient ...      1  pint 
M.  ft.  sol. 

Mix  vanillin,  garantose,  ol.  menth. 
pip.  with  alcohol  and  add  castor  oil  and 
olive  oil. 

Dose:    One  drachm  to  2  fluidounces. 

IV.— The  following  keeps  well: 

Castor  oil 24  parts 

Glycerine 24  parts 

Tincture  of  orange 

peel  .  . : 8  parts 

Tincture  of  senega     2  parts 
Cinnamon      water 

enough  to  make.  100  parts 
Mix  and  make  an  emulsion.      Dose  is 
1  tablespoonful. 

V. — One  part  of  common  cooking  mo- 
lasses to  2  of  castor  oil  is  the  best  dis- 



guise  for  the  taste  of  the  oil  that  can  be 

VI. — Castor  oil 1£  ounces 

Powdered  acacia. .        2    drachms 

Sugar 2    drachms 

Peppermint  water.  4  ounces 
Triturate  the  sugar  and  acacia,  adding 
the  oil  gradually;  when  these  have  been 
thoroughly  incorporated  add  the  pep- 
permint water  .in  small  portions,  tritu- 
rating the  mixture  until  an  emulsion  is 

VII. — This  formula  for  an  emulsion 
is  said  to  yield  a  fairly  satisfactory  prod- 

Castor  oil 500  c.c. 

Mucilage  of  acacia  125  c.c. 
Spirit  of  gaultheria     10  grams 

Sugar 1  gram 

Sodium  bicarbonate.       1  gram 

VIII. — Castor  oil 1  ounce 

Compound  tinc- 
ture of  carda- 
mom    4  drachms 

Oil  of  wintergreen  3  drops 

Powdered  acacia..  3  drachms 

Sugar 2  drachms 

Cinnamon      water  enough     to 
make  4  ounces. 

IX. — Castor  oil 12  ounces 

Vanillin 3  grains 

Saccharine .......  4  grains 

Oil  of  peppermint.  8  minims 

Alcohol 3  drachms 

Olive  oil  enough  to  make  1  pint. 
In  any  case,  use  only  a  fresh  oil. 

How  toTake  Castor  Oil.— The  disgust 
for  castor  oil  is  due  to  the  odor,  not  to  the 
taste.  If  the  patient  grips  the  nostrils 
firmly  before  pouring  out  the  dose, 
drinks  the  oil  complacently,  and  then 
thoroughly  cleanses  the  mouth,  lips, 
larynx,  etc.,  with  water,  removing  the 
last  vestige  of  the  oil  before  removing 
the  fingers,  he  will  not  get  the  least  taste 
from  the  oil,  which  is  bland  and  taste- 
less. It  all  depends  upon  preventing  any 
oil  from  entering  the  nose  during  the 
time  while  there  is  any  oil  present. 

Castor-Oil  Chocolate  Lozenges. — 
Cacao,  free  from  oil .    250  parts 

Castor  oil 250  parts 

Sugar,  pulverized-  . .    500  parts 

Vanillin  sugar 5  parts 

Mix  the  chocolate  and  oil  and  heat  in 
the  water,  both  under  constant  stirring. 
Have  the  sugar  well  dried  and  add,  stir- 
ring constantly,  to  the  molten  mass. 
Continue  the  heat  for  30  minutes,  then 
pour  out  and  divide  into  lozenges  in  the 
usual  way. 

DIES: See  Insecticides  and  Veteri- 
nary Formulas. 


It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  the  reac- 
tions of  the  compounds  of  silver,  plat- 
inum, and  chromium  in  photographic 
processes  are  generally  voluntary  ones 
and  that  the  light  really  acts  only  as  an 
accelerator,  that  is  to  say  the  chemical 
properties  of  the  preparations  also  change 
in  the  dark,  though  a  longer  time  is  re- 
quired. When  these  preparations  are  ex- 
posed to  the  light  under  a  negative,  the 
modification  of  their  chemical  proper- 
ties is  accelerated  in  such  a  way  that, 
through  the  gradations  of  the  tone- 
values  in  the  negative,  the  positive  print 
is  formed.  Now  it  has  been  found  that 
we  also  have  such  accelerators  in  ma- 
terial substances  that  can  be  used  in  the 
light,  the  process  being  termed  catalysis. 
It  is  remarkable  that  these  substances, 
called  catalyzers,  apparently  do  not  take 
part  in  the  process,  but  bring  about 
merely  by  their  presence,  decomposition 
or  combination  of  other  bodies  during  or 
upon  contact.  Hence,  catalysis  may  be 
defined,  in  short,  as  the  act  of  changing 
or  accelerating  the  speed  of  a  chemical 
reaction  by  means  of  agents  which  ap- 
pear to  remain  stable. 

Professor  Ostwald  and  Dr.  O.  Gros, 
of  the  Leipsic  University,  have  given  the 
name  of  "catatypy"  to  the  new  copying 
process.  The  use  of  light  is  entirely 
done  away  with,  except  that  for  the  sake 
of  convenience  the  manipulations  are 
executed  in  the  light.  All  that  is  neces- 
sary is  to  bring  paper  and  negative  into 
contact,  no  matter  whether  in  the  light 
or  in  the  dark.  Hence  the  negative  (if 
necessary  a  positive  may  also  be  em- 
ployed) need  not  even  be  transparent, 
for  the  ascending  and  descending  action 
of  the  tone  values  in  the  positive  picture 
is  produced  only  by  the  quantity  in  the 
varying  density  of  the  silver  powder 
contained  in  the  negative.  Hence  no 
photographic  (light)  picture,  but  a  ca- 
tatypic  picture  (produced  by  contact)  is 
created,  but  the  final  result  is  the  same. 

Catatypy  is  carried  out  as  follows: 
Pour  dioxide  of  hydrogen  over  the  nega- 
tive, which  can  be  done  without  any 
damage  to  the  latter,  and  lay  a  piece  of 
paper  on  (sized  or  unsized,  rough  or 
smooth,  according  to  the  effect  desired); 
by  a  contact  lasting  a  few  seconds  the 
paper  receives  the  picture,  dioxide  of 
hydrogen  being  destroyed.  From  a 
single  application  several  prints  can  be 
made.  The  acquired  picture — still  in- 



visible — may  now  in  the  further  course 
of  the  process,  have  a  reducing  or  oxy- 
dizing  action.  As  picture-producing 
bodies,  the  large  group  of  iron  salts  are 
above  all  eminently  adapted,  but  other 
substances,  such  as  chromium,  manga- 
nese, etc.,  as  well  as  pigments  with  glue 
solutions  may  also  be  employed.  The 
development  takes  place  as  follows: 
When  the  paper  which  has  been  in  con- 
tact with  the  negative  is  drawn  through 
a  solution  of  ferrous  oxide,  the  protoxide 
is  transformed  into  oxide  by  the  per- 
oxide, hence  a  yellow  positive  picture, 
consisting  of  iron  oxide,  results,  which 
can  be  readily  changed  into  other  com- 
pounds, so  that  the  most  varying  tones  of 
color  can  be  obtained.  With  tne  use  of 
pigments,  in  conjunction  with  a  glue 
solution,  the  action  is  as  follows:  In  the 
places  where  the  picture  is,  the  layer  with 
the  pigments  becomes  insoluble  and  all 
other  dye  stuffs  can  be  washed  off  with 

The  chemical  inks  and  reductions,  as 
well  as  color  pigments,  of  which  the  pic- 
tures consist,  have  been  carefully  tested 
and  are  composed  of  such  as  are  known 
to  possess  unlimited  durability. 

After  a  short  contact,  simply  immerse 
the  picture  in  the  respective  solution, 
wash  out,  and  a  permanent  picture  is 


See  Insecticides. 


Preparation  of  Catgut  Sutures. — The 
catgut  is  stretched  tightly  over  a  glass 
plate  tanned  in  5  per  cent  watery  extract 
of  quebracho,  washed  £  or  a  short  time  in 
water,  subjected  to  the  action  of  a  4  per 
cent  formalin  solution  for  24  to  48  hours, 
washed  in  running  water  for  24  hours, 
boiled  in  water  for  10  to  15  minutes, 
and  stored  in  a  mixture  of  absolute  al- 
cohol with  5  per  cent  glycerine  and  4  per 
cent  carbolic  acid.  In  experiments  on 
dogs,  this  suture  material  in  aseptic 
wounds  remained  intact  for  65  days,  and 
was  absorbed  after  83  days.  In  infected 
wounds  it  was  absorbed  after  32  days. 


See  Foods. 


See  Disinfectants  and  Insecticides. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 
ods, and  also  Household  Formulas. 


Celery  (seed  ground) .  25  parts 
Coca  leaves  (ground).  25  parts 
Black  haw  (ground)..  25  parts 
Hyoscyamus  leaves 

(ground) 12£  parts 

Podophyllum      (pow- 
dered)        10     parts 

Orange  peel  (ground)  6  parts 
Sugar  (granulated).. .  100  parts 

Alcohol 150    parts 

Water,  q.  s.  ad 400     parts 

Mix  the  alcohol  with  150  parts  of 
water  and  macerate  drugs  for  24  hours; 
pack  in  percolator  and  pour  on  men- 
struum till  340  parts  is  obtained  ;  dis- 
solve sugar  in  it  and  strain. 


See  Battery  Solutions  and  Fillers. 


See  Household  Formulas. 

See  Paper. 


New  Celluloid. — M.  Ortmann  has  as- 
certained that  turpentine  produced  by 
the  Pinus  larix,  generally  denominated 
Venice  turpentine,  in  combination  with 
acetone  (dimethyl  ketone),  yields  the  best 
results;  but  other  turpentines,  such  as 
the  American  from  the  Pinus  australis, 
the  Canada  turpentine  from  the  Pinus 
balsamea,  the  French  turpentine  from 
the  Pinus  maritima,  and  ketones,  such 
as  the  ketone  of  methyl-ethyl,  the  ketone 
of  dinaphthyl,  the  ketone  of  methyl- 
oxynaphthyl,  and  the  ketone  of  dioxy- 
naphthyl,  may  be  employed. 

To  put  this  process  in  practice,  1,000 
parts  of  pyroxyline  is  prepared  in  the 
usual  manner,  and  mixed  with  65  parts 
of  turpentine,  or  250  parts  of  ketone  and 
250  parts  of  ether;  500  parts  or  750  parts 
of  methyl  alcohol  is  added,  and  a  col- 
orant, such  as  desired.  Instead  of  tur- 
pentine, rosins  derived  from  it  may  be 
employed.  If  the  employment  of  cam- 
phor is  desired  to  a  certain  extent,  it  may 
be  added  to  the  mixture.  The  whole  is 
shaken  and  left  at  rest  for  about  12  hours. 
It  is  then  passed  between  hot  rollers,  and 
finally  pressed,  cut,  and  dried,  like  or- 
dinary celluloid. 



The  product  thus  obtained  is  without 
odor,  when  camphor  is  not  employed; 
and  in  appearance  and  properties  it  can- 
not be  distinguished  from  ordinary  cel- 
luloid, while  the  expense  of  production  is 
considerably  reduced. 

Formol  Albumen  for  Preparation  of 
Celluloid. — Formol  has  the  property  of 
forming  combinations  with  most  albu- 
minoid substances.  These  are  not  iden- 
tical with  reference  to  plasticity,  and  the 
use  which  may  be  derived  from  them  for 
the  manufacture  of  plastic  substances. 
This  difference  explains  why  albumen 
should  not  be  confounded  with  gelatin 
or  casein.  With  this  in  view,  the  Societe 
Anonyme  1'Oyonnaxienne  has  originated 
the  following  processes: 

I. — The  albumen  may  be  that  of  the 
egg  or  that  of  the  blood,  which  are  readily 
found  in  trade.  The  formolizing  may 
be  effected  in  the  moist  state  or  in  the 
dry  state.  The  dry  or  moist  albumen 
is  brought  into  contact  with  the  solution 
of  commercial  formol  diluted  to  5  or  10 
per  cent  for  an  hour.  Care  must  be 
taken  to  pulverize  the  albumen,  if  it  is 
dry.  The  formol  penetrates  rapidly 
into  the  albuminoid  matter,  and  is  fil- 
tered or  decanted  and  washed  with 
water  until  all  the  formol  in  excess  has 
completely  disappeared;  this  it  is  easy  to 
ascertain  by  means  of  aniline  water, 
which  produces  a  turbid  white  as  long 
as  a  trace  of  formic  aldehyde  remains. 

The  formol  albumen  is  afterwards 
dried  at  low  temperature  by  submitting 
it  to  the  action  of  a  current  of  dry  air  at 
a  temperature  not  exceeding  107°  F. 
Thus  obtained,  the  product  appears  as 
a  transparent  corneous  substance.  On 
pulverizing,  it  becomes  opaque  and  loses 
its  transparency.  It  is  completely  in- 
soluble in  water,  but  swells  in  this 

II. — The  formol  albumen  is  reduced 
to  a  perfectly  homogeneous  powder,  and 
mixed  intimately  with  the  plastic  matter 
before  rolling.  This  cannot  be  con- 
sidered an  adequate  means  for  effecting 
the  mixture.  It  is  necessary  to  introduce 
the  formol  albumen,  in  the  course  of  the 
moistening,  either  by  making  an  emul- 
sion with  camphor  alcohol,  or  by  mixing 
it  thoroughly  with  nitro-cellulose,  or  by 
making  simultaneously  a  thorough  mix- 
ture of  the  three  substances.  When  the 
mixture  is  accomplished,  the  paste  is 
rolled  according  to  the  usual  operation. 
The  quantity  of  formol  albumen  to  add 
is  variable,  being  diminished  according 
to  the  quantity  of  camphor. 

Instead  of  adding  the  desiccated  for- 

mol albumen,  it  may  previously  be 
swollen  in  water  in  order  to  render  it 
more  malleable. 

Instead  of  simple  water,  alkalinized  or 
acidified  water  may  be  taken  for  this  pur- 
pose, or  even  alcoholized  water.  The 
albumen,  then,  should  be  pressed  be- 
tween paper  or  cloth,  in  order  to  remove 
the  excess  of  moisture. 

Plastic  Substances  of  Nitro -Cellulose 
Base. — To  manufacture  plastic  substances 
the  Compagnie  Franyaise  du  Celluloid 
commences  by  submitting  casein  to  a 
special  operation.  It  is  soaked  with  a 
solution  of  acetate  of  urea  in  alcohol; 
for  100  parts  of  casein  5  parts  of  acetate 
of  urea  and  50  parts  of  alcohol  are  em- 
ployed. The  mass  swells,  and  in  48 
hours  the  casein  is  thoroughly  penetrat- 
ed. It  is  then  ready  to  be  incorporated 
with  the  camphored  nitro-cellulose.  The 
nitro-cellulose,  having  received  the  addi- 
tion of  camphor,  is  soaked  in  the  alcohol, 
and  the  mass  is  well  mixed.  The  casein 
prepared  as  described  is  introduced  into 
the  mass.  The  whole  is  mixed  and  left 
at  rest  for  2  days. 

The  plastic  pulp  thus  obtained  is 
rolled,  cut,  and  dried  like  ordinary  cel- 
lulose, and  by  the  same  processes  and 
apparatus.  The  pulp  may  also  be  con- 
verted into  tubes  and  other  forms,  like 
ordinary  celluloid. 

It  is  advisable  to  subject  the  improved 
plastic  pulp  to  a  treatment  with  formal- 
dehyde for  the  purpose  of  rendering  in- 
soluble the  casein  incorporated  in  the 
celluloid.  The  plastic  product  of  nitro- 
cellulose base,  thus  obtained,  presents 
in  employment  the  same  general  proper- 
ties as  ordinary  celluloid.  It  may  be 
applied  to  the  various  manufacturing 
processes  in  use  for  the  preparation  of 
articles  of  all  kinds,  and  its  cost  price 
diminishes  more  or  less  according  to  the 
proportion  of  casein  associated  with  the 
ordinary  celluloid.  In  this  plastic  prod- 
uct various  colorants  may  be  incor- 
porated, and  the  appearance  of  shell, 
pearl,  wood,  marble,  or  ivory  may  also 
be  imparted. 

Improved  Celluloid. — This  product  is 
obtained  by  mingling  with  celluloid,  un- 
der suitable  conditions,  gelatin  or  strong 
glue  of  gelatin  base.  Iti  s  clear  that  the 
replacement  of  part  of  the  celluloid  by 
the  gelatin,  of  which  the  cost  is  much 
less,  lowers  materially  the  cost  of  the 
final  product.  The  result  is  obtained 
without  detriment  to  the  qualities  of  the 
objects.  These  are  said  to  be  of  superior 
properties,  haying  more  firmness  than 
those  of  celluloid.  And  the  new  material 



is  worked  more  readily  than  the  celluloid 
employed  alone. 

The  new  product  may  be  prepared  in 
openvair  or  in  a  closed  vessel  under  pres- 
sure. When  operated  in  the  air,  the  gel- 
atin is  first  immersed  cold  (in  any  form, 
and  in  a  state  more  or  less  pure)  in  alco- 
hol marking  about  140°  F.,  with  the 
addition  of  a  certain  quantity  (for  exam- 
ple, 5  to  10  per  cent)  of  crystallizable 
acetic  acid.  In  a  few  hours  the  material 
has  swollen  considerably,  and  it  is  then 
introduced  in  alcohol  of  about  90  per  cent, 
and  at  the  same  time  the  celluloid  pulp 
(camphor  and  gun  cotton),  taking  care 
to  add  a  little  acetone.  The  proportion 
of  celluloid  in  the  mixture  may  be  50  to 
75  per  cent  of  the  weight  of  the  gelatin, 
more  or  less,  according  to  the  result 
desired.  After  heating  the  mixture 
slightly,  it  is  worked,  cold,  by  the  rollers 
ordinarily  employed  for  celluloid  and 
other  similar  pastes,  or  by  any  other  suit- 
able methods. 

The  preparation  in  a  closed  vessel  does 
not  differ  from  that  which  has  been  de- 
scribed, except  for  the  introduction  of 
the  mixture  of  gelatin,  celluloid,  alco- 
hol, and  acetone,  at  the  moment  when 
the  heating  is  to  be  accomplished  in  an 
autoclave  heated  with  steam,  capable  of 
supporting  a  pressure  of  2  to  5  pounds, 
and  furnished  with  a  mechanical  agita- 
tor. This  method  of  proceeding  abridges 
the  operation  considerably  ;  the  paste 
comes  from  the  autoclave  well  min- 
gled, and  is  then  submitted  to  the 
action  of  rollers.  There  is  but  little 
work  in  distilling  the  alcohol  and  acetic 
acid  in  the  autoclave.  These  may  be 
recovered,  and  on  account  of  their  evap- 
oration the  mass  presents  the  desired 
consistency  when  it  reaches  the  rollers. 
Whichever  of  the  two  methods  of  prep- 
aration may  be  employed,  the  sub- 
stance may  be  rolled  as  in  the  ordinary 
process,  if  a  boiler  with  agitator  is  made 
use  of;  the  mass  may  be  produced  in  any 

Preparation  of  Uninflammable  Cellu- 
loid.— The  operation  of  this  process  by 
Woodward  is  the  following:  In  a  receiver 
of  glass  or  porcelain,  liquefied  fish  glue 
and  gum  arabic  are  introduced  and 
allowed  to  swell  for  24  hours  in  a  very 
dry  position,  allowing  the  air  to  circulate 
freely.  The  receiver  is  not  covered. 
Afterwards  it  is  heated  on  a  water  bath, 
and  the  contents  stirred  (for  example, 
by  means  of  a  porcelain  spatula)  until 
the  gum  is  completely  liquefied.  The 
heating  of  the  mass  should  not  exceed 
77°  F.  Then  the  gelatin  is  added  in 

such  a  way  that  there  are  no  solid  pieces. 
The  receiver  is  removed  from  the  water 
bath  and  colza  oil  added,  while  agitating 
anew.  When  the  mixture  is  complete 
it  is  left  to  repose  for  24  hours. 

Before  cooling,  the  mixture  is  passed 
through  a  sieve  in  order  to  retain  the 
pieces  which  may  not  have  been  dis- 
solved. After  swelling,  and  the  dissolu- 
tion and  purification  by  means  of  the 
sieve,  it  is  allowed  to  rest  still  in  the 
same  position,  with  access  of  air.  The 
films  formed  while  cooling  may  be  re- 
moved. The  treatment  of  celluloid 
necessitates  employing  a  solution  com- 
pletely colorless  and  clear.  The  cellu- 
loid to  be  treated  while  it  is  still  in  the 
pasty  state  should  be  in  a  receiver  of 
glass,  porcelain,  or  similar  material. 

The  mass  containing  the  fish  glue  is 
poured  in,  drop  by  drop,  while  stirring 
carefully,  taking  care  to  pour  it  in  the 
middle  of  the  celluloid  and  to  increase 
the  surface  of  contact. 

When  the  mixture  is  complete,  the  cel- 
luloid is  ready  to  be  employed  and  does 
not  produce  flame  when  exposed. 

The  solution  of  fish  glue  may  be  pre- 
pared by  allowing  200  parts  of  it  to  swell 
for  48  hours  in  1,000  parts  of  cold  dis- 
tilled water.  It  is  then  passed  through 
the  sieve,  and  the  pieces  which  may  re- 
main are  broken  up,  in  order  to  mingle 
them  thoroughly  with  the  water.  Ten 
parts  of  kitchen  salt  are  then  added,  and 
the  whole  mass  passed  through  the 

This  product  may  be  utilized  for  the 
preparation  of  photographic  films  or  for 
those  used  for  cinematographs,  or  for 
replacing  hard  caoutchouc  for  the  insu- 
lation of  electric  conductors,  and  for  the 
preparation  of  plastic  objects. 

Substitute  for  Camphor  in  the  Prepa- 
ration of  Celluloid  and  Applicable  to  Other 
Purposes. — In  this  process  commercial 
oil  of  turpentine,  after  being  rectified  by 
distillation  over  caustic  soda,  is  subjected 
to  the  action  of  gaseous  chlorhydric  acid, 
in  order  to  produce  the  solid  mono- 
chlorhydrate  of  turpentine.  After  hav- 
ing, by  means  of  the  press,  extracted  the 
liquid  monochlorhydrate,  and  after 
several  washings  with  cold  water,  the 
solid  matter  is  desiccated  and  introduced 
into  an  autoclave  apparatus  capable  of 
resisting  a  pressure  of  6  atmospheres. 
Fifty  per  cent  of  caustic  soda,  calculated 
on  the  weight  of  the  monochlorhydrate, 
and  mingled  with  an  equal  quantity  of 
alcohol,  is  added  in  the  form  of  a  thick 
solution.  The  apparatus  is  closed  and 
heated  for  several  hours  at  the  temper- 



ature  of  284°  to  302°  F.  The  material 
is  washed  several  times  for  freeing  it 
from  the  mingled  sodium  chloride  and 
sodium  hydrate,  and  the  camphor  re- 
sulting from  this  operation  is  treated  in 
the  following  manner: 

In  an  autoclave  constructed  for  the 
purpose,  camphene  and  water  strongly 
mixed  with  sulphuric  acid  are  introduced 
and  heated  so  as  to  attain  9  pounds  of 
pressure.  Then  an  electric  current  is 
applied,  capable  of  producing  the  de- 
composition of  water.  The  mass  is 
constantly  stirred,  either  mechanically 
or  more  simply  by  allowing  a  little  of  the 
steam  to  escape  by  a  tap.  In  an  hour, 
at  least,  the  material  is  drawn  from  the 
apparatus,  washed  and  dried,  sublimed 
according  to  need,  and  is  then  suitable 
for  replacing  camphor  in  its  industrial 
employments,  for  the  camphene  is  con- 
verted entirely  or  in  greater  part  into 
camphor,  either  right-hand  camphor,  or 
a  product  optically  inactive,  according 
to  the  origin  of  the  oil  of  turpentine  made 
use  of.  . 

In  the  electrolytic  oxidation  of  the 
camphene,  instead  of  using  acidulated 
water,  whatever  is  capable  of  furnishing, 
under  the  influence  of  the  electric  cur- 
rent, the  oxygen  necessary  for  the  reac- 
tion, such  as  oxygenized  water,  barium 
bioxide,  and  the  permanganates,  may  be 

Plastic  and  Elastic  Composition. — 
Formaldehyde  has  the  property,  as  known, 
of  removing  from  gelatin  its  solu- 
bility and  its  fusibility,  but  it  has  also 
another  property,  prejudicial  in  certain 
applications,  of  rendering  the  composi- 
tion hard  and  friable.  In  order  to 
remedy  this  prejudicial  action  M.  De- 
borda  adds  to  the  gelatin  treated  by 
means  of  formaldehyde,  oil  of  turpen- 
tine, or  a  mixture  of  oil  of  turpentine  and 
German  turpentine  or  Venice  turpentine. 
The  addition  removes  from  the  composi- 
tion its  friability  and  hardness,  imparting 
to  it  great  softness  and  elasticity.  The 
effect  is  accomplished  by  a  slight  pro- 
portion, 5  to  10  per  cent. 

Production  of  Substances  Resembling 
Celluloid. — Most  of  the  substitutes  for 
camphor  in  the  preparation  of  celluloid 
are  attended  with  inconveniences  limiting 
their  employment  and  sometimes  caus- 
ing their  rejection.  Thus,  in  one  case 
the  celluloid  does  not  allow  of  the  prepa- 
ration of  transparent  bodies;  in  another 
it  occasions  too  much  softness  in  the 
products  manufactured;  and  in  still  an- 
other it  does  not  allow  of  pressing,  fold- 
ing, or  other  operations,  because  the  mass 

is  too  brittle;  in  still  others  combinations 
are  produced  which  in  time  are  affected 
unfavorably  by  the  coloring  substances 

Callenberg  has  found  that  the  haloge- 
nous  derivatives  of  etherized  oils,  prin- 
cipally oil  of  turpentine,  and  especially 
the  solid  chloride  of  turpentine,  which  is 
of  a  snowy  and  brilliant  white,  and  of 
agreeable  odor,  are  suitable  for  yielding, 
either  alone  or  mixed  with  camphor  or 
one  of  its  substitutes,  and  combined  by 
ordinary  means  with  nitrated  cellulose, 
or  other  ethers  of  cellulose,  treated  with 
acetic  ether,  a  celluloidic  product,  which, 
it  is  said,  is  not  inferior  to  ordinary  cellu- 
loid and  has  the  advantage  of  reduced 

Elastic  Substitute  for  Celluloid.— 
Acetic  cellulose,  like  nitro-cellulose,  can 
be  converted  into  an  elastic  corneous 
compound.  The  substances  particu- 
larly suitable  for  the  operation  are  or- 
ganic substances  containing  one  or  more 
hydroxy,  aldehydic,  amide,  or  ketonic 
groups,  as  well  as  the  acid  amides.  Prob- 
ably a  bond  is  formed  when  these  com- 
binations act  on  the  acetate  of  cellulose, 
but  the  bond  cannot  well  be  defined, 
considering  the  complex  nature  of  the 
molecule  of  cellulose.  According  to  the 
mode  of  preparation,  the  substances 
obtained  form  a  hard  mass,  more  or  less 
flexible.  In  the  soft  state,  copies  of  en- 
grayed  designs  can  be  reproduced  in 
their  finest  details.  When  hardened, 
they  can  be  cut  and  polished.  In  cer- 
tain respects  they  resemble  celluloid, 
without  its  inflammability,  and  they  can 
be  employed  in  the  same  manner.  They 
can  be  produced  by  the  following  meth- 
ods— the  Lederer  process: 

I. — Melt  together  1  part  of  acetate  of 
cellulose  and  H  parts  of  phenol  at  about 
the  temperature  of  104°  to  122°  F.  When 
a  clear  solution  is  obtained  place  the 
mass  of  reaction  on  plates  of  glass  or 
metal  slightly  heated  and  allow  it  to  cool 
gradually.  After  a  rest  of  several  days 
the  mass,  which  at  the  outset  is  similar 
to  caoutchouc,  is  hard  and  forms  flexible 
plates,  which  can  be  worked  like  cellu- 

II. — Compress  an  intimate  mixture  of 
equal  parts  of  acetic  cellulose  and  hy- 
drate of  chloride  or  of  aniline,  at  a  tem- 
perature of  122°  to  140°  F.,  and  proceed 
as  in  the  previous  case. 

In  the  same  way  a  ketone  may  be  em- 
ployed, as  acetophenone,  or  an  acid 
amide,  as  acetamide. 

III. — A  transparent,  celluloid-like  sub- 
stance which  is  useful  for  the  produc- 



tion  of  plates,  tubes,  and  other  articles, 
but  especially  as  an  underlay  for  sensitive 
films  in  photography,  is  produced  by 
dissolving  1.8  parts,  by  weight,  of  nitro- 
cellulose in  16  parts  of  glacial  acetic  acid, 
with  heating  and  stirring  and  addition 
of  5  parts  of  gelatin.  After  this  has 
swelled  up,  add  7.5  parts,  by  weight,  of 
alcohol  (96  per  cent),  stirring  constantly. 
The  syrupy  product  may  be  pressed  into 
molds  or  poured,  after  further  dilution 
with  the  said  solvents  in  the  stated  pro- 
portion, upon  glass  plates  to  form  thin 
layers.  The  dried  articles  are  well 
washed  with  water,  which  may  contain  a 
trace  of  soda  lye,  and  dried  again.  Pho- 
tographic foundations  produced  in  this 
manner  do  not  change,  nor  attack  the 
layers  sensitive  to  light,  nor  do  they  be- 
come electric,  and  in  developing  they 
remain  flat. 

IV. — Viscose  is  the  name  of  a  new 
product  of  the  class  of  substances  like 
celluloid,  pegamoid,  etc.,  substances  hav- 
ing most  varied  and  valuable  appli- 
cations. It  is  obtained  directly  from 
cellulose  by  mascerating  this  substance 
in  a  1  per  cent  dilution  of  hydrochloric 
acid.  The  maceration  is  allowed  to  con- 
tinue for  several  hours,  and  at  its  close 
the  liquid  is  decanted  and  the  residue 
is  pressed  off  and  washed  thoroughly. 
The  mass  (of  which  we  will  suppose 
there  is  100  grams)  is  then  treated  with  a 
20  per  cent  aqueous  solution  of  sodium 
hydrate,  which  dissolves  it.  The  solu- 
tion is  allowed  to  stand  for  3  days  in  a 
tightly  closed  vessel;  100  grams  carbon 
disulphide  are  then  added,  the  vessel 
closed  and  allowed  to  stand  for  12  hours 
longer,  when  it  is  ready  for  purification. 
Viscose  thus  formed  is  soluble  in  water, 
cold  or  tepid,  and  yields  a  solution  of  a 
pale  brownish  color,  from  which  it  is 
precipitated  by  alcohol  and  sodium 
chloride,  which  purifies  it,  but  at  the 
expense  of  much  of  its  solubility.  A  so- 
lution of  the  precipitated  article  is  color- 
less, or  of  a  slightly  pale  yellow.  Under 
the  action  of  heat,  long  continued,  vis- 
cose is  decomposed,  yielding  cellulose, 
caustic  soda,  and  carbon  disulphide. 

See  also  Casein  for  Celluloid  Substi- 

Celluloid  of  Reduced  Inflammability. 
— I. — A  practicable  method  consists  in 
incorporating  silica,  which  does  not 
harm  the  essential  properties  of  the  cel- 
luloid. The  material  is  divided  by  the 
usual  methods,  and  dissolved  by  means 
of  the  usual  solvents,  to  which  silica  has 
been  added,  either  in  the  state  of  amylic, 
ethylic,  or  methylic  silicate,  or  in  the  state 

of  any  ether  derivative  of  silicic  acid. 
The  suitable  proportions  vary  according 
to  the  degree  of  inflammability  desired, 
and  according  to  the  proportion  of  silica 
in  the  ether  derivative  employed;  but 
sufficient  freedom  from  inflammability 
for  practical  purposes  is  attained  by  the 
following  proportions:  Fifty-five  to  65 
parts  in  volume  of  the  solvent  of  the 
celluloid,  and  35  to  45  parts  of  the  de- 
rivative of  silicic  acid. 

When  the  ether  derivative  is  in  the 
solid  form,  such,  for  instance,  as  ethyl 
disilicate,  it  is  brought  to  the  liquid  state 
by  means  of  any  of  the  solvents.  The 
union  of  the  solvent  and  of  the  derivative 
is  accomplished  by  mixing  the  two 
liquids  and  shaking  out  the  air  as 
much  as  possible.  The  incorporation 
of  this  mixture  with  the  celluloid,  pre- 
viously divided  or  reduced  to  the  state  of 
chips,  is  effected  by  pouring  the  mixture 
on  the  chips,  or  inversely,  shaking  or  stir- 
ring as  free  from  the  air  as  possible.  The 
usual  methods  are  employed  for  the  des- 
iccation of  the  mass.  A  good  result 
is  obtained  by  drying  very  slowly,  pref- 
erably at  a  temperature  not  above  10° 
C.  (50°  F.).  The  resulting  residue  is  a 
new  product  scarcely  distinguished  from 
ordinary  celluloid,  except  that  the  in- 
herent inflammability  .  is  considerably 
reduced.  It  is  not  important  to  employ 
any  individual  silicate  or  derivative.  A 
mixture  of  the  silicates  or  derivatives 
mentioned  will  accomplish  the  same 

II. — Any  ignited  body  is  extinguished 
in  a  gaseous  medium  which  is  unsuitable 
for  combustion;  the  attempt  has  there- 
fore been  made  to  find  products  capable 
of  producing  an  uninflammable  gas;  and 
products  have  been  selected  that  yield 
chlorine,  and  others  producing  bromine; 
it  is  also  necessary  that  these  bodies 
should  be  soluble  in  a  solvent  of  cellu- 
loid; therefore,  among  chlorated  prod- 
ucts, ferric  chloride  has  been  taken;  this 
is  soluble  in  the  ether-alcohol  mixture. 

This  is  the  process:  An  ether-alcohol 
solution  of  celluloid  is  made;  then  an 
ether-alcohol  solution  of  ferric  perchlor- 
ide.  The  two  solutions  are  mingled,  and 
a  clear,  syrupy  liquid  of  yellow  color, 
yielding  no  precipitate,  is  obtained.  The 
liquid  is  poured  into  a  cup  or  any  suit- 
able vessel;  it  is  left  for  spontaneous 
evaporation,  and  a  substance  of  shell- 
color  is  produced,  which,  after  washing 
and  drying,  effects  the  desired  result. 
The  celluloid  thus  treated  loses  none  of 
its  properties  in  pliability  and  trans- 
parency, and  is  not  only  uninflammable, 
but  also  incombustible. 



Of  bromated  compounds,  calcium 
bromide  has  been  selected,  which  pro- 
duces nearly  the  same  result;  the  product 
obtained  fuses  in  the  flame;  outside,  it  is 
extinguished,  without  the  power  of  igni- 

It  may  be  objected  that  ferric  perchlor- 
ide  and  calcium  bromide,  being  soluble 
in  water,  may  present  to  the  celluloid  a 
surface  capable  of  being  affected  by 
moist  air;  but  the  mass  of  celluloid,  not 
being  liable  to  penetration  by  water,  fixes 
the  chlorinated  or  brominated  product. 
Still,  as  the  celluloid  undergoes  a  slight 
decomposition,  on  exposure  to  the  light, 
allowing  small  quantities  of  camphor  to 
evaporate,  the  surface  of  the  perchlorin- 
ated  celluloid  may  be  fixed  by  immer- 
sion in  albuminous  water,  after  previous 
treatment  with  a  solution  of  oxalic  acid, 
if  a  light  yellow  product  is  desired. 

For  preventing  the  calcium  bromide 
from  eventually  oozing  on  the  surface  of 
the  celluloid,  by  reason  of  its  d"eliques- 
cence,  it  may  be  fixed  by  immersing  the 
celluloid  in  water  acidulated  with  sul- 
phuric acid.  For  industrial  products, 
such  as  toilet  articles,  celluloid  with  fer- 
ric perchloride  may  be  employed. 

Another  method  of  preparing  an  un- 
inflammable celluloid,  based  on  the  prin- 
ciple above  mentioned,  consists  in  mix- 
ing bromide  of  camphor  with  cotton 
powder,  adding  castor  oil  to  soften  the 
product,  in  order  that  it  may  be  less 
brittle.  The  latter  product  is  not  in- 
combustible, but  it  is  uninflammable, 
and  its  facility  of  preparation  reduces  at 
least  one-half  the  apparatus  ordinarily 
made  use  of  in  the  manufacture  of  cellu- 
loid. The  manufacture  of  this  product 
is  not  at  all  dangerous,  for  the  camphor 
bromide  is  strictly  uninflammable,  and 
may  be  melted  without  any  danger  of 
dissolving  the  gun  cotton. 

III.  — Dissolve    25    parts    of   ordinary 
celluloidin  in  250  parts  of  acetone  and 
add  a  solution  of  50  parts  of  magnesium 
chloride  in  150  parts  of  alcohol,  until  a 
paste  results,  which  occurs  with  a  pro- 
portion of  about  100  parts  of  the  former 
solution  to  20  parts  of  the  latter  solution. 
This  paste  is  carefully  mixed  and  worked 
through,  then  dried,  and  gives  an  abso- 
lutely incombustible  material. 

IV.  —  Glass-like  plates  which  are  im- 
pervious   to    acids,    salts,    and    alkalies, 
flexible,    odorless,   and   infrangible,   and 
still    possess   a   transparency   similar   to 
ordinary  glass,  are  said  to  be  obtained 
by  dissolving  4  to  8  per  cent  of  collodion 
wool  (soluble  pyroxylin)  in  1  per  cent  of 
ether  or  alcohol  and  mixing  the  solution 
with  2  to  4  per  cent  of  castor  oil,  or  a 

similar  non-resinifying  oil,  and  with  4  to 
6  per  cent  of  Canada  balsam.  The  in- 
flammability of  these  plates  is  claimed  to 
be  much  less  than  with  others  of  collo- 
dion, and  may  be  almost  entirely  obviat- 
ed by  admixture  of  magnesium  chloride. 
An  addition  of  zinc  white  produces  the 
appearance  of  ivory. 

Solvents  for  Celluloid.— Celluloid  dis- 
solves in  acetone,  sulphuric  ether,  alco- 
hol, oil  of  turpentine,  benzine,  amyl 
acetate,  etc.,  alone,  or  in  various  com- 
binations of  these  agents.  The  follow- 
ing are  some  proportions  for  solutions 
of  celluloid: 

I.— Celluloid 5  parts 

Amyl  acetate 10  parts 

Acetone 16  parts 

Sulphuric  ether  ....  16  parts 

II.— Celluloid 10  parts 

Sulphuric  ether  ....  30  parts 

Acetone 30  parts 

Amyl  acetate7. 30  parts 

Camphor 3  parts 

III.— Celluloid 5  parts 

Alcohol 50  parts 

Camphor 5  parts 

IV.— Celluloid 5  parts 

Amyl  acetate 50  parts 

V.— Celluloid 5  parts 

Amyl  acetate 25  parts 

Acetone 25  parts 

Softening  and  Cementing  Celluloid. — 
If  celluloid  is  to  be  warmed  only  suffi- 
ciently to  be  able  to  bend  it,  a  bath  in 
boiling  water  will  answer.  In  steam  at 
120°  C.  (248°  F.),  however,  it  becomes 
so  soft  that  it  may  be  easily  kneaded  like 
dough,  so  that  one  may  even  imbed  in  it 
metal,  wood,  or  any  similar  material.  If 
it  be  intended  to  soften  it  to  solubility, 
the  celluloid  must  then  be  scraped  fine 
and  macerated  in  90  per  cent  alcohol, 
whereupon  it  takes  on  the  character  of 
cement  and  may  be  used  to  join  broken 
pieces  of  celluloid  together.  Solutions 
of  celluloid  may  be  prepared:  1.  With 
5  parts,  by  weight,  of  celluloid  in  16 
parts,  by  weight,  each  of  amyl  acetate, 
acetone,  and  sulphuric  ether.  2.  With 
10  parts,  by  weight,  of  celluloid  in  30 
parts,  by  weight,  each  of  sulphuric  ether, 
acetone,  amyl  acetate,  and  4  parts,  by 
weight,  camphor.  3.  With  5  parts,  by 
weight,  celluloid  in  50  parts,  by  weight, 
alcohol  and  5  parts,  by  weight,  camphor. 
4.  With  5  parts,  by  weight,  celluloid  in 
50  parts,  by  weight,  amyl  acetate.  5. 
Witn  5  parts,  by  weight,  celluloid  in  25 
parts,  by  weight,  amyl  acetate  and  25 
parts,  by  weight,  acetone. 



It  is  often  desirable  to  soften  celluloid 
so  that  it  will  not  break  when  hammered. 
Dipping  it  in  water  warmed  to  40°  C. 
(104°  F.)  will  suffice  for  this. 

Mending  Celluloid. — Celluloid  dishes 
which  show  cracks  are  easily  repaired 
by  brushing  the  surface  repeatedly  with 
alcohol,  3  parts,  and  ether,  4  parts,  until 
the  mass  turns  soft  and  can  be  readily 
squeezed  together.  The  pressure  must 
be  maintained  for  about  one  day.  By 
putting  only  1  part  of  ether  in  3  parts  of 
alcohol  and  adding  a  little  shellac,  a  ce- 
ment for  celluloid  is  obtained,  which, 
applied  warm,  produces  quicker  results. 
Another  very  useful  gluing  agent  for  cel- 
luloid receptacles  is  concentrated  acetic 
acid.  The  celluloid  fragments  dabbed 
with  it  stick  together  almost  instantane- 

See  also  Adhesives  for  Methods  of 
Mending  Celluloid. 

Printing  on  Celluloid. — Printing  on 
celluloid  may  be  done  in  the  usual  way. 
Make  ready  the  form  so  as  to  be  perfectly 
level  on  the  impression — that  is,  uniform 
to  impressional  touch  on  the  face.  The 
tympan  should  be  hard.  Bring  up  the 
form  squarely,  allowing  for  about  a  3-  or 
4-sheet  cardboard  to  be  withdrawn  from 
the  tympan  when  about  to  proceed  with 
printing  on  the  celluloid;  this  is  to  allow 
for  the  thickness  of  the  sheet  of  celluloid. 
Use  live  but  dry  and  well-seasoned  roll- 
ers. Special  inks  of  different  colors  are 
made  for  this  kind  of  press  work;  in 
black  a  good  card-job  quality  will  be 
found  about  right,  if  a  few  drops  of 
copal  varnish-  are  mixed  with  the  ink 
before  beginning  to  print. 

Colored  Celluloid.— 

Black:  First  dip  into  pure  water,  then 
into  a  solution  of  nitrate  of  silver;  let  dry 
in  the  light. 

Yellow:  First  immerse  in  a  solution 
of  nitrate  of  lead,  then  in  a  concentrated 
solution  of  chromate  of  potash. 

Brown:  Dip  into  a  solution  of  per- 
manganate of  potash  made  strongly 
alkaline  by  the  addition  of  soda. 

Blue:  Dip  into  a  solution  of  indigo 
neutralized  by  the  addition  of  soda. 

Red:  First  dip  into  a  diluted  bath  of 
nitric  acid;  then  into  an  ammoniacal 
solution  of  carmine. 

Green:  Dip  into  a  solution  of  verdi- 

Aniline  colors  may  also  be  employed 
but  they  are  less  permanent. 

Bleaching  Celluloid. —If  the  celluloid 
has  become  discolored  throughout,  its 
whiteness  can  hardly  be  restored,  but  if 

merely  superficially  discolored,  wipe  with 
a  woolen  rag  wet  with  absolute  alcohol 
and  ether  mixed  in  equal  proportions. 
This  dissolves  and  removes  a  minute 
superficial  layer  and  lays  bare  a  new 
surface.  To  restore  the  polish  rub 
briskly  first  with  a  woolen  cloth  and  fin- 
ish with  silk  or  fine  chamois.  A  little 
jeweler's  rouge  or  putzpomade  greatly 
facilitates  matters.  Ink  marks  may  be 
removed  in  the  same  manner.  Printer's 
ink  may  be  removed  from  celluloid  by 
rubbing  first  with  oil  of  turpentine  and 
afterwards  with  alcohol  and  ether. 

Process  of  Impregnating  Fabrics  with 
Celluloid. — The  fabric  is  first  saturated 
with  a  dilute  celluloid  solution  of  the 
consistency  of  olive  oil,  which  solution 
penetrates  deeply  into  the  tissue;  dry 
quickly  in  a  heating  chamber  and  satu- 
rate with  a  more  concentrated  celluloid 
solution,  about  as  viscous  as  molasses. 
If  oil  be  added  to  the  celluloid  solution, 
the  quantity  should  be  small  in  the  first 
solution,  e.  g.,  1  to  2  per  cent,  in  the 
following  ones  5  to  8  per  cent,  while  the 
outer  layer  contains  very  little  or  no  oil. 
A  fabric  impregnated  in  this  manner 
possesses  a  very  flexible  surface,  because 
the  outer  layer  may  be  very  thin,  while 
the  interior  consists  of  many  flexible 
fibers  surrounded  by  celluloid. 


See  Adhesives. 


See  Lacquer. 


See  Cements. 


(See  also  Putties.) 

For  Adhesive  Cements  intended  for 
repairing  broken  articles,  see  Adhe- 

Putty  for  Celluloid.— To  fasten  cellu- 
loid to  wood,  tin,  etc.,  use  a  compound  of 
2  parts  shellac,  3  parts  spirit  of  cam- 
phor, and  4  parts  strong  alcohol. 

Plumbers'  Cement. — A  plumbers'  ce- 
ment consists  of  1  part  black  rosin, 
melted,  and  2  parts  of  brickdust,  thor- 
oughly powdered  and  dried. 

Cement  for  Steam  and  Water  Pipes.  — 
A  cement  for  pipe  joints  is  made  as  fol- 
lows: Ten  pounds  fine  yellow  ocher;  4 



pounds  ground  litharge;  4  pounds  whit- 
ing, and  £  pound  of  hemp,  cut  up  fine. 
Mix  together  thoroughly  with  linseed  oil 
to  about  the  consistency  of  putty. 

Gutter  Cement. — Stir  sand  and  fine 
lime  into  boiled  paint  skins  while  hot  and 
thick.  Use  hot. 

Cement  for  Pipe  Joints. — A  good  ce- 
ment for  making  tight  joints  in  pumps, 
pipes,  etc.,  is  made  of  a  mixture  of  15 
parts  of  slaked  lime,  30  parts  of  graphite, 
and  40  parts  of  barium  sulphate.  The  in- 
gredients are  powdered,  well  mixed  to- 
gether, and  stirred  up  with  15  parts  of 
boiled  oil.  A  stiffer  preparation  can  be 
made  by  increasing  the  proportions  of 
graphite  and  barium  sulphate  to  30  and 
40  parts  respectively,  and  omitting  the 
lime.  Another  cement  for  the  same 
purpose  consists  of  15  parts  of  chalk 
and  50  of  graphite,  ground,  washed, 
mixed,  and  reground  to  fine  powder.  To 
this  mixture  is  added  20  parts  of  ground 
litharge,  and  the  whole  mixed  to  a  stiff 
paste  with  about  15  parts  of  boiled  oil. 
This  last  preparation  possesses  the  ad- 
vantage of  remaining  plastic  for  a  long 
time  when  stored  in  a  cool  place.  Finally, 
a  good  and  simple  mixture  for  tightening 
screw  connections  is  made  from  powdered 
shellac  dissolved  in  10  per  cent  ammonia. 
The  mucinous  mass  is  painted  over  the 
screw  threads,  after  the  latter  have  been 
thoroughly  cleaned,  and  the  fitting  is 
screwed  home.  The  ammonia  soon 
volatilizes,  leaving  behind  a  mass  which 
hardens  quickly,  makes  a  tight  joint, 
and  is  impervious  to  hot  and  cold  water. 

Protection  for  Cement  Work. — A 
coating  of  soluble  glass  will  impart  to 
cement  surfaces  exposed  to  ammonia 
not  only  a  protective  covering,  but  also 
increased  solidness. 

Cemented  surfaces  can  be  protected 
from  the  action  of  the  weather  by  re- 
peated coats  of  a  green  vitriol  solution 
consisting  of  1  part  of  green  vitriol  and 
3  parts  of  water.  Two  coatings  of  5 
per  cent  soap  water  are  said  to  render 
the  cement  waterproof;  after  drying  and 
rubbing  with  a  cloth  or  brush,  this  coat- 
ing will  become  glossy  like  oil  paint. 
This  application  is  especially  recom- 
mended for  sick  rooms,  since  the  walls 
can  be  readily  cleaned  by  washing  with 
soapy  water.  The  coating  is  rendered 
more  and  more  waterproof  thereby. 
The  green  vitriol  solution  is  likewise 
commendable  for  application  on  old  and 
new  plastering,  since  it  produces  thereon 
waterproof  coatings.  From  old  plas- 
tering the  loose  particles  have  first  to  be 
removed  by  washing. 

Puncture  Cement. — A  patented  prepa- 
ration for  automatically  repairing  punc- 
tures in  bicycle  tires  consists  of  glycerine 
holding  gelatinous  silica  or  aluminum 
hydrate  in  suspension.  Three  volumes 
of  glycerine  are  mixed  with  1  volume  of 
liquid  water  glass,  and  an  acid  is  stirred 
in.  The  resulting  jelly  is  diluted  with  3 
additional  volumes  of  glycerine,  and 
from  4  to  6  ounces  of  this  fluid  are  placed 
in  each  tire.  In  case  of  puncture,  the 
internal  pressure  of  the  air  forces  the  fluid 
into  the  hole,  which  it  closes. 

To  Fix  Iron  in  Stone. — Of  the  quickly 
hardening  cements,  lead  and  sulphur, 
the  latter  is  popularly  employed.  It  can 
be  rendered  still  more  suitable  for  pur- 
poses of  pouring  by  the  admixture  of 
Portland  cement,  which  is  stirred  into 
the  molten  sulphur  in  the  ratio  of  1  to  3 
parts  by  weight.  The  strength  of  the 
latter  is  increased  by  this  addition,  since 
the  formation  of  so  coarse  a  crystalline 
structure  as  that  of  solidifying  pure  sul- 
phur is  disturbed  by  the  powder  added. 

White  Portland  Cement.— Mix  togeth- 
er feldspar,  40-100  parts,  -by  weight; 
kaolin,  100  parts;  limestone,  700  parts; 
magnesite,  20-40  parts;  and  sodium 
chloride,  2.5-5  parts,  all  as  pure  as 
possible,  and  heat  to  1430°  to  1500°  C. 
(2606°  to  2732°  F.),  until  the  whole  has 
become  sintered  together,  and  forms  a 
nice,  white  cement-like  mass. 

Cement  for  Closing  Cracks  in  Stoves. 
— Make  a  putty  of  reduced  iron  (iron 
by  hydrogen)  and  a  solution  of  sodium 
or  potassium  silicate,  and  force  it  into 
the  crack.  If  the  crack  be  a  very  nar- 
row one,  make  the  iron  and  silicate  into 
paste  instead  of  putty.  This  material 
grows  firmer  and  harder  the  longer  the 
mended  article  is  used. 

Cement  for  Waterpipe. — I. — Mix  to- 
gether 11  parts,  by  weight,  Portland 
cement;  4  parts,  by  weight,  lead  white; 
1  part,  by  weight,  litharge;  and  make  to 
a  paste  with  boiled  oil  in  which  3  per 
cent  of  its  weight  of  colophony  has  been 

II. — Mix  1  part,  by  weight,  torn-up 
wadding;  1  part,  by  weight,  of  quicklime, 
and  3  parts,  by  weight,  of  boiled  oil. 
This  cement  must  be  used  as  soon  as 

Cement  for  Pallet  Stones. — Place  small 
pieces  of  shellac  around  the  stone  when 
in  position  and  subject  it  to  heat.  Often 
the  lac  spreads  unevenly  or  swells  up; 
and  this,  in  addition  to  being  unsightly, 
is  apt  to  displace  the  stone.  This  can 
be  avoided  as  follows:  The  pallets  are 



held  in  long  sliding  tongs.  Take  a  piece 
of  shellac,  heat  it  and  roll  it  into  a  cylin- 
der between  the  fingers;  again  heat  the 
extremity  and  draw  it  out  into  a  fine 
thread.  This  thread  will  break  off,  leav- 
ing a  point  at  the  end  of  the  lac.  Now 
heat  the  tongs  at  a  little  distance  from 
the  pallets,  testing  the  degree  of  heat  by 
touching  the  tongs  with  the  shellac. 
When  it  melts  easily,  lightly  touch  the 
two  sides  of  the  notch  with  it;  a  very 
thin  layer  can  thus  be  spread  over  them, 
and  the  pallet  stone  can  then  be  placed 
in  position  and  held  until  cold  enough. 
The  tongs  will  not  lose  the  heat  sud- 
denly, so  that  the  stone  can  easily  be 
raised  or  lowered  as  required.  The  pro- 
jecting particles  of  cement  can  be  re- 
moved by  a  brass  wire  filed  to  an  angle 
and  forming  a  scraper.  To  cement  a 
ruby  pin,  or  the  like,  one  may  also  use 
shellac  dissolved  in  spirit,  applied  in  the 
consistency  of  syrup,  and  liquefied  again 
by  means  of  a  hot  pincette,  by  seizing 
the  stone  with  it. 


Fairthorne's  Cement. — Powdered  glass, 
5  parts;  powdered  borax,  4  parts;  silicic 
acid,  8  parts;  zinc  oxide,  200  parts. 
Powder  very  finely  and  mix;  then  tint 
with  a  small  quantity  of  golden  pcher  or 
manganese.  The  compound,  mixed  be- 
fore use  with  concentrated  syrupy  zinc- 
chloride  solution,  soon  becomes  as  hard 
as  marble  and  constitutes  a  very  durable 
tooth  cement. 

Huebner's  Cement. — Zinc  oxide,  500.0 
parts;  powdered  manganese,  1.5  parts; 
yellow  ocher,  powdered,  1.5-4.0  parts; 
powdered  borax,  10.0  parts;  powdered 
glass,  100.0  parts. 

As  a  binding  liquid  it  is  well  to  use 
acid-free  zinc  chloride,  which  can  be 
prepared  by  dissolving  pure  zinc,  free 
from  iron,  in  concentrated,  pure,  hydro- 
chloric acid,  in  such  a  manner  that  zinc 
is  always  in  excess.  When  no  more  hy- 
drogen is  evolved  the  zinc  in  excess  is 
still  left  in  the  solution  for  some  time. 
The  latter  is  filtered  and  boiled  down  to 
the  consistency  of  syrup. 

Commercial  zinc  oxide  cannot  be  em- 
ployed without  previous  treatment,  be- 
cause it  is  too  loose;  the  denser  it  is  the 
better  is  it  adapted  for  dental  cements, 
and  the  harder  the  latter  will  be.  For 
this  reason  it  is  well,  in  order  to  obtain  a 
dense  product,  to  stir  the  commercial 
pure  zinc  oxide  into  a  stiff  paste  with 
water  to  which  2  per  cent  of  nitric  acid 
has  been  added;  the  paste  is  dried  and 
heated  for  some  time  at  white  heat  in  a 
Hessian  crucible. 

After  cooling,  the  zinc  oxide,  thus  ob- 
tained, is  very  finely  powdered  and  kept 
in  hermetically  sealed  vessels,  so  that 
it  cannot  absorb  carbonic  acid.  The 
dental  cement  prepared  with  such  zinc 
oxide  turns  very  hard  and  solidifies  with 
the  concentrated  zinc-chloride  solution  in 
a  few  minutes. 

Phosphate  Cement. — Concentrate  pure 
phosphoric  acid  till  semi-solid,  and  mix 
aluminum  phosphate  with  it  by  heat- 
ing. For  use,  mix  with  zinc  oxide  to 
the  consistency  of  putty.  The  cement 
is  said  to  set  in  2  minutes. 

Zinc  Amalgam,  or  Dentists'  Zinc. — 
This  consists  of  pure  zinc  filings  com- 
bined with  twice  their  weight  of  mercury, 
a  gentle  heat  being  employed  to  render 
the  union  more  complete.  It  is  best  ap- 
plied as  soon  as  made.  Its  color  is  gray, 
and  it  is  said  to  be  effective  and  durable. 

Sorel's  Cement. — Mix  zinc  oxide  with 
half  its  bulk  of  fine  sand,  add  a  solu- 
tion of  zinc  chloride  of  1.260  specific 
gravity,  and  rub  the  whole  thoroughly 
together  in  a  mortar.  The  mixture 
must  be  applied  at  once,  as  it  hardens 
very  quickly. 

Metallic  Cement. — Pure  tin,  with  a 
small  proportion  of  cadmium  and  suf- 
ficient mercury,  forms  the  most  lasting 
and,  for  all  practical  purposes,  the  least 
objectionable  amalgam.  Melt  2  parts 
of  tin  with  1  of  cadmium,  run  it  into  in- 
gots, and  reduce  it  to  filings.  Form 
those  into  a  fluid  amalgam  with  mercury, 
and  squeeze  out  the  excess  of  the  latter 
through  leather.  Work  up  the  solid 
residue  in  the  hand,  and  press  it  into  the 
tooth.  Or  melt  some  beeswax  in  a  pip- 
kin, throw  in  5  parts  of  cadmium,  and 
when  melted  add  7  or  8  parts  of  tin  in 
small  pieces.  Pour  the  melted  metals 
into  an  iron  or  wooden  box,  and  shake 
them  until  cold,  so  as  to  obtain  the  alloy 
in  a  powder.  This  is  mixed  with  2£  to 
3  times  its  weight  of  mercury  in  the  palm 
of  the  hand,  and  used  as  above  described. 

See  Stone. 


See  Mordants. 

See  Paint. 


See  Acid-Proofing. 




See  Pyrotechnics. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 


Knead  together  ordinary  pipe  clay, 
moistened  with  ultramarine  blue  for 
blue,  finely  ground  ocher  for  yellow,  etc., 
until  they  are  uniformly  mixed,  roll  out 
into  thin  sheets,  cut  and  press  into  wood- 
en or  metallic  molds,  well  oiled  to  pre- 
vent sticking,  and  allow  to  dry  slowly  at 
ordinary  temperature  or  at  a  very  gentle 


See  Cosmetics. 

See  Mustard  Paper. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 



See  Oil. 

Notes  for  Potters,  Glass-,  and  Brick- 
makers. — It  is  of  the  highest  importance 
,in  selecting  oxides,  minerals,  etc.,  for 
manufacturing  different  articles,  for 
potters'  use,  to  secure  pure  goods,  es- 
pecially in  the  purchase  of  the  following: 
Lead,  manganese,  oxide  of  zinc,  borax, 
whiting,  oxide  of  iron,  and  oxide  of 
cobalt.  The  different  ingredients  com- 

E  rising  any  given  color  or  glaze  should 
e  thoroughly  mixed  before  being  cal- 
cined, otherwise  the  mass  will  be  of  a 
streaky  or  variegated  kind.  Calcination 
requires  care,  especially  in  the  manu- 
facture of  enamel  colors.  Over-firing, 
particularly  of  colors  or  enamels  com- 
posed in  part  of  lead,  borax,  antimony,  or 
litharge,  causes  a  dullness  of  shade,  or 
film,  that  reduces  their  value  for  decora- 
tive purposes,  where  clearness  and  bril- 
liancy are  of  the  first  importance. 

To  arrest  the  unsightly  defect  of 
"crazing,"  the  following  have  been  the 
most  successful  methods  employed,  in 
the  order  given: 

I. — Flux  made  of  10  parts  tincal;  4 
parts  oxide  of  zinc;  1  part  soda. 

II. — A  calcination  of  5  parts  oxide  of 
zinc;  1  part  pearl  ash. 

III. — Addition  of  raw  oxide  of  zinc, 
6  pounds  to  each  hundredweight  of 

To  glazed  brick  and  tile  makers,  whose 
chief  difficulty  appears  to  be  the  produc- 
tion of  a  slip  to  suit  the  contraction  of 
their  clay,  and  adhere  strongly  to  either 
a  clay  or  a  burnt  brick  or  tile,  the  follow- 
ing method  may  be  recommended: 

Mix  together: 

Ball  clay 10     parts 

Cornwall  stone 10     parts 

China  clay 7    parts 

Flint 6  ^  parts 

To  be  mixed  and  lawned  one  week 
before  use. 

To  Cut  Pottery.— Pottery  or  any  soft 
or  even  hard  stone  substance  can  be  cut 
without  chipping  by  a  disk  of  soft  iron, 
the  edge  of  which  has  been  charged  with 
emery,  diamond,  or  other  grinding  pow- 
der, that  can  be  obtained  at  any  tool 
agency.  The  cutting  has  to  be  done 
with  a  liberal  supply  of  water  fed  con- 
tinually to  the  revolving  disk  and  the 
substance  to  be  cut. 


White. — When  the  brick  or  tile  leaves 
the  press,  with  a  very  soft  brush  cover  the 
part  to  be  glazed  with  No.  1  Slip;  after- 
wards dip  the  face  in  the  same  mixture. 

No.  i  Slip.— 

Same  clay  as  brick  . .        9  parts 

Flint 1  part 

Ball  clay 5  parts 

China 4  parts 

Allow  the  brick  to  remain  slowly  dry- 
ing for  8  to  10  hours,  then  when  moist 
dip  in  the  white  body. 

White  Body.— 

China  clay 24  parts 

Ball  clay 8  parts 

Feldspar 8  parts 

Flint 4  parts 

The  brick  should  now  be  dried  slowly 
but  thoroughly,  and  when  perfectly  dry 
dip  the  face  in  clean  cold  water,  and  im- 
mediately afterwards  in  glaze. 

Hard  Glaze.— 

Feldspar 18    parts 

Cornwall  stone 3£  parts 

Whiting 1 1  parts 

Oxide  of  zinc l|  parts 

Plaster  of  Paris f  part 



Soft  Glaze. — 

White  lead 13     parts 

Feldspar 20     parts 

Oxide  of  zinc 3     parts 

Plaster  of  Paris 1     part 

Flint  glass 13     parts 

Cornwall  stone 3£  parts 

Paris  white 1J  parts 

Where  clay  is  used  that  will  stand  a 
very  high  fire,  the  white  lead  and  glass 
may  be  left  out.  A  wire  brush  should 
now  be  used  to  remove  all  superfluous 
glaze,  etc.,  from  the  sides  and  ends  of  the 
brick,  which  is  then  ready  for  the  kiln. 
In  placing,  set  the  bricks  face  to  face, 
about  an  inch  space  being  left  between 
the  two  glazed  faces.  All  the  mixtures, 
after  being  mixed  with  water  to  the  con- 
sistency of  cream,  must  be  passed  2  or 
3  times  through  a  very  fine  lawn.  The 
kiln  must  not  be  opened  till  perfectly 

Process  for  Colored  Glazes. — Use  color, 
1  part,  to  white  body,  7  parts.  Use 
color,  1  part,  to  glaze,  9  parts. 

Preparation  of  Colors. — The  specified 
ingredients  should  all  be  obtained  finely 
ground,  and  after  being  mixed  in  the 
proportions  given  should,  in  a  saggar  or 
some  clay  vessel,  be  fired  in  the  brick 
kiln  and  afterwards  ground  for  use.  In 
firing  the  ingredients  the  highest  heat 
attainable  is  necessary. 

Turquoise. — 

Oxide  of  zinc 8    parts 

Oxide  of  cobalt 1 J  parts 

Grass  Green. — 

Oxide  of  chrome 6     parts 

Flint 1     part 

Oxide  of  copper |  part 

Royal  Blue.— 

Pure  alumina 20  parts 

Oxide  of  zinc 8  parts 

Oxide  of  cobalt 4  parts 

Mazarine  Blue. — 

Oxide  of  cobalt 10  parts 

i'aris  white 9  parts 

Sulphate  barytes 1  part 

Red  Brown. — 

Oxide  of  zinc 40  parts 

Crocus  of  martis 6  parts 

Oxide  of  chrome 6  parts 

Red  lead 5  parts 

Boracic  acid 5  parts 

Red  oxide  of  iron  ....  1  part 

Orange. — 

Pure  alumina 5     parts 

Oxide  of  zinc 2     parts 

Bichromate  of  potash.  1     part 

Iron  scale \  part 

Claret  Brown. — 

Bichromate  of  potash. 


Oxide  of  zinc 

Iron  scale 

Blue  Green. — 

Oxide  of  chrome 


Oxide  of  cobalt. . 

Sky  Blue. — 


Oxide  of  zinc 


Phosphate  soda 

Chrome  Green. — 
Oxide  of  chrome. . .  . 

Oxide  of  copper 

Carbonate  of  cobalt . 
Oxide  of  cobalt 


Oxide  of  chrome. . .  . 

Oxide  of  zinc 

Flint ..'. 

Oxide  of  cobalt 

Blood  Red.— 

Oxide  of  zinc 

Crocus  martis 

Oxide  of  chrome. . .  . 



Red  oxide  of  iron.  . .. 


Chromate  of  iron. . . . 

Oxide  of  nickel 

Oxide  of  tin 

Oxide  of  cobalt 

Imperial  Blue. — 

Oxide  of  cobalt 

Black  color 

Paris  white 


Carbonate  of  soda .  . 

Mahogany. — 

Chromate  of  iron. . . . 
Oxide  of  manganese. 

Oxide  of  zinc 

Oxide  of  tin 

Crocus  martis .  . 

Gordon  Green.  — 

Oxide  of  chrome 

Paris  white 

Bichromate  of  potash. 
Oxide  of  cobalt 


Oxide  of  cobalt 

Oxide  of  manganese. . 

Oxide  of  zinc, 
Cornwall  stone 

2  parts 
2  parts 
1  part 
1  part 

6    parts 

2  parts 
f  part 

9    parts 

13     parts 

2 1  parts 

1     part 

3  parts 
1  part 

1  part 

2  parts 

3  parts 
2  parts 
5  parts 
1  part 

30  parts 
7  parts 
7  parts 
5  parts 
5  parts 
2  parts 

24  parts 
2  parts 
2  parts 
5  parts 

10  parts 
1£  parts 
7£  parts 
2 1  parts 

1  part 

30  parts 

20  parts 

12  parts 

4  parts 

2  parts 

12    parts 

8     parts 

4^  parts 

i  part 

2$  parts 
4  parts 
8  parts 
8  parts 



Lavender. — 

Calcined  oxide  of  zinc  5     parts 

Carbonate  of  cobalt .  .  f  part 

Oxide  of  nickel J  part 

Paris  white 1     part 

Brown.  — 

Manganese 4  parts 

Oxide  of  chrome 2  parts 

Oxide  of  zinc 4  parts 

Sulphate  barytes 2  parts 


Oxide  of  nickel 7  parts 

Oxide  of  cobalt 2  parts 

Oxide  of  chrome 1  part 

Oxide  of  flint 18  parts 

Paris  white 3  parts 

Yellow  Green. — 

Flint 6     parts 

Paris  white 4     parts 

Bichromate  of  potash.  4  i  parts 

Red  lead 2     parts 

Fluorspar 2     parts 

Plaster  of  Paris li  parts 

Oxide  of  copper £  part 

Ivory. — 

Cane  marl 16  parts 

Ball  clay 12  parts 

Feldspar 8  parts 

China  clay 6  parts 

Flint 4  parts 

Cream. — 

Ball  clay 22     parts 

China  clay 5i  parts 

Flint 5"  parts 

Feldspar 3J  parts 

Cane  marl 12     parts 


Ball  clay 120  parts 

Ground  ocher 120  parts 

Ground  manganese .  35  parts 


Ball  clay 12  parts 

China  clay 10  parts 

Feldspar 8  parts 

Bull  fire  clay 16  parts 

Yellow  ocher 3  parts 


Cane  marl 30  parts 

Ball  clay 10  parts 

Stone 7  parts 

Feldspar 4  parts 

Brown. — 

Red  marl 50  parts 

China  clay 7  parts 

Ground  manganese  . .      6  parts 
Feldspar 3  parts 

In  making  mazarine  blue  glazed  bricks 
use  the  white  body  and  stain  the  glaze 

Mazarine  blue 1  part 

Glaze 7  parts 

For  royal  blue  use  1  part  stain  to  6 
parts  white  body,  and  glaze  unstained. 

Blood-Red  Stain. — Numerous  brick 
manufacturers  possess  beds  of  clay  from 
which  good  and  sound  bricks  or  tiles 
can  be  made,  the  only  drawback  being 
that  the  clay  does  not  burn  a  good  color. 
In  many  cases  this  arises  from  the  fact 
that  the  clay  contains  more  or  less  sul- 
phur or  other  impurity,  which  spoils  the 
external  appearance  of  the  finished 
article.  The  following  stain  will  con- 
vert clay  of  any  color  into  a  rich,  deep 
red,  mixed  in  proportions  of  stain,  1 
part,  to  clay,  60  parts. 


Crocus  martis 20  parts 

Yellow  ocher 4  parts 

Sulphate  of  iron 10  parts 

Red  oxide  of  iron 2  parts 

A  still  cheaper  method  is  to  put  a  slip 
or  external  coating  upon  the  goods. 
The  slip  being  quite  opaque,  effectively 
hides  the  natural  color  of  the  brick  or 
tile  upon  which  it  may  be  used. 
The  process  is  to  mix: 

Blood-red  stain 1  part 

Good  red  clay 6  parts 

Add  water  until  the  mixture  becomes 
about  the  consistency  of.  cream,  then 
with  a  sponge  force  the  liquid  two  or  three 
times  through  a  very  fine  brass  wire  lawn, 
No.  80,  and  dip  the  goods  in  the  liquid 
as  soon  as  they  are  pressed  or  molded. 

Blue  Paviors. — Blue  paving  bricks 
may  be  produced  with  almost  any  kind 
of  clay  that  will  stand  a  fair  amount  of 
heat,  by  adopting  the  same  methods  as 
in  the  former  case  of  blood-red  bricks, 
that  is,  the  clay  may  be  stained  through- 
out, or  an  outside  coating  may  be  ap- 

Stain  for  Blue  Paviors. — 

Ground  ironstone. ...    20  parts 

Chromate  of  iron 5  parts 

Manganese 6  parts 

Oxide  of  nickel 1  part 

Use  1  part  clay  and  1  part  stain  for 
coating,  and  50  or  60  parts  clay  and  1 
part  stain  for  staining  through. 
Fire  blue  paviors  very  hard. 

Buff  Terra-Co tta  Slip.— 

Buff  fire  clay 16  parts 

China  clay 6  parts 



Yellow  ocher 3  parts 

Ball  clay 10  parts 

Flint 4  parts 

Add  water  to  the  materials  after  mix- 
ing well,  pass  through  the  fine  lawn,  and 
dip  the  goods  when  soft  in  the  liquid. 

Transparent  Glaze. — 

Ground  flint  glass 4     parts 

Ground  white  lead ....  4  parts 
Ground  oxide  of  zinc.  \  part 
This  glaz,e  is  suitable  for  bricks  or  tiles 
made  of  very  good  red  clay,  the  natural 
color  of  the  clay  showing  through  the 
glaze.  The  goods  must  first  be  fired 
sufficiently  hard  to  make  them  durable, 
afterwards  glazed,  and  fired  again.  The 
glaze  being  comparatively  soft  will  fuse  at 
about  half  the  heat  required  for  the  first 
burning.  The  glaze  may  be  stained,  if 
desired,  with  any  of  the  colors  given  in 
glazed-brick  recipes,  in  the  following 
proportions:  Stain,  1  part;  glaze,  1  part. 

Verifiable  Bodies.— The  following  mix- 
tures will  flux  only  at  a  very  high  heat. 
They  require   no  glaze  when  a   proper 
heat  is  attained,  and  they  are  admirably 
adapted  for  stoneware  glazes. 

I. — Cornwall  stone.  ...  20  parts 

Feldspar 12  parts 

China  clay 3  parts 

Whiting 2  parts 

Plaster  of  Paris  ...      1  £  parts 

II.— Feldspar 30  parts 

Flint 9  parts 

Stone 8  parts 

China  clay 3  parts 

III. — Feldspar 20  parts 

Stone.  .  .  . 5  parts 

Oxide  of  zinc 3  parts 

Whiting 2  parts 

Plaster  of  Paris  ...      1  part 
Soda    crystals,   dis- 
solved        1  part 

Special  Glazes  for  Bricks  or  Pottery 
at  One  Burning. — To  run  these  glazes 
intense  heat  is  required. 

I. — Cornwall  stone 40     parts 

Flint 7     parts 

Paris  white 4     parts 

Ball  clay 15     parts 

Oxide  of  zinc 6     parts 

White  lead 15     parts 

II.— Feldspar 20     parts 

Cornwall  stone. ...  5     parts 

Oxide  of  zinc 3     parts 

Flint 3     parts 

Lynn  sand 1*  parts 

Sulphate  barytes. . .  1 J  parts 

III. — Feldspar 25  parts 

Cornwall  stone 6  parts 

Oxide  of  zinc 2  parts 

China  clay 2  parts 

IV. — Cornwall  stone 118  parts 

Feldspar 40  parts 

Paris  white 28  parts 

Flint 4  parts 

V. — Feldspar 16  parts 

China  clay 4  parts 

Stone 4  parts 

Oxide  of  zinc 2  parts 

Plaster  of  Paris  ....  1  part 

VI.— Feldspar 10  parts 

Stone 5  parts 

Flint 2  parts 

Plaster \  part 

The  following  glaze  is  excellent  for 
bricks  in  the  biscuit  and  pottery,  which 
require  an  easy  firing: 


White  lead 20  parts 

Stone 9  parts 

Flint 9  parts 

Borax. 4  parts 

Oxide  of  zinc 2  parts 

Feldspar 3  parts 

These  materials  should  be  procured 
finely  ground,  and  after  being  thoroughly 
mixed  should  be  placed  in  a  fire-clay 
crucible,  and  be  fired  for  5  or  6  hours, 
sharply,  or  until  the  material  runs  down 
into  a  liquid,  then  with  a  pair  of  iron 
tongs  draw  the  crucible  from  the  kiln 
and  pour  the  liquid  into  a  bucket  of  cold 
water,  grind  the  flux  to  an  extremely 
fine  powder,  and  spread  a  coating  upon 
the  plate  to  be  enameled,  previously 
brushing  a  little  gum  thereon.  The 
plate  must  then  be  fired  until  a  sufficient 
heat  is  attained  to  run  or  fuse  the  pow- 

Ordinary.  — 

I. — China  clay 2^  parts 

Stone 1 1  parts 

Bone 3     parts 

II. — China  clay 5     parts 

•  Stone 2£  parts 

Bone 7     parts 

Barytes 3     parts 

III. — Chain  clay 5     parts 

Stone 3     parts 

Flint \  part 

Barytes 8    parts 

Superior.  — 

I. — China  clay 35  parts 

Cornwall  stone 23  parts 

Bone 40  parts 

Flint 2  parts 



II. — China  clay 35  parts 

Cornwall  stone 8  parts 

Bone 50  parts 

Flint 3  parts 

Blue  clay 4  parts 

III. — China  clay 8  parts 

Cornwall  stone 40  parts 

Bone 29  parts 

Flint 5  parts 

Blue  clay 18  parts 

IV.— China  clay 32  parts 

Cornwall  stone 23  parts 

Bone 34  parts 

Flint 6  parts 

Blue  clay 5  parts 

V. — China  clay 7  parts 

Stone 40  parts 

Bone. 28  parts 

Flint 5  parts 

Blue  clay 20  parts 

Finest  China  Bodies. — 

I. — China  clay 20  parts 

Bone 60  parts 

Feldspar 20  parts 

II.— China  clay 30  parts 

Bone 40  parts 

Feldspar 30  parts 

III.— China  clay 25  parts 

Stone 10  parts 

Bone 45  parts 

Feldspar 20  parts 

IV.— China  clay 30  parts 

Stone 15  parts 

Bone 35  parts 

Feldspar 20  parts 

Earthenware  Bodies. — 

I.— Ball  clay 13  parts 

China  clay 9$  parts 

Flint 5$  parts 

Cornwall  stone 4  parts 

II.— Ball  clay 12$  parts 

China  clay 8  parts 

Flint 5$  parts 

Cornwall  stone  ...  2$  parts 
One  pint  of  cobalt 

stain  to  1  ton  of 


III.— Ball  clay 13J  parts 

China  clay 11     parts 

Flint 4    parts 

Cornwall  stone 5     parts 

Feldspar 4     parts 

Stain  as  required. 

IV.— Ball  clay 18$  parts 

China  clay 13$  parts 

Flint 8$  parts 

Stone 4     parts 

Blue  stain,  2  pints  to  ton. 

V.— Ball  clay 15  parts 

China  clay 12  parts 

Flint 6  parts 

Stone 4  parts 

Feldspar 4  parts 

Blue  stain,  2  pints  to  ton. 

VI.  (Parian).— 

Stone 11  parts 

Feldspar 10  parts 

China  clay 8  parts 


Ivory  Body. — 

Ball  clay 22    parts 

China 5$  parts 

Flint 5     parts 

Stone 3$  parts 

Dark  Drab  Body.— 

Cane  marl 30  parts 

Ball  clay 10  parts 

Cornwall  stone 7  parts 

Feldspar 4  parts 

Black  Body.— 

Ball  clay 120  parts 

Ocher 120  parts 

Manganese 35  parts 

Cobalt  carbonate. .  2  parts 

Grind  the  three  last  mentioned  ingre- 
dients first. 

Caledonia  Body. — 

Yellow  clay 32  parts 

China  clay 10  parts 

Flint 4  parts 

Brown  Body. — 

Red  clay 50     parts 

Common  clay 7$  parts 

Manganese 1     part 

Flint 1     part 

Jasper  Body.— 

Cawk  clay 10     parts 

Blue  clay 10     parts 

Bone 5     parts 

Flint 2     parts 

Cobalt 1  part 

Stone  Body.— 

Stone 48  parts 

Blue  clay 25  parts 

China  clay 24  parts 

Cobalt ! 10  parts 

Egyptian  Black. — 

Blue  clay 235  parts 

Calcined  ocher. .  .  .  225  parts 

Manganese 45  parts 

China  clay 15  parts 

Ironstone  Body. — 

Stone 200  parts 

Cornwall  clay 150  parts 



Blue  clay 200  parts 

Flint 100  parts 

Calx 1  part 

Cream  Body. — 

Blue  clay 1  £  parts 

Brown  clay if  parts 

Black  clay 1     part 

Cornish  clay 1     part 

Common  ball  clay. .      \  part 
Buff  color |  part 

Light  Drab.— 

Cane  marl 30  parts 

Ball  clay 24  parts 

Feldspar 7  parts 

Sage  Body. — 

Cane  marl 15  parts 

Ball  clay 15  parts 

China  clay 5  parts 

Stained  with  turquoise  stain. 



White  glaze 100  parts 

Oxide  of  cobalt ...  3  parts 

Red  lead 10  parts 

Flowing  blue 3  parts 

Enamel  blue 3  parts 



White  glaze 100  parts 

Red  lead 8  parts 

Marone  pink  U.  G.  8  parts 

Enamel  red 3  parts 



White  glaze 100  parts 

Red  lead 10  parts 

Buff  color 8  parts 



White  glaze 100  parts 

Red  lead 8  parts 

Enamel  amber 8  parts 

Yellow  underglaze       2  parts 


Turquoise. — 

White  glaze 100  parts 

Red  lead 10  parts 

Carbonate  of  soda.  5  parts 

Enamel  blue 4  parts 

Malachite,  110 4  parts 



I.— White  glaze 100  parts 

Red  lead 10  parts 

Oxide  of  uranium ,        8  parts 

II.— Dried  flint 5  parts 

Cornwall  stone 15  parts 

Litharge 50  parts 

Yellow  underglaze. ..  4  parts 

Green.  — 
I. — Oxide  of  copper 

Flint  of  glass 


Red  lead 

Grind,  then  take: 

Of  above 

White  glaze 

Or  stronger  as  required. 

II.— Red  lead 



Flint  glass 

China  clay 

Calcined     oxide     of 


Oxide  of  cobalt 

Grind  only. 

8  parts 
3  parts 
1  part 
6  parts 

1  part 
6  parts 

60  parts 

24  parts 

12  parts 

12  parts 

3  parts 

14  parts 

J  part 

Green  Glaze,  Best.— 

III.— Stone 80     parts 

Flint 8     parts 

Soda  crystals 4     parts 

Borax 3£  parts 

Niter 2     parts 

Whiting 2     parts 

Oxide  of  cobalt \  part 

Glost  fire,  then  take: 

Above  frit 60     parts 

Red  lead 57     parts 

Calcined     oxide     of 

copper 5|  parts 


Red  lead 24  parts 

Raddle 4  parts 

Manganese 4  parts 

Flint 2  parts 

Oxide  of  cobalt 2  parts 

Carbonate  of  cobalt.  2  parts 

Glost  fire. 

China.— Frit: 

I. — Stone 6  parts 

Niter 2  parts 

Borax 12  parts 

Flint 4  parts 

Pearl  ash 2  parts 

To  mill: 

Frit 24     parts 

Stone 15^  parts 

Flint 6|  parts 

White  lead 31     parts 



II.— Frit: 

Stone 24  parts 

Borax 53  parts 

Lynn  sand 40  parts 

Feldspar 32  parts 

Paris  white 16  parts 

To  mill: 

Frit 90  parts 

Stone 30  parts 

White  lead 90  parts 

Flint 4  parts 

Glass 2  parts 

III.— Frit: 

Stone 50  parts 

Borax 40  parts 

Flint 30  parts 

Flint  glass 30  parts 

Pearl  barytes 10  parts 

To  mill: 

Frit 160    parts 

Red  lead 30     parts 

Enamel  blue £  part 

Flint  glass 2     parts 

IV.— Frit: 

Borax 100  parts 

China  clay 55  parts 

Whiting 60  parts 

Feldspar 75  parts 

To  mill: 

Frit 200    parts 

China  clay 16     parts 

White  clay 3*  parts 

Stone 3     parts 

Flint 2     parts 

V.— Frit: 

Stone 40  parts 

Flint 25  parts 

Niter 10  parts 

Borax 20  parts 

White  lead 10  parts 

Flint  glass 40  parts 

To  mill: 

Frit 145  parts 

Stone 56  parts 

Borax 16  parts 

Flint 15  parts 

Red  lead 60  parts 

Flint  glass 8  parts 

Earthenware.  — Frit: 

L— Flint 108  parts 

China  clay 45  parts 

Paris  white 60  parts 

Borax 80  parts 

Soda  crystals 30  parts 

To  mill: 

Frit 270  parts 

Flint 20  parts 

Paris  white 15  parts 

Stone 80  parts 

White  lead 65  parts 

II.— Frit: 

Flint 62  parts 

China  clay 30  parts 

Paris  white 38  parts 

Boracic  acid 48  parts 

Soda  crystals 26  parts 

To  mill: 

Frit 230  parts 

Stone 160  parts 

Flint 60  parts 

Lead 120  parts 

III.— Frit: 

Stone 56  parts 

Paris  white 55  parts 

Flint 60  parts 

China  clay 20  parts 

Borax 120  parts 

Soda  crystals 15  parts 

To  mill: 

Frit... 212  parts 

Stone 130  parts 

Flint 50  parts 

Lead 110  parts 

Stain  as  required. 

IV.— Frit: 

Stone 100  parts 

Flint 44  parts 

Paris  white 46  parts 

Borax 70  parts 

Niter 10  parts 

To  mill: 

Frit 200  parts 

Stone 60  parts 

Lead 80  parts 

Pearl  White  Glaze.— Frit: 

Flint 50  parts 

Stone 100  parts 

Paris  white 20  parts 

Borax 60  parts 

Soda  crystals 20  parts 

To  mill: 

Frit 178  pounds 

Lead 55  pounds 

Stain 3  ounces 

Opaque  Glaze. — Frit: 

Borax 74     parts 

Stone 94    parts 

Flint 30     parts 

China  clay 22     parts 

Pearl  ash 5|  parts 

To  mill: 

Frit 175  parts 

Lead 46  parts 



Flint 10 

Oxide  of  tin 12 

Flint  glass 12 

Glaze  for  Granite. — Frit: 

I.— Stone 100 

Flint 80 

China  clay 30 

Paris  white .  30 

Feldspar 40 

Soda  crystals 40 

Borax 80 

To  mill: 

Frit... 360 

Flint 50 

Stone 50 

Lead 80 

II.— Frit: 

Borax 100 

Stone..  50 


Paris  white 

China  clay 

To  mill: 










Raw  Glazes. — White: 

L— White  lead 160 

Borax 32 

Stone. 48 

Flint 52 

Stain  with  blue  and  grind. 

II.— White  lead 80 

Litharge.. 60 

Boracic  acid 40 

Stone 45 

Flint 50 

Treat  as  foregoing. 

HI.— White  lead 100 

Borax 4 

Flint 11 

Cornwall  stone. ...  50 

IV.— Red  lead 80 

Litharge 60 

Tincal 40 

Stone 40 

Flint 52 


I.— Litharge. 50 

Stone 7£ 

Red  marl 3 

Oxide  of  manganese  5 

Red  oxide  of  iron ...  1 

II.— White  lead 30 

Stone 3 

Flint 9 

Red  marl 3 

Manganese 5 



















III.— Red  lead 20  parts 

Stone 3  parts 

Flint 2  parts 

China  clay 2  parts 

Manganese 3  parts 

Red  oxide  of  iron.  .  .  1  part 

Stoneware  Bodies. — 

Ball  clay 14  parts 

China  clay 10  parts 

Stone 8  parts 

Ball  clay : .  8  parts 

China  clay 5  parts 

Flint 3  parts 

Stone 4  parts 

Ball  clay 14  parts 

China  clay 11  parts 

Flint 4  parts 

Stone 5  parts 

Feldspar 4  parts 

Cane  marl 16  parts 

China  clay 10  parts 

Stone 9  parts 

Flint 5  parts 

Glazes. — Hard  glaze: 

Stone 10    parts 

Flint 5     parts 

Whiting 1£  parts 

Red  lead 10     parts 

Hard  glaze: 

Feldspar 25  parts 

Flint 5  parts 

Red  lead 15  parts 

Plaster 1  part 


White  lead 13     parts 

Flint  glass 10     parts 

Feldspar 18     parts 

Stone 3     parts 

Whiting 1*  parts 



Flint  glass 

White  lead 14    parts 

....  20     parts 
14     parts 


3     parts 

Oxide  of  zinc 3     parts 

Whiting 1*  parts 

Plaster 1     part 

Rockingham  Bodies. — 

Ball  clay 20  parts 

China  clay 13  parts 

Flint 7  parts 

Stone 1  part 

Cane  marl 22  parts 

China  clay 15  parts 

Flint 8  parts 

Feldspar 1  part 


Glazes. — 

I. —Red  lead 60  parts 

Stone 8  parts 

Red  clay 3  parts 

Best  manganese.  . .  5  parts 

II.— White  lead 60  parts 

Feldspar 6  parts 

Flint 16  parts 

Red  clay 6  parts 

Manganese 12  parts 

III.— Red  lead 100  parts 

Stone 15  parts 

Flint 10  parts 

China  clay 10  parts 

Manganese '. .  40  parts 

Crocus  martis 2  parts 

IV.— Litharge 100  parts 

Feldspar 14  parts 

China  clay 20  parts 

Manganese 40  parts 

Oxide  of  iron 2  parts 

Jet. — Procure  some  first-class  red  marl, 
add  water,  and,  by  passing  through  a  fine 
lawn,  make  it  into  a  slip,  and  dip  the 
ware  therein. 

When  fired  use  the  following: 


Stone 60    parts 

Flint 30     parts 

Paris  white 7|  parts 

Red  lead 140     parts 

One  part  mazarine  -blue  stain  to  10 
parts  glaze. 

Mazarine  Blue  Stain. — 

Oxide  of  cobalt 10  parts 

Paris  white 9  parts 

Sulphate  barytes 1  part 


Another  Process  Body. 

Ball  clay 

China  clay 

Flint  clay 

Stone  clay 

Black  stain . . 



Paris  white 



Black  stain 

Black  Stain.— 

Chromate  of  iron .  . . 

Oxide  of  nickel 

Oxide  of  tin 

Carbonate  of  cobalt. 

Oxide  of  manganese . 
Calcine  and  grind. 

16  parts 

12  parts 

9  parts 

6  parts 

7  parts 

70  parts 
3  parts 
12  parts 
30  parts 
20  parts 

12  parts 
2  parts 
2  parts 
5  parts 
2  parts 

Blue  Stains. — 

I. — Oxide  of  cobalt. . . , 

Oxide  of  zinc 


Fire  this  very  hard. 
II.— Zinc 


China  clay 

Oxide  of  cobalt. . . 
Hard  fire. 
III.— Whiting 


Oxide  of  cobalt 

Glost  fire. 
Turquoise  Stain. — 

Prepared  cobalt . . 

Oxide  of  zinc 

China  clay 

Carbonate  of  soda 
Hard  fire. 

2^  parts 
7 1  parts 
7^  parts 

6  pounds 
4  pounds 

4  pounds 

5  ounces 

3f  parts 
3f  parts 
2J  parts 

It  parts 
6  parts 
6  parts 
1  part 

Tin  Ash. — 

Old  lead 4  parts 

Grain  tin 2  parts 

Melt  in  an  iron  ladle,  and  pour  out  in 
water,  then  spread  on  a  dish,  and  calcine 
in  glost  oven  with  plenty  of  air. 

Oxide  of  Tin. — 

Granulated  tin 5     pounds 

Niter \  pound 

Put  on  saucers  and  fire  in  glost  oven. 

Oxide  of  Chrome  is  made  by  mixing 
powdered  bichromate  of  potash  with 
sulphur  as  follows: 

Potash 6  parts 

Flowers  of  sulphur. .      1  part 

Put  in  saggar,  inside  kiln,  so  that 
fumes  are  carried  away,  and  place  4  or 
5  pieces  of  red-hot  iron  on  the  top  so  as 
to  ignite  it.  Leave  about  12  hours,  then 
pound  very  fine,  and  put  in  saggar  again. 
Calcine  in  hard  place  of  biscuit  oven. 
Wash  this  until  the  water  is  quite  clear, 
and  dry  for  use. 

Production  of  Luster  Colors  on  Por- 
celain and  Glazed  Pottery.— The  luster 
colors  are  readily  decomposed  by  acids 
and  atmospheric  influences,  because 
they  do  not  contain,  in  consequence  of 
the  low  baking  temperature,  enough 
silicic  acid  to  form  resistive  compounds. 
In  order  to  attain  this,  G.  Alefeld  has 
patented  a  process  according  to  which 
such  compounds  are  added  to  the  luster 
preparations  as  leave  behind  after  the 
burning  an  acid  which  transforms  the 
luster  preparation  into  more  resisting 



compounds.  In  this  connection  the  ad- 
mixture of  such  bodies  has  been  found 
advantageous,  as  they  form  phosphides 
with  the  metallic  oxides  of  the  lusters 
after  the  burning.  These  phosphides 
are  especially  fitted  for  the  production  of 
saturated  resisting  compounds,  not  only 
on  account  of  their  insolubility  in  water, 
but  also  on  account  of  their  colorings. 
Similarly  titanic-,  molybdic,  tungstic,  and 
vanadic  compounds  may  be  produced. 
The  metallic  phosphates  produced  by 
the  burning  give  a  luster  coating  which, 
as  regards  gloss,  is  not  inferior  to  the  non- 
saturated  metallic  oxides,  while  it  mate- 
rially excels  them  in  power  of  resistance. 
Since  the  lusters  to  be  applied  are  used 
dissolved  in  essential  oils,  it  is  necessary 
to  make  the  admixture  of  phosphoric 
substance  also  in  a  form  soluble  in  essen- 
tial oils.  For  the  production  of  this 
admixture  the  respective  chlorides,  pre- 
eminently phosphoric  chloride,  are  suit- 
able. They  are  mixed  with  oil  of  lav- 
ender in  the  ratio  of  1  to  5,  and  the 
resulting  reaction  product  is  added  to  the 
commercial  metallic  oxide  luster,  singly 
or  in  conjunction  with  precious  metal 
preparations  (glossy  gold,  silver,  plati- 
num, etc.)  in  the  approximate  propor- 
tion of  5  to  1.  Then  proceed  as  usual. 
Instead  of  the  chlorides,  nitrates  and 
acetates,  as.  well  as  any  readily  destruc- 
tible organic  compounds,  may  also  be 
employed,  which  are  entered  into  fusing 
rosin  or  rosinous  liquids. 

Metallic  Luster  on  Pottery. — Accord- 
ing to  a  process  patented  in  Germany,  a 
mixture  is  prepared  from  various  natural 
or  artificial  varieties  of  ocher,  to  which 
25-50  per  cent  of  finely  powdered  more 
or  less  metalliferous  or  sulphurous  coal  is 
added.  The  mass  treated  in  this  man- 
ner is  brought  together  in  saggars  with 
finely  divided  organic  substances,  such 
as  sawdust,  shavings,  wood-wool,  cut 
straw,  etc.,  and  subjected  to  feeble  red 
heat.  After  the  heating  the  material  is 
taken  put.  The  glazings  now  exhibit 
that  thin  but  stable  metallic  color  which 
is  governed  by  the  substances  used. 
Besides  coal,  salts  and  oxides  of  silver, 
cobalt,  cadmium,  chrome  iron,  nickel, 
manganese,  copper,  or  zinc  may  be  em- 
ployed. The  color-giving  layer  is  re- 
moved by  washing  or  brushing,  while 
the  desired  color  is  burned  in  and  re- 
mains. In  this  manner  handsome  shades 
can  be  produced. 

Metallic  Glazes  on  Enamels. — The 
formulas  used  by  the  Arabs  and  their 
Italian  successors  are  partly  disclosed  in 
manuscripts  in  the  British  and  South 

Kensington    Museums;   two    are    given 

Arab  Italian 

Copper  sulphide 26 . 87  24 .  74 

Silver  sulphide 1.15  1.03 

Mercury  sulphide 24  .  74 

Red  ocher 71.98  49.49 

These  were  ground  with  vinegar  and 
applied  with  the  brush  to  the  already 
baked  enamel.  A  great  variety  of  iri- 
descent and  metallic  tones  can  be  ob- 
tained by  one  or  the  other,  or  a  mixture 
of  the  following  formulas: 

I     II  III  IV    V    VI 

Copper  carbonate. .    30    .  .  .  .    28    .  .    95 

Copper  oxalate .      5    .  . 

Copper  sulphide 20 

Silver  carbonate 3  ..      2      1     5 

Bismuth  subnitrate.   ..    12  ..    ..    10    .. 

Stannous  oxide 25 

Red  ocher 70  85  55  70  84    .! 

Silver  chloride  and  yellow  ocher  may 
be  respectively  substituted  for  silver  car- 
bonate and  red  ocher.  The  ingredients, 
ground  with  a  little  gum  tragacanth  and 
water,  are  applied  with  a  brush  to  enam- 
els melting  about  1814°  F.,  and  are  fur- 
naced  at  1202°  F.  in  a  reducing  atmos- 
phere. After  cooling  the  ferruginous 
deposit  is  rubbed  off,  and  the  colors  thus 
brought  out. 

Sulphur,  free  or  combined,  is  not  nec- 
essary, cinnabar  has  no  action,  ocher 
may  be  dispensed  with,  and  any  organic 
gummy  matter  may  be  used  instead  of 
vinegar,  and  broom  is  not  needed  in  the 
furnace.  The  intensity  and  tone  of  the 
iridescence  depend  on  the  duration  of 
the  reduction,  and  the  nature  of  the 
enamel.  Enamels  containing  a  coloring 
base— copper,  iron,  antimony,  nickel — 
especially  in  presence  of  tin,  give  the 
best  results.  v 

To  Toughen  China.— To  toughen 
china  or  glass  place  the  new  article  in 
cold  water,  bring  to  boil  gradually, 
boil  for  4  hours,  and  leave  standing  in 
the  water  till  cool.  Glass  or  china 
toughened  in  this  way  will  never  crack 
with  hot  water. 

How  to  Tell  Pottery  and  Porcelain. — 
The  following  simple  test  will  serve: 
Hold  the  piece  up  to  the  light,  and  if  it 
can  be  seen  through — that  is,  if  it  is 
translucent — it  is  porcelain.  Pottery  is 
opaque,  and  not  so  hard  and  white  as 
porcelain.  The  main  differences  in  the 
manufacture  of  stoneware,  earthenware, 
and  porcelain  are  due  to  the  ingredients 
used,  to  the  way  they  are  mixed,  and  to 
the  degree  of  heat  to  which  they  are  sub- 



jected  in  firing.  Most  of  the  old  English 
wares  found  in  this  country  are  pottery 
or  semichina,  although  the  term  china 
is  commonly  applied  to  them  all. 


Manufacture. — The  process  of  cheese 
making  is  one  which  is  eminently  in- 
teresting and  scientific,  and  which,  in 
every  gradation,  depends  on  principles 
which  chemistry  has  developed  and  il- 
lustrated. When  a  vegetable  or  min- 
eral acid  is  added  to  milk,  and  heat 
applied,  a  coagulum  is  formed,  which, 
when  separated  from  the  liquid  por- 
tion, constitutes  cheese.  Neutral  salts, 
earthy  and  metallic  salts,  sugar,  and 
gum  arabic,  as  well  as  some  other  sub- 
stances, also  produce  the  same  effect; 
but  that  which  answers  the  purpose 
best,  and  which  is  almost  exclusively 
used  by  dairy  farmers,  is  rennet,  or  the 
mucous  membrane  of  the  last  stom- 
ach of  the  calf.  Alkalies  dissolve  this 
curd  at  a  boiling  heat,  and  acids  again 
precipitate  it.  The  solubility  of  casein 
in  milk  is  occasioned  by  the  presence  of 
the  phosphates  and  other  salts  of  the  alka- 
lies. In  fresh  milk  these  substances  may 
be  readily  detected  by  the  property  it 
possesses  of  restoring  the  color  of  red- 
dened litmus  paper.  The  addition  of  an 
acid  neutralizes  the  alkali,  and  so  pre- 
cipitates the  curd  in  an  insoluble  state. 
The  philosophy  of  cheese  making  is  thus 
expounded  by  Liebig: 

"  The  acid  indispensable  to  the  co- 
agulation of  milk  is  not  added  to  the  milk 
in  the  preparation  of  cheese,  but  it  is 
formed  in  the  milk  at  the  expense  of  the 
milk-sugar  present.  A  small  quantity 
of  water  is  left  in  contact  with  a  small 
quantity  of  a  calf's  stomach  for  a  few 
hours,  or  for  a  night;  the  water  absorbs 
so  minute  a  portion  of  the  mucous  mem- 
brane as  to  be  scarcely  ponderable;  this 
is  mixed  with  milk;  its  state  of  transfor- 
mation is  communicated  (and  this  is  a 
most  important  circumstance)  not  to  the 
cheese,  but  to  the  milk-sugar,  the  ele- 
ments of  which  transpose  themselves 
into  lactic  acid,  which  neutralizes  the 
alkalies,  and  thus  causes  the  separation 
of  the  cheese.  By  means  of  litmus  paper 
the  process  may  be  followed  and  observed 
through  all  its  stages;  the  alkaline  re- 
action of  the  milk  ceases  as  soon  as  the 
coagulation  begins.  If  the  cheese  is  not 
immediately  separated  from  the  whey, 
the  formation  of  lactic  acid  continues, 
the  fluid  turns  acid,  and.  the  cheese  itself 
passes  into  a  state  of  decomposition. 

"When  cheese-curd  is  kept  in  a  cool 
place  a  series  of  transformation  takes 
place,  in  consequence  of  which  it  as- 
sumes entirely  new  properties;  it  gradu- 
ally becomes  semi-transparent,  and  more 
or  less  soft,  throughout  the  whole  mass; 
it  exhibits  a  feebly  acid  reaction,  and 
develops  the  characteristic  caseous  odor. 
Fresh  cheese  is  very  sparingly  soluble  in 
water,  but  after  having  been  left  to  itself 
for  two  or  three  years  it  becomes  (es- 
pecially if  all  the  fat  be  previously  re- 
moved) almost  completely  soluble  in 
cold  water,  forming  with  it  a  solution 
which,  like  milk,  is  coagulated  by  the 
addition  of  the  acetic  or  any  mineral 
acid.  The  cheese,  which  whilst  fresh  is 
insoluble,  returns  during  the  maturation, 
or  ripening,  as  it  is  called,  to  a  state  sim- 
ilar to  that  in  which  it  originally  existed 
in  the  milk.  In  those  English,  Dutch, 
and  Swiss  cheeses  which  are  nearly  in- 
odorous, and  in  the  superior  kinds  of 
French  cheese,  the  casein  of  the  milk  is 
present  in  its  unaltered  state. 

"  The  odor  and  flavor  of  the  cheese  is 
due  to  the  decomposition  of  the  butter; 
the  non-volatile  acids,  the  margaric  and 
oleic  acids,  and  the  volatile  butyric  acid, 
capric  and  caproic  acids  are  liberated 
in  consequence  of  the  decomposition 
of  glycerine.  Butyric  acid  imparts  to 
cheese  its  characteristic  caseous  odor, 
and  the  differences  in  its  pungency  or 
aromatic  flavor  depend  upon  the  propor- 
tion of  free  butyric,  capric,  and  caproic 
acids  present.  In  the  cheese  of  certain 
dairies  and  districts,  valerianic  acid  has 
been  detected  along  with  the  other  acids 
just  referred  to.  Messrs  Jljenjo  and 
Laskowski  found  this  acid  in  the  cheese 
of  Limbourg,  and  M.  Bolard  in  that  of 

"  The  transition  of  the  insoluble  into 
soluble  casein  depends  upon  the  de- 
composition of  the  phosphate  of  lime  by 
the  margaric  acid  of  the  butter;  mar- 
garate  of  lime  is  formed,  whilst  the  phos- 
phoric acid  combines  with  the  casein, 
forming  a  compound  soluble  in  water. 

"  The  bad  smell  of  inferior  kinds  of 
cheese,  especially  those  called  meager  or 
poor  cheeses,  is  caused  by  certain  fetid 
products  containing  sulphur,  and  which 
are  formed  by  the  decomposition  or  pu- 
trefaction of  the  casein.  The  alteration 
which  the  butter  undergoes  (that  is,  in 
becoming  rancid),  or  which  occurs  in  the 
milk-sugar  still  present,  being  trans- 
mitted to  the  casein,  changes  both  the 
composition  of  the  latter  substance  and 
its  nutritive  qualities. 

"  The  principal  conditions  for  the  prep- 
aration of  the  superior  kinds  of  cheese. 



(other  obvious  circumstances  being  of 
course  duly  regarded)  are  a  careful 
removal  of  the  whey,  which  holds  the 
milk-sugar  in  solution,  and  a  low  tem- 
perature during  the  maturation  or  rip- 
ening of  the  cheese." 

Cheese  differs  vastly  in  quality  and 
flavor  according  to  the  method  em- 
ployed in  its  manufacture  and  the  rich- 
ness of  the  milk  of  which  it  is  made. 
Much  depends  upon  the  quantity  of 
cream  it  contains,  and,  consequently, 
when  a  superior  quality  of  cheese  is  de- 
sired cream  is  frequently  added  to  the 
curd.  This  plan  is  adopted  in  the  man- 
ufacture of  Stilton  cheese  and  others  of 
a  like  description.  The  addition  of  a 
pound  or  two  of  butter  to  the  curd  for  a 
middling  size  cheese  also  vastly  improves 
the  quality  of  the  product.  To  insure 
the  richness  of  the  milk,  not  only  should 
the  cows  be  properly  fed,  but  certain 
breeds  chosen.  Those  of  Alderney, 
Cheddar,  Cheshire,  etc.,  have  been 
widely  preferred. 

The  materials  employed  in  making 
cheese  are  milk  and  rennet.  Rennet  is 
used  either  fresh  or  salted  and  dried; 
generally  in  the  latter  state.  The  milk 
may  be  of  any  kind,  according  to  the 
quality  of  the  cheese  required.  Cows' 
milk  is  that  generally  employed,  but  occa- 
sionally ewes'  milk  is  used;  and  some- 
times, though  more  rarely,  that  from 

In  preparing  his  cheese  the  dairy 
farmer  puts  the  greater  portion  of  the 
milk  into  a  large  tub,  to  which  he  adds 
the  remainder,  sufficiently  heated  to 
raise  the  temperature  to  that  of  new 
milk.  The  whole  is  then  whisked  to- 
gether, the  rennet  or  rennet  liquor  added, 
and  the  tub  covered  over.  It  is  now  al- 
lowed to  stand  until  completely  **  turned," 
when  the  curd  is  gently  struck  down 
several  times  with  the  skimming  dish, 
after  which  it  is  allowed  to  subside. 
The  vat,  covered  with  cheese  cloth,  is 
next  placed  on  a  "  horse  "  or  "  ladder  " 
over  the  tub,  and  filled  with  curd  by 
means  of  the  skimmer,  care  being  taken 
to  allow  as  little  as  possible  of  the  oily 
particles  or  butter  to  run  back  with  the 
whey.  The  curd  is  pressed  down  with 
the  hands,  and  more  added  as  it  sinks. 
This  process  is  repeated  until  the  curd 
rises  to  about  two  inches  above  the  edge. 
The  newly  formed  cheese,  thus  partially 
separated  from  the  whey,  is  now  placed 
in  a  clean  tub,  and  a  proper  quantity  of 
salt,  as  well  as  of  annotta,  added  when 
that  coloring  is  used,  after  which  a  board 
is  placed  over  and  under  it,  and  pressure 
applied  for  about  2  or  3  hours.  The 

cheese  is  next  turned  out  and  surrounded 
by  a  fresh  cheese  cloth,  and  then  again 
submitted  to  pressure  in  the  cheese 
press  for  8  or  10  hours,  after  which  it  is 
commonly  removed  from  the  press,  salted 
all  over,  and  again  pressed  for  15  to  20 
hours.  The  quality  of  the  cheese  es- 
pecially depends  on  this  part  of  the  proc- 
ess, as  if  any  of  the  whey  is  left  in  the 
cheese  it  rapidly  becomes  bad-flavored. 
Before  placing  it  in  the  press  the  last 
time  the  common  practice  is  to  pare  the 
edges  smooth  and  sightly.  It  now  only 
remains  to  wash  the  outside  of  the 
cheese  in  warm  whey  or  water,  to  wipe 
it  dry,  and  to  color  it  with  annotta  or 
reddle,  as  is  usually  done. 

The  storing  of  the  newly  made  cheese 
is  the  next  point  that  engages  the  atten- 
tion of  the  maker  and  wholesale  dealer. 
The  same  principles  which  influence 
the  maturation  or  ripening  of  fermented 
liquors  also  operate  here.  A  cool  cellar, 
neither  damp  nor  dry,  and  which  is  un- 
influenced by  change  of  weather  or  sea- 
son, is  commonly  regarded  as  the  best 
for  the  purpose.  If  possible,  the  tem- 
perature should  on  no  account  be  per- 
mitted to  exceed  50°  or  52°  F.  at  any 
portion  of  the  year.  An  average  of 
about  45°  F.  is  preferable  when  it  can  be 
procured.  A  place  exposed  to  sudden 
changes  of  temperature  is  as  unfit  for 
storing  cheese  as  it  is  for  storing  beer. 
"The  quality  of  Roquefort  cheese,  which 
is  prepared  from  sheep's  milk,  and  is 
very  excellent,  depends  exclusively  upon 
the  places  where  the  cheeses  are  kept 
after  pressing  and  during  maturation. 
These  are  cellars,  communicating  with 
mountain  grottoes  and  caverns  which 
are  kept  constantly  cool,  at  about  41°  to 
42°  F.,  by  currents  of  air  from  clefts  in 
the  mountains.  The  value  of  these  cel- 
lars as  storehouses  varies  with  their 
property  of  maintaining  an  equable  and 
low  temperature." 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  very  slight 
differences  in  the  materials,  in  the  prep- 
aration, or  in  storing  of  the  cheese,  ma- 
terially influence  the  quality  and  flavor 
of  this  article.  The  richness  of  the  milk; 
the  addition  to  or  subtraction  of  cream 
from  the  milk;  the  separation  of  the 
curd  from  the  whey  with  or  without  com- 
pression; the  salting  of  the  curd;  the 
collection  of  the  curd,  either  whole  or 
broken,  before  pressing;  the  addition  of 
coloring  matter,  as  annotta  or  saffron,  or  of 
flavoring;  the  place  and  method  of  stor- 
ing; and  the  length  of  time  allowed  for 
maturation,  all  tend  to  alter  the  taste  and 
odor  of  the  cheese  in  some  or  other  par- 
ticular, and  that  in  a  way  readily  percep- 



tible  to  the  palate  of  the  connoisseur. 
No  other  alimentary  substance  appears 
to  be  so  seriously  affected  by  slight 
variations  in  the  quality  of  the  materials 
from  which  it  is  made,  or  by  such  ap- 
parently trifling  differences  in  the  meth- 
ods of  preparing. 

The  varieties  of  cheese  met  with  in 
commerce  are  very  numerous,  and  differ 
greatly  from  each  other  in  richness,  color, 
and  flavor.  These  are  commonly  dis- 
tinguished by  names  indicative  of  the 
places  in  which  they  have  been  manufac- 
tured, or  of  the  quality  of  the  materials 
from  which  they  have  been  prepared. 
Thus  we  have  Dutch,  Gloucester,  Stil- 
ton, skimmed  milk,  raw  milk,  cream,  and 
other  cheeses;  names  which  explain  them- 
selves. The  following  are  the  principal 
varieties : 

American  Factory. — Same  as  Cheddar. 

Brickbat. — Named  from  its  form; 
made,  in  Wiltshire,  of  new  milk  and 

Brie. — A  soft,  white,  cream  cheese  of 
French  origin. 

Cheddar. — A  fine,  spongy  kind  of 
cheese,  the  eyes  or  vesicles  of  which  con- 
tain a  rich  oil;  made  up  into  round,  thick 
cheeses  of  considerable  size  (150  to  200 

Cheshire. — From  new  milk,  without 
skimming,  the  morning's  milk  being 
mixed  with  that  of  the  preceding  even- 
ing's, previously  warmed,  so  that  the 
whole  may  be  brought  to  the  heat  of  new 
milk.  To  this  the  rennet  is  added,  in 
less  quantity  than  is  commonly  used  for 
other  kinds  of  cheese.  On  this  point 
much  of  the  flavor  and  mildness  of  the 
cheese  is  said  to  depend.  A  piece  of 
dried  rennet,  of  the  size  of  a  half-dollar 
put  into  a  pint  of  water  over  night,  and 
allowed  to  stand  until  the  next  morn- 
ing, is  sufficient  for  18  or  20  gallons  of 
milk;  in  large,  round,  thick  cheeses  (100 
to  200  pounds  each).  They  are  gen- 
erally solid,  homogeneous,  and  dry,  and 
friable  rather  than  viscid. 

Cottenham. — A  rich  kind  of  cheese,  in 
flavor  and  consistence  not  unlike  Stilton, 
from  which,  however,  it  differs  in  shape, 
being  flatter  and  broader  than  the  latter. 

Cream. — From  the  "strippings"  (the 
last  of  the  milk  drawn  from  the  cow  at 
each  milking),  from  a  mixture  of  milk 
and  cream,  or  from  raw  cream  only,  ac- 
cording to  the  quality  desired.  It  is 
usually  made  in  small  oblong,  square,  or 
rounded  cakes,  a  general  pressure  only 
(that  of  a  2-  or  4-pound  weight)  being 

applied  to  press  out  the  whey.  After  12 
hours  it  is  placed  upon  a  board  or  wood- 
en trencher,  and  turned  every  day  until 
dry.  It  ripens  in  about  3  weeks.  A 
little  salt  is  generally  added,  and  fre- 
quently a  little  powdered  lump  sugar. 

Damson. — Prepared  from  damsons 
boiled  with  a  little  water,  the  pulp  passed 
through  a  sieve,  and  then  boiled  with 
about  one-fourth  the  weight  of  sugar, 
until  the  mixture  solidifies  on  cooling;  it 
is  next  poured  into  small  tin  molds  pre- 
viously dusted  out  with  sugar.  Cherry 
cheese,  gooseberry  cheese,  plum  cheese, 
etc.,  are  prepared  in  the  same  way,  using 
the  respective  kinds  of  fruit.  They  are 
all  very  agreeable  candies  or  confections. 

Derbyshire. — A  small,  white,  rich 
variety,  very  similar  to  Dunlop  cheese. 

Dunlop. — Rich,  white,  and  buttery; 
in  round  forms,  weighing  from  30  to  60 

Dutch  (Holland).— Of  a  globular 
form,  5  to  14  pounds  each.  Those  from 
Edam  are  very  highly  salted;  those  from 
Gouda  less  so. 

Emmenthaler.  —  Same  as  Gruyere. 

Gloucester. — Single  Gloucester,  from 
milk  deprived  of  part  of  its  cream;  dou- 
ble Gloucester,  from  milk  retaining  the 
whole  of  the  cream.  Mild  tasted,  semi- 
buttery  consistence,  without  being  fri- 
able; in  large,  round,  flattish  forms. 

Green  or  Sage.  —From  milk  mixed  with 
the  juice  of  an  infusion  or  decoction  of 
sage  leaves,  to  which  marigold  flowers 
and  parsley  are  frequently  added. 

Gruyfere. — A  fine  kind  of  cheese  made 
in  Switzerland,  and  largely  consumed 
on  the  Continent.  It  is  firm  and  dry, 
and  exhibits  numerous  cells  of  con- 
siderable magnitude. 

Holland. — Same  as  Dutch. 

Leguminous. — The  Chinese  prepare 
an  actual  cheese  from  peas,  called  tao- 
foo,  which  they  sell  in  the  streets  of  Can- 
ton. The  paste  from  steeped  ground 
peas  is  boiled,  which  causes  the  starch  to 
dissolve  with  the  casein;  after  straining 
the  liquid  it  is  coagulated  by  a  solution 
of  gypsum;  this  coagulum  is  worked  up 
like  sour  milk,  salted,  and  pressed  into 

Limburger. — A  strong  variety  of  cheese, 
soft  and  well  ripened. 

Lincoln.  —  From  new  milk  and  cream; 
in  pieces  about  2  inches  thick.  Soft,  and 
will  not  keep  over  2  or  3  months. 



Neufchatel. — A  much-esteemed  vari- 
ety of  Swiss  cheese;  made  of  cream,  and 
weighs  about  5  or  6  ounces. 

Norfolk. — Dyed  yellow  with  annotta 
or  saffron;  good,  but  not  superior;  in 
cheeses  of  30  to  50  pounds. 

Parmesan. — From  the  curd  of  skimmed 
milk,  hardened  by  a  gentle  heat.  The 
rennet  is  added  at  about  120°,  and  an 
hour  afterwards  the  curdling  milk  is  set 
on  a  slow  fire  until  heated  to  about  150° 
F.,  during  which  the  curd  separates  in 
small  lumps.  A  few  pinches  of  saffron 
are  then  thrown  in.  About  a  fortnight 
after  making  the  outer  crust  is  cut  off, 
and  the  new  surface  varnished  with  lin- 
seed oil,  and  one  side  colored  red. 

Roquefort. — From  ewes'  milk;  the 
best  prepared  in  France.  It  greatly 
resembles  Stilton,  but  is  scarcely  of 
equal  richness  or  quality,  and  possesses 
a  peculiar  pungency  and  flavor. 

Roquefort,  Imitation. — The  gluten  of 
wheat  is  kneaded  with  a  little  salt  and  a 
small  portion  of  a  solution  of  starch,  and 
made  up  into  cheeses.  It  is  said  that 
this  mixture  soon  acquires  the  taste, 
smell,  and  unctuosity  of  cheese,  and 
when  kept  a  certain  time  is  not  to  be  dis- 
tinguished from  the  celebrated  Roquefort 
cheese,  of  which  it  possesses  all  the  pecu- 
liar pungency.  By  slightly  varying  the 
process  other  kinds  of  cheese  may  be 

Sage. — Same  as  green  cheese. 

Slipcoat  or  Soft. — A  very  rich,  white 
cheese,  somewhat  resembling  butter; 
for  present  use  only. 

Stilton. — The  richest  and  finest  cheese 
made  in  England.  From  raw  milk  to 
which  cream  taken  from  other  milk  is 
added;  in  cheeses  generally  twicers  high 
as  they  are  broad.  Like  wine,  this 
cheese  is  vastly  improved  by  age,  and  is 
therefore  seldom  eaten  before  it  is  2 
years  old.  A  spurious  appearance  of 
age  is  sometimes  given  to  it  by  placing 
it  in  a  warm,  damp  cellar,  or  by  sur- 
rounding it  with  masses  of  fermenting 
straw  or  dung. 

Suffolk. — From  skimmed  milk;  in 
round,  flat  forms,  from  24  to  30  pounds 
each.  Very  hard  and  horny. 

Swiss. — The  principal  cheeses  made 
in  Switzerland  are  the  Gruyere,  the 
Neufchatel,  and  the  Schabzieger  or 
green  cheese.  The  latter  is  flavored 
with  melitot. 

Westphalian. — Made  in  small  balls  or 
rolls  of  about  1  pound  each.  It  derives 

its  peculiar  flavor  from  the  curd  being 
allowed  to  become  partially  putrid  before 
being  pressed.  In  small  balls  or  rolls  of 
about  1  pound  each. 

Wiltshire. — Resembles  Cheshire  or 
Gloucester.  The  outside  is  painted  with 
reddle  or  red  ocher  or  whey. 

York. — From  cream.     It  will  not  keep. 

We  give  below  the  composition  of 
some  of  the  principal  varieties  of  cheese: 


Ched-  Glouces-  Skim 
dar         ter 

Water 36.64      35.61  43.64 

Casein 23.38      21.76  45.64 

Fatty  matter 35.44      38.16  5.76 

Mineral  matter..       4.54        4.47  4.96 

100.00    100.00     100.00 




Milk,  sugar,  and  ex- 
tractive matters 

Mineral  matter 

Stilton  Cother- 

32.18  38.28 
37.36  30.89 
24.31  23.93 



100.00       100.00 

Gruyere  Ordinary 

(Swiss)  Dutch 

Water 40.00  36.10 

Casein 31.50  29.40 

Fatty  matter 24.00  27.50 

Salts 3.00  .90 

Non  -  nitrogenous    or- 
ganic   matter    and 

loss 1.50  6.10 

100.00      100.00 

When  a  whole  cheese  is  cut,  and  the 
consumption  small,  it  is  generally  found 
to  become  unpleasantly  dry,  and  to  lose 
flavor  before  it  is  consumed.  This  is 
best  prevented  by  cutting  a  sufficient 
quantity  for  a  few  days'  consumption 
from  the  cheese,  and  keeping  the  re- 
mainder in  a  cool  place,  rather  damp 
than  dry,  spreading  a  thin  film  of  butter 
over  the  fresh  surface,  and  covering  it 
with  a  cloth  or  pan  to  keep  off  the  dirt. 
This  removes  the  objection  existing  in 
small  families  against  purchasing  a 
whole  cheese  at  a  time.  The  common 
practice  of  buying  small  quantities  of 
cheese  should  be  avoided,  as  not  only  a 
higher  price  is  paid  for  any  given  quality 
but  there  is  little  likelihood  of  obtaining 
exactly  the  same  flavor  twice  running. 
Should  cheese  become  too  dry  to  b§ 



agreeable,  it  may  be  used  for  stewing, 
or  for  making  grated  cheese,  or  Welsh 

Goats*  Milk  Cheese.— Goats'  milk 
cheese  is  made  as  follows:  Warm  20 
quarts  of  milk  and  coagulate  it  with 
rennet,  either  the  powder  or  extract. 
Separate  the  curds  from  the  whey  in  a 
colander.  After  a  few  days  the  dry  curd 
may  be  shaped  into  larger  or  smaller 
cheeses,  the  former  only  salted,  the  latter 
containing  salt  and  caraway  seed.  The 
cheeses  must  be  turned  every  day,  and 
sprinkled  with  salt,  and  any  mold  re- 
moved. After  a  few  days  they  may  be 
put  away  on  shelves  to  ripen,  and  left  for 
several  weeks.  Pure  goat's  milk  cheese 
should  be  firm  and  solid  all  the  way 
through.  Twenty  quarts  of  milk  will 
make  about  4  pounds  of  cheese, 


See  Food. 

See  Gardens,  Chemical. 

See  Balsam. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 

Chewing  Gums 

Manufacture. — The  making  of  chew- 
ing gum  is  by  no  means  the  simple  oper- 
ation which  it  seems  to  be.  Much  expe- 
rience in  manipulation  is  necessary  to 
succeed,  and  the  published  formulas  can 
at  best  serve  as  a  guide  rather  than  as 
something  to  be  absolutely  and  blindly 
followed.  Thus,  if  the  mass  is  either  too 
hard  or  soft,  change  the  proportions  until 
it  is  right;  often  it  will  be  found  that 
different  purchases  of  the  same  article 
will  vary  in  their  characteristics  when 
worked  up.  But  given  a  basis,  the  man- 
ufacturer can  flavor  and  alter  to  suit 
himself.  The  most  successful  manu- 
facturers attribute  their  success  to  the 
employment  of  the  most  approved  ma- 
chinery and  the  greatest  attention  to 
details.  The  working  formulas  and  the 
processes  of  these  manufacturers  are 
guarded  as  trade  secrets,  and  aside  from 
publishing  general  formulas,  little  in- 
formation can  be  given. 

Chicle  gum  is  purified  by  boiling  with 
water  and  separating  the  foreign  matter. 
Flavorings,  pepsin,  sugar,  etc.,  are 
worked  in  under  pressure  by  suitable 
machinery.  Formula: 

I. — Gum  chicle 1  pound 

Sugar 2  pounds 

Glucose 1  pound 

Caramel  butter 1  pound 

First  mash  and  soften  the  gum  at  a 
gentle  heat.  Place  the  sugar  and  glu- 
cose in  a  small  copper  pan;  add  enough 
water  to  dissolve  the  sugar;  set  on  a  fire 
and  cook  to  244°  F. ;  lift  off  the  fire;  add 
the  caramel  butter  and  lastly  the  gum; 
mix  well  into  a  smooth  paste;  roll  out  on  a 
smooth  marble,  dusting  with  finely  pow- 
dered sugar,  run  through  sizing  machine 
to  the  proper  thickness,  cut  into  strips, 
and  again  into  thin  slices. 

II. — Chicle 6  ounces 

Paraffine 2  ounces 

Balsam  of  Tolu  ...        2  drachms 
Balsam  of  Peru. . .        1  drachm 

Sugar 20  ounces 

Glucose 8  ounces 

Water 6  ounces 

Flavoring,  enough. 

Triturate  the  chicle  and  balsams  in 
water,  take  out  and  add  the  paraffine, 
first  heated.  Boil  the  sugar,  glucose, 
and  water  together  to  what  is  known  to 
confectioners  as  "crack  "  heat,  pour  the 
syrup  over  the  oil  slab  and  turn  into  it 
the  gum  mixture,  which  will  make  it 
tough  and  plastic.  Add  any  desired 

III. — Gum  chicle 122  parts 

Paraffine 42  parts 

Balsam  of  Tolu. ...        4  parts 

Sugar 384  parts 

Water 48  parts 

Dissolve  the  sugar  in  the  water  by  the 
aid  of  heat  and  pour  the  resultant  syrup 
on  an  oiled  slab.  Melt  the  gum,  balsam, 
and  paraffine  together  and  pour  on  top 
of  the  syrup,  and  work  the  whole  up  to- 

IV. — Gum  chicle 240  parts 

White  wax 64  parts 

Sugar 640  parts 

Glucose 128  parts 

Water 192  parts 

Balsam  of  Peru ...        4  parts 
Flavoring  matter,  enough. 
Proceed  as  indicated  in  II. 

V.— Balsam  of  Tolu 4  parts 

Benzoin 1  part 

White  wax 1  part 

Paraffine 1  part 

Powdered  sugar.    ...    1  part 
Melt  together,  mix  well,  and  roll  into 
sticks  of  the  usual  dimensions. 

Mix,  and,  when  sufficiently  cool,  roll 
out  into  sticks  or  any  other  desirable 



Spruce  Chewing  Gum. — 

Spruce  gum 20  parts 

Chicle 20  parts 

Sugar,  powdered. .   60  parts 

Melt  the  gums  separately,  mix  while 
hot,  and  immediately  add  the  sugar,  a 
small  portion  at  a  time,  kneading  it  thor- 
oughly on  a  hot  slab.  When  com- 
pletely incorporated  remove  to  a  cold 
slab,  previously  dusted  with  powdered 
sugar,  roll  out  at  once  into  sheets,  and 
cut  into  sticks.  Any  desired  flavor  or 
color  may  be  added  to  or  incorporated 
with  the  sugar. 


See  Insecticides. 


See  Veterinary  Formulas. 


See  Foods. 


See  Ointments. 


See  Soap. 

See  Doses. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 


See  Adhesives  and  Lutes. 


See  Ceramics. 


See  Cleaning  Preparations  and  Meth- 
ods, under  Miscellaneous  Methods. 


See  Porcelain. 


China  riveting  is  best  left  to  practical 
men,  but  it  can  be  done  with  a  drill  made 
from  a  splinter  of  a  diamond  fixed  on  a 
handle.  If  this  is  not  to  be  had,  get  a 
small  three-cornered  file,  harden  it  by 
placing  it  in  the  fire  till  red  hot,  and  then 
plunging  it  in  cold  water.  Next  grind 
the  point  on  a  grindstone  and  finish  on 
an  oilstone.  With  the  point  pick  out  the 
place  to  be  bored,  taking  care  to  do  it 

fently  for  fear  of  breaking  the  article, 
n  a  little  while  a  piece  will  break  off, 
then   the   hole   can   easily   be    made   by 
working    the    point    round.      The    wire 
may  then  be  passed  through  and  fas- 

tened. A  good  cement  may  be  made 
from  1  ounce  of  grated  cheese,  J  ounce 
of  finely  powdered  quicklime,  and  white 
of  egg  sufficient  to  make  a  paste.  The 
less  cement  applied  the  better,  using  a 
feather  to  spread  it  over  the  broken 


See  Disinfectants. 


See  Acid-Proofing. 


Prepare  1,000  parts  of  finished  cacao 
and  30  parts  of  fresh  cacao  oil,  in  a 
warmed,  polished,  iron  mortar,  into  a 
liquid  substance,  add  to  it  800  parts  of 
finely  powdered  sugar,  and,  after  a  good 
consistency  has  been  reached,  60  parts  of 
powdered  iron  lactate  and  60  parts  of 
sugar  syrup,  finely  rubbed  together. 
Scent  with  40  parts  of  vanilla  sugar.  Of 
this  mass  weigh  out  tablets  of  125  parts 
into  the  molds. 

Coating  Tablets  with  Chocolate. —If  a 
chocolate  which  is  free  from  sugar  be 
placed  in  a  dish  over  a  water  bath,  it  will 
melt  into  a  fluid  of  proper  consistence 
for  coating  tablets.  No  water  must  be 
added.  The  coating  is  formed  by  dip- 
ping the  tablets.  When  they  are  suffi- 
ciently hardened  they  are  laid  on  oiled 
paper  to  dry. 

See  Castor  Oil. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 


See  Essences  and  Extracts. 


See  Beverages. 


See  Veterinary  Formulas. 


Sun  Cholera  Mixture.— 

Tincture  of  opium ...  1  part 

Tincture  of  capsicum.  1  part 

Tincture  of  rhubarb. .  1  part 

Spirit  of  camphor  ....  1  part 

Spirit  of  peppermint .  .  1  pa~t 

Squibb's  Diarrhea  Mixture.— 

Tincture  opium 40  parts 

Tincture  capsicum. .  .    40  parts 

Spirit  camphor 40  parts 

Chloroform 15  parts 

Alcohol 65  parts 



Aromatic  Rhubarb. — 

Cinnamon,  ground . .       8  parts 

Rhubarb 8  parts 

Calumba 4  parts 

Saffron 1  part 

Powdered  opium 2  parts 

Oil  peppermint 5  parts 

Alcohol,  q.  s.  ad  .  .  .  .  100  parts 
Macerate  the  ground  drugs  with  75 
parts  alcohol  in  a  closely  covered  per- 
colator for  several  days,  then  allow  per- 
colation to  proceed,  using  sufficient  al- 
cohol to  obtain  95  parts  of  percolate.  In 
percolate  dissolve  the  oil  of  peppermint. 

Rhubarb  and  Camphor. — 

Tincture  capsicum. . .  2  ounces 

Tincture  opium 2  ounces 

Tincture  camphor.. . .  3  ounces 

Tincture  catechu 4  ounces 

Tincture  rhubarb. ...  4  ounces 

Spirit  peppermint. ...  4  ounces 

Blackberry  Mixture. — 
Fluid    extract    black- 
berry root 2  pints 

Fluid  ginger,  soluble.  5J  ounces 

Fluid  catechu 5J  ounces 

Fluid  opium  for  tinc- 
ture   160  minims 

Brandy 8  ounces 

Sugar 4  pounds 

Essence  cloves 256  minims 

Essence  cinnamon  .  .  256  minims 

Chloroform 128  minims 

Alcohol  (25  per  cent), 

q.  s.  ad 1  gallon 


See  Condiments. 


See  Pigments. 


See  Adhesives. 


The  production  of  chromo  pictures 
requires  a  little  skill.  Practice  is  neces- 
sary. The  glass  plate  to  be  used  should 
be  washed  off  with  warm  water,  and  then 
laid  in  a  10  per  cent  solution  of  nitric 
acid.  After  one  hour,  wash  with  clean, 
cold  water,  dry  with  a  towel,  and  polish 
the  plate  with  good  alcohol  on  the  in- 
side— hollow  side — until  no  finger  marks 
or  streaks  are  visible.  This  is  best  as- 
certained by  breathing  on  the  glass;  the 
breath  should  show  an  even  blue  surface 
on  the  glass. 

Coat  the  unmounted  photograph  to  be 
colored  with  benzine  by  means  of  wad- 

ding, but  without  pressure,  so  that  the 
retouching  of  the  picture  is  not  dis- 
turbed. Place  2  tablets  of  ordinary 
kitchen  gelatin  in  8f  ounces  of  distilled 
or  pure  rain  water,  soak  for  an  hour,  and 
then  heat  until  the  gelatin  has  com- 
pletely dissolved.  Pour  this  warm  solu- 
tion over  the  polished  side  of  the  glass, 
so  that  the  liquid  is  evenly  distributed. 
The  best  way  is  to  pour  the  solution  on 
the  upper  right-hand  corner,  allowing  it 
to  flow  into  the  left-hand  corner,  from 
there  to  the  left  below  and  right  below, 
finally  letting  the  superfluous  liquid 
run  off.  Take  the  photograph,  which 
has  been  previously  slightly  moistened 
on  the  back,  lay  it  with  the  picture 
side  on  the  gelatin-covered  plate,  cen- 
tering it  nicely,  and  squeeze  out  the 
excess  gelatin  solution  gently,  prefer- 
ably by  means  of  a  rubber  squeegee. 
Care  must  be  taken,  however,  not  to  dis- 
place the  picture  in  this  manipulation,  as 
it  is  easily  spoiled. 

The  solution  must  never  be  allowed  to 
boil,  since  this  would  render  the  gelatin 
brittle  and  would  result  in  the  picture, 
after  having  been  finished,  cracking  off 
from  the  glass  in  a  short  time.  When 
the  picture  has  been  attached  to  the  glass 
plate  without  blisters  (which  is  best  ob- 
served from  the  back),  the  edge  of  the 
glass  is  cleansed  of  gelatin,  preferably 
by  means  of  a  small  sponge  and  luke- 
warm water,  and  the  plate  is  allowed  to 
dry  over  night. 

When  the  picture  and  the  gelatin  are 
perfectly  dry,  coat  the  back  of  the  picture 
a  few  times  with  castor  oil  until  it  is  per- 
fectly transparent;  carefully  remove  the 
oil  without  rubbing,  and  proceed  with 
the  painting,  which  is  best  accomplished 
with  good,  not  over-thick  oil  colors.  The 
coloring  must  be  observed  from  the  glass 
side,  and  for  this  reason  the  small  details, 
such  as  eyes,  lips,  beard,  and  hair, 
should  first  be  sketched  in.  When  the 
first  coat  is  dry  the  dress  and  the  flesh 
tints  are  painted.  The  whole  surface 
may  be  painted  over,  and  it  is  not  neces- 
sary to  paint  shadows,  as  these  are  al- 
ready present  in  the  picture,  and  con- 
sequently show  the  color  through  in 
varying  strength. 

When  the  coloring  has  dried,  a  second 
glass  plate  should  be  laid  on  for  protec- 
tion, pasting  the  two  edges  together  with 
narrow  strips  of  linen. 


To  Make  Cider.— Pick  the  apples  off 
the  tree  by  hand.  Every  apple  before 
going  into  the  press  should  be  carefully 



wiped.  As  soon  as  a  charge  of  apples 
is  ground,  remove  the  pomace  and  put  in 
a  cask  with  a  false  bottom  and  a  strainer 
beneath  it,  and  a  vessel  to  catch  the 
drainage  from  pomace.  As  fast  as  the 
juice  runs  from  the  press  place  it  in 
clean,  sweet,  open  tubs  or  casks  with  the 
heads  out  and  provide  with  a  faucet,  put 
in  about  two  inches  above  bottom.  The 
juice  should  be  closely  watched  and  as 
soon  as  the  least  sign  of  fermentation  ap- 
pears (bubbles  on  top,  etc.)  it  should  be 
run  off  into  casks  prepared  for  this  pur- 
pose and  placed  in  a  moderately  cool 
room.  The  barrels  should  be  entirely 
filled,  or  as  near  to  the  bunghole  as 
possible.  After  fermentation  is  well 
under  way  the  spume  or  foam  should  be 
scraped  off  with  a  spoon  several  times  a 
day.  When  fermentation  has  ceased 
the  cider  is  racked  off  into  clean  casks, 
filled  to  the  bunghole,  and  the  bung 
driven  in  tightly.  It  is  now  ready  for 
use  or  for  bottling. 

Champagne  Cider. — I. — To  convert  or- 
dinary cider  into  champagne  cider,  pro- 
ceed as  follows:  To  100  gallons  of  good 
cider  add  3  gallons  of  strained  honey  (or 
24  pounds  of  white  sugar  will  answer), 
stir  in  well,  tightly  bung,  and  let  alone 
for  a  week.  Clarify  the  cider  by  adding 
a  half  gallon  of  skimmed  milk,  or  4  ounces 
of  gelatin  dissolved  in  sufficient  hot 
water  and  add  4  gallons  of  proof  spirit. 
Let  stand  3  days  longer,  then  syphon  off, 
bottle,  cork,  and  tie  or  wire  down. 
Bunging  the  cask  tightly  is  done  in  order 
to  induce  a  slow  fermentation,  and  thus 
retain  in  the  cider  as  much  carbonic  acid 
as  possible. 

II. — Put  10  gallons  of  old  and  clean 
cider  in  a  strong  and  iron-bound  cask, 
pitched  within  (a  sound  beer  cask  is  the 
very  thing),  and  add  and  stir  in  well  40 
ounces  of  simple  syrup.  Add  5  ounces 
of  tartaric  acid,  let  dissolve,  then  add  7| 
ounces  sodium  bicarbonate  in  powder. 
Have  the  bung  ready  and  the  moment 
the  soda  is  added  put  it  in  and  drive  it 
home.  The  cider  will  be  ready  for  use 
in  a  few  hours. 

Cider  Preservative. — I. — The  addition 
of  154  grains  of  bismuth  subnitrate  to  22 
gallons  of  cider  prevents,  or  materially 
retards,  the  hardening  of  the  beverage  on 
exposure  to  air;  moreover,  the  bismuth 
salt  renders  alcoholic  fermentation  more 

II. — Calcium  sulphite  (sulphite  of 
lime)  is  largely  used  to  prevent  fermen- 
tation in  cider.  About  J  to  I  of  an  ounce 
of  the  sulphite  is  required  for  1  gallon  of 
cider.  It  should  first  be  dissolved  in  a 

small  quantity  of  cider,  then  added  to 
the  bulk,  and  the  whole  agitated  until 
thoroughly  mixed.  The  barrel  should 
then  be  bunged  and  allowed  to  stand  for 
several  days,  until  the  action  of  the  sul- 
phite is  exerted.  It  will  preserve  the 
sweetness  of  cider  perfectly,  but  care 
should  be  taken  not  to  add  too  much,  as 
that  would  impart  a  slight  sulphurous 

Artificial  Ciders.— To  25  gallons  of 
soft  water  add  2  pounds  of  tartaric  acid, 
25  or  30  pounds  of  sugar,  and  a  pint  of 
yeast;  put  in  a  warm  place,  and  let  fer- 
ment for  15  days,  then  add  the  flavoring 
matter  to  suit  taste.  The  various  fruit 
ethers  are  for  sale  at  any  wholesale  drug 

Bottling  Sweet  Cider. — Champagne 
quarts  are  generally  used  for  bottling 
cider,  as  they  are  strong  and  will  stand 
pressure,  besides  being  a  convenient 
size  for  consumers.  In  making  cider 
champagne  the  liquor  should  be  clari- 
fied and  bottled  in  the  sweet  condition, 
that  is  to  say,  before  the  greater  part  of 
the  sugar  which  it  contains  has  been 
converted  into  alcohol  by  fermentation. 
The  fermentation  continues,  to  a  certain 
extent,  in  the  bottle,  transforming  more 
of  the  sugar  into  alcohol,  and  the  car- 
bonic acid,  being  unable  to  escape,  is 
dissolved  in  the  cider  and  produces  the 

The  greater  the  quantity  of  sugar 
contained  in  the  liquor,  when  it  is  bot- 
tled, the  more  complete  is  its  carbona- 
tion  by  the  carbonic-acid  gas,  and  con- 
sequently the  more  sparkling  it  is  when 
poured  out.  But  this  is  true  only  within 
certain  limits,  for  if  the  production  of 
sugar  is  too  high  the  fermentation  will 
be  arrested. 

To  make  the  most  sparkling  cider  the 
liquor  is  allowed  to  stand  for  three,  four, 
five,  or  six  weeks,  during  which  fermen- 
tation proceeds.  The  time  varies  ac- 
cording to  the  nature  of  the  apples,  and 
also  to  the  temperature;  when  it  is  very 
warm  the  first  fermentation  is  usually 
completed  in  7  days. 

Before  bottling,  the  liquid  must  be 
fined,  and  this  is  best  done  with  catechu 
dissolved  in  cold  cider,  2  ounces  of  cate- 
chu to  the  barrel  of  cider.  This  is  well 
stirred  and  left  to  settle  for  a  few  days. 

The  cider  at  this  stage  is  still  sweet, 
and  it  is  a  point  of  considerable  nicety 
not  to  carry  the  first  fermentation  too 
far.  The  bottle  should  not  be  quite 
filled,  so  as  to  allow  more  freedom  for 
the  carbonic-acid  gas  which  forms. 

When    the    bottles    have    been    filled, 



corked,  and  wired  down,  they  should  be 
placed  in  a  good  cellar,  which  should  be 
dry,  or  else  the  cider  will  taste  of  the 
cork.  The  bottles  should  not  be  laid 
for  four  or  five  weeks,  or  breakage  will 
ensue.  When  they  are  being  laid  they 
should  be  placed  on  laths  of  wood  or  on 
dry  sand;  they  should  never  be  allowed 
on  cold  or  damp  floors. 

Should  the  cider  be  relatively  poor  in 
sugar,  or  if  it  has  been  fermented  too  far, 
about  1  ounce  of  powdered  loaf  sugar 
can  be  added  to  each  bottle,  or  else  a 
measure  of  sugar  syrup  before  pouring 
in  the  cider. 

Imitation  Cider. — 

I. — A  formula  for  an  imitation  cider  is 
as  follows: 

Rain  water 100  gallons 

Honey,  unstrained  .  .        6  gallons 
Catechu,  powdered.        3  ounces 
Alum,  powdered.  ...        5  ounces 
Yeast  (brewer's  pref- 
erably)         2  pints 

Mix  and  put  in  a  warm  place  to  fer- 
ment. Let  ferment  for  about  15  days; 
then  add  the  following,  stirring  well  in: 

Bitter  almonds,  crushed     8  ounces 
Cloves 8  ounces 

Let  stand  24  hours,  add  two  or  three 
gallons  of  good  whiskey,  and  rack  off  into 
clean  casks.  Bung  tightly,  let  stand  48 
hours,  then  bottle.  If  a  higher  color  is 
desired  use  caramel  sufficient  to  pro- 
duce the  correct  tinge.  If  honey  is  not 
obtainable,  use  sugar-house  molasses 
instead,  but  honey  is  preferable. 

II. — The    following,    when    properly 
prepared,   makes   a   passable   substitute 
for  cider,  and  a  very  pleasant  drink: 
Catechu,  powdered.  3  parts 

Alum,  powdered. . .  5  parts 

Honey 640  parts 

Water 12,800  parts 

Yeast 32  parts 

Dissolve  the  catechu,  alum,  and  honey 
in  the  water,  add  the  yeast,  and  put  in 
some  warm  place  to  ferment.  The  con- 
tainer should  be  filled  to  the  square  open- 
ing, made  by  sawing  out  five  or  six  inches 
of  the  center  of  a  stave,  and  the  spume 
skimmed  off  daily  as  it  arises.  In  cooler 
weather  from  2  weeks  to  18  days  will  be 
required  for  thorough  fermentation.  In 
warmer  weather  from  12  to  13  days  will 
be  sufficient.  When  fermentation  is  com- 
plete add  the  following  solution: 

Oil  of  bitter  almonds        1  part 

Oil  of  clover 1  part 

Caramel 32  parts 

Alcohol 192  parts 

The  alcohol  may  be  replaced  by  twice 
its  volume  of  good  bourbon  whiskey.  A 
much  cheaper,  but  correspondingly  poor 
substitute  for  the  above  may  be  made  as 

Twenty-five  gallons  of  soft  water,  2 
pounds  tartaric  acid,  25  pounds  of  brown 
sugar,  and  1  pint  of  yeast  are  allowed  to 
stand  in  a  warm  place,  in  a  clean  cask 
with  the  bung  out,  for  24  hours.  Then 
bung  up  the  cask,  after  adding  3  gallons 
of  whiskey,  and  let  stand  for  48  hours, 
after  which  the  liquor  is  ready  for  use. 


See  Vinegar. 


Cigar  Sizes  and  Colors. — Cigars  are 
named  according  to  their  color  and 
shape.  A  dead-black  cigar,  for  instance, 
is  an  "Oscuro,"  a  very  dark-brown  one 
is  a  "Colorado,"  a  medium  brown  is  a 
"Colorado  Claro,"  and  a  yellowish  light 
brown  is  a  "Claro."  Most  smokers 
know  the  names  of  the  shades  from 
"Claro"  to  "Colorado,"  and  that  is  as 
far  as  most  of  them  need  to  know.  As  to 
the  shapes,  a  "Napoleon"  is  the  biggest 
of  all  cigars — being  7  inches  long;  a  "Per- 
fecto"  swells  in  the  middle  and  tapers 
down  to  a  very  small  head  at  the  lighting 
end;  a  "Panatela"  is  a  thin,  straight,  up- 
and-down  cigar  without  the  graceful 
curve  of  the  "Perfecto";  a  "Conchas"  is 
very  short  and  fat,  and  a  "Londres"  is 
shaped  like  a  "Perfecto"  except  that  it 
does  not  taper  to  so  small  a  head  at  the 
lighting  end.  A  "Reina  Victoria"  is  a 
"Londres"  that  comes  packed  in  a  rib- 
bon-tied bundle  of  50  pieces,  instead  of 
in  the  usual  four  layers  of  13,  12,  13  and 

How  to  Keep  Cigars. — Cigars  kept  in 
a  case  are  influenced  every  time  the  case 
is  opened.  Whatever  of  taint  there  may 
be  in  the  atmosphere  rushes  into  the 
case,  and  is  finally  taken  up  by  the  cigars. 
Even  though  the  cigars  have  the  appear- 
ance of  freshness,  it  is  not  the  original 
freshness  in  which  they  were  received 
from  the  factory.  They  have  been  dry, 
or  comparatively  so,  and  have  absorbed 
more  moisture  than  has  been  put  in  the 
case,  and  it  matters  not  what  that  mois- 
ture may  be,  it  can  never  restore  the 
flavor  that  was  lost  during  the  drying-out 

After  all,  it  is  a  comparatively  simple 
matter  to  take  good  care  of  cigars.  All 
that  is  necessary  is  a  comparatively  air- 
tight, zinc-lined  chest.  This  should  be 



behind  the  counter  in  a  place  where  the 
temperature  is  even.  When  a  customer 
calls  for  a  cigar  the  dealer  takes  the  box 
out  of  the  chest,  serves  his  customer,  and 
then  puts  the  box  back  again.  The  box 
being  opened  for  a  moment  the  cigars  are 
not  perceptibly  affected.  The  cigars  in 
the  close,  heavy  chest  are  always  safe 
from  atmospheric  influences,  as  the  boxes 
are  closed,  and  the  chest  is  open  but  a 
moment,  while  the  dealer  is  taking  out  a 
box  from  which  to  serve  his  customer. 

Some  of  the  best  dealers  have  either  a 
large  chest  or  a  cool  vault  in  which  they 
keep  their  stock,  taking  out  from  time  to 
time  whatever  they  need  for  use.  Some 
have  a  number  of  small  chests,  in  which 
they  keep  different  brands,  so  as  to  avoid 
opening  and  closing  one  particular  chest 
so  often. 

It  may  be  said  that  it  is  only  the  high- 
er priced  cigars  that  need  special  care  in 
handling,  although  the  cheaper  grades 
are  not  to  be  handled  carelessly.  The 
Havana  cigars  are  more  susceptible  to 
change,  for  there  is  a  delicacy  of  flavor  to 
be  preserved  that  is  never  present  in  the 
cheaper  grades  of  cigars. 

Every  dealer  must,  of  course,  make  a 
display  in  his  show  case,  but  he  need  not 
serve  his  patrons  with  these  cigars.  The 
shrinkage  in  value  of  the  cigars  in  the 
case  is  merely  a  business  proposition  of 
profit  and  loss. 

Cigar  Flavoring.  —  I.  —  Macerate  2 
ounces  of  cinnamon  and  4  ounces  of 
tonka  beans,  ground  fine,  in  1  quart  of 

II. — Moisten  ordinary  cigars  with  a 
strong  tincture  of  cascarilla,  to  which  a 
little  gum  benzoin  and  storax  may  be 
added.  Some  persons  add  a  small  quan- 
tity of  camphor  or  oil  of  cloves  or  cassia. 

III. — Tincture  of  valerian.  4  drachms 

Butyric  aldehyde.  .  .  4  drachms 

Nitrous  ether 1  drachm 

Tincture  vanilla. ...  2  drachms 

Alcohol 5  ounces 

Water     enough     to 

make 16  ounces 

IV. — Extract  vanilla 4    ounces 

Alcohol $  gallon 

Jamaica  rum £  gallon 

Tincture  valerian. . .      8     ounces 

Caraway  seed 2     ounces 

i          English  valerian  root     2    ounces 
Bitter  orange  peel. .  .      2     ounces 

Tonka  beans 4     drachms 

Myrrh 16     ounces 

Soak  the  myrrh  for  3  days  in  6  quarts 
of  water,  add  the  alcohol,  tincture  va- 
lerian, and  extract  of  vanilla,  and  after 

grinding  the  other  ingredients  to  a  coarse 
powder,  put  all  together  in  a  jug  and 
macerate  for  2  weeks,  occasionally  shak- 
ing; lastly,  strain. 

V.— Into  a  bottle  filled  with  £  pint  of 
French  brandy  put  1J  ounces  of  cascar- 
illa bark  and  1J  ounces  of  vanilla  pre- 
viously ground  with  £  pound  of  sugar; 
carefully  close  up  the  flask  and  distil  in  a 
warm  place.  After  3  days  pour  off  the 
liquid,  and  add  J  pint  of  mastic  extract. 
The  finished  cigars  are  moistened  with 
this  liquid,  packed  in  boxes,  and  pre- 
served from  air  by  a  well-closed  lid. 
They  are  said  to  acquire  a  pleasant  flavor 
and  mild  strength  through  this  treat- 

Cigar  Spots. — The  speckled  appear- 
ance of  certain  wrappers  is  due  to  the 
work  of  a  species  of  fungus  that  attacks 
the  growing  tobacco.  In  a  certain  dis- 
trict of  Sumatra,  which  produces  an  ex- 
ceptionally fine  tobacco  for  wrappers, 
the  leaves  of  the  plant  are  commonly 
speckled  in  this  way.  Several  patents 
have  been  obtained  for  methods  of  spot- 
ting tobacco  leaves  artificially.  A  St. 
Louis  firm  uses  a  solution  composed  of: 

Sodium  carbonate 3  parts 

Calx  chlorinata 1  part 

Hot  water 8  parts 

Dissolve  the  washing  soda  in  the  hot 
water,  add  the  chlorinated  lime,  and 
heat  the  mixture  to  a  boiling  tempera- 
ture for  3  minutes.  When  cool,  decant 
into  earthenware  or  stoneware  jugs,  cork 
tightly,  and  keep  in  a  cool  place.  The 
corks  of  jugs  not  intended  for  immediate 
use  should  be  covered  with  a  piece  of 
bladder  or  strong  parchment  paper,  and 
tightly  tied  down  to  prevent  the  escape  of 
gas,  and  consequent  weakening  of  the 
bleaching  power  of  the  fluid.  The  pre- 
pared liquor  is  sprinkled  on  the  tobacco, 
the  latter  being  then  exposed  to  light  and 
air,  when,  it  is  said,  the  disagreeable  odor 
produced  soon  disappears. 


See  Wines  and  Liquors. 


See  Essences  and  Extracts. 


See  Antiseptics. 

See  Magnesium  Citrate. 


See  Beverages,  under  Lemonades. 




See  Gelatin. 


Clarification  is  the  process  by  which 
any  solid  particles  suspended  in  a  liquid 
are  either  caused  to  coalesce  together  or 
to  adhere  to  the  medium  used  for  clar- 
ifying, that  they  may  be  removed  by  fil- 
tration (which  would  previously  have 
been  impossible),  so  as  to  render  the 
liquid  clear. 

One  of  the  best  agents  for  this  purpose 
is  albumen.  When  clarifying  vegetable 
extracts,  the  albumen  which  is  naturally 
present  in  most  plants  accomplishes  this 
purpose  easily,  provided  the  vegetable 
matter  is  extracted  in  the  cold,  so  as  to 
get  as  much  albumen  as  possible  in  solu- 

Egg  albumen  may  also  be  used.  The 
effect  of  albumen  may  be  increased  by 
the  addition  of  cellulose,  in  the  form  of  a 
fine  magma  of  filtering  paper.  This  has 
the  further  advantage  that  the  subse- 
quent filtration  is  much  facilitated. 

Suspended  particles  of  gum  or  pectin 
may  be  removed  by  cautious  precipita- 
tion with  tannin,  of  which  only  an  ex- 
ceedingly small  amount  is  usually  neces- 
sary. It  combines  with  the  gelatinous 
substances  better  with  the  aid  of  heat 
than  in  the  cold.  There  must  be  no  ex- 
cess of  tannin  used. 

Another  method  of  clarifying  liquids 
turbid  from  particles  of  gum,  albumen, 
pectin,  etc.,  is  to  add  to  them  a  definite 
quantity  of  alcohol.  This  causes  the 
former  substances  to  separate  in  more  or 
less  large  flakes.  The  quantity  of  alco- 
hol required  varies  greatly  according  to 
the  nature  of  the  liquid.  It  should  be 
determined  in  each  case  by  an  experiment 
on  a  small  scale. 

Resinous  or  waxy  substances,  such  as 
are  occasionally  met  with  in  honey,  etc., 
may  be  removed  by  the  addition  of  bole, 
pulped  filtering  paper,  and  heating  to 

In  each  case  the  clarifying  process 
may  be  hastened  by  making  the  separat- 
ing particles  specifically  heavier;  that  is, 
by  incorporating  some  heavier  sub- 
stance, such  as  talcum,  etc.,  which  may 
cause  the  flocculi  to  sink  more  rapidly, 
and  to  form  a  compact  sediment. 

Clarifying  powder  for  alcoholic  liquids: 

Egg  albumen,  dry. ...    40  parts 

Sugar  of  milk 40  parts 

Starch 20  parts 

Reduce  them  to  very  fine  powder,  and 
mix  thoroughly. 

For  clarifying  liquors,  wines,  essences, 
etc.,  take  for  every  quart  of  liquid  75 
grains  of  the  above  mixture,  shake  re- 
peatedly in  the  course  of  a  few  days,  the 
mixture  being  kept  in  a  warm '  room, 
then  filter. 

Powdered  talcum  renders  the  same 
service,  and  has  the  additional  advan- 
tage of  being  entirely  insoluble.  How- 
ever, the  above  mixture  acts  more  ener- 


Claying  Mixture  for  Forges. — Twenty 
parts  fire  clay;  20  parts  cast-iron  turn- 
ings; 1  part  common  salt;  ^  part  sal  am- 
moniac; all  by  measure. 

The  materials  should  be  thoroughly 
mixed  dry  and  then  wet  down  to  the  con- 
sistency of  common  mortar,  constantly 
stirring  the  mass  as  the  wetting  proceeds. 
A  rough  mold  shaped  to  fit  the  tuyere 
opening,  a  trowel,  and  a  few  minutes' 
time  are  all  that  are  needed  to  complete 
the  successful  claying  of  the  forge.  This 
mixture  dries  hard  and  when  glazed  by 
the  fire  will  last. 

Plastic  Modeling  Clay. — A  perma- 
nently plastic  clay  can  be  obtained  by 
first  mixing  it  with  glycerine,  turpen- 
tine, or  similar  bodies,  and  then  adding 
vaseline  or  petroleum  residues  rich  in 
vaseline.  The  proportion  of  clay  to  the 
vaseline  varies  according  to  the  desired 
consistency  of  the  product,  the  admix- 
ture of  vaseline  varying  from  10  to  50 
per  cent.  It  is  obvious  that  the  hardness 
of  the  material  decreases  with  the 
amount  of  vaseline  added,  so  that  the  one 
richest  in  vaseline  will  be  the  softest.  By 
the  use  of  various  varieties  of  clay  and 
the  suitable  choice  of  admixtures,  the 
plasticity,  as  well  as  the  color  of  the  mass, 
may  be  varied. 

Cleaning  Preparations  and 

(See  also  Soaps,  Polishes,  and  House- 
hold Formulas). 



Removal  of  Aniline -Dye  Stains  from 
the  Skin. — Rub  the  stained  skin  with 
a  pinch  of  slightly  moistened  red  crys- 
tals of  chromic  trioxide  until  a  distinct 
sensation  of  warmth  announces  the  de- 
struction of  the  dye  stuff  by  oxidation 
and  an  incipient  irritation  of  the  skin. 
Then  rinse  with  soap  and  water.  A  sin- 
gle application  usually  suffices  to  remove 



the  stain.  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  call 
attention  to  the  poisonousness  and  strong 
caustic  action  of  chromic  trioxide;  but 
only  moderate  caution  is  required  to 
avoid  evil  effects. 

Pyrogallic-Acid  Stains  on  the  Fingers 
(see  also  Photography). — Pyro  stains  may 
be  prevented  fairly  well  by  rubbing  in  a 
little  wool  fat  before  beginning  work.  A 
very  effective  way  of  eliminating  devel- 
oper stains  is  to  dip  the  ringer  tips  occa- 
sionally during  development  into  the 
clearing  bath.  It  is  best  to  use  the 
clearing  bath,  with  ample  friction,  be- 
fore resorting  to  soap,  as  the  latter  seems 
to  have  a  fixing  effect  upon  the  stain. 
Lemon  peel  is  useful  for  removing  pyro 
stains,  and  so  are  the  ammonium  per- 
sulphate reducer  and  the  thiocarbamide 

To  Clean  Very  Soiled  Hands.— In  the 
morning  wash  in  warm  water,  using  a 
stiff  brush,  and  apply  glycerine.  Re- 
peat the  application  two  or  three  times 
during  the  day,  washing  and  brushing  an 
hour  or  so  afterwards,  or  apply  a  warm 
solution  of  soda  or  potash,  and  wash  in 
warm  water,  using  a  stiff  brush  as  before. 
Finally,  rub  the  hands  with  pumice  or 
infusorial  earth.  There  are  soaps  made 
especially  for  this  purpose,  similar  to 
those  for  use  on  woodwork,  etc.,  in 
which  infusorial  earth  or  similar  matter 
is  incorporated. 

To  Remove  Nitric-Acid  Stains. — One 
plan  to  avoid  stains  is  to  use  rubber 
finger  stalls,  or  rubber  gloves.  Nitric- 
acid  stains  can  be  removed  from  the 
hands  by  painting  the  stains  with  a  solu- 
tion of  permanganate  of  potash,  and 
washing  off  the  permanganate  with  a  5 
per  cent  solution  of  hydrochloric  (muri- 
atic) acid.  After  this  wash  the  hands 
with  pure  castile  soap.  Any  soap  that 
roughens  the  skin  should  be  avoided  at 
all  times.  Castile  soap  is  the  best  to 
keep  the  skin  in  good  condition. 


To  Clean  Gilt  Frames  and  Gilded  Sur- 
faces Generally. — Dip  a  soft  brush  in 
alcohol  to  which  a  few  drops  of  ammonia 
water  has  been  added,  and  with  it  go 
over  the  surface.  Do  not  rub — at  least, 
not  roughly,  or  harshly.  In  the  course 
of  five  minutes  the  dirt  will  have  become 
soft,  and  easy  of  removal.  Then  go  over 
the  surface  again  gently  with  the  same  or 
a  similar  brush  dipped  in  rain  water. 
Now  lay  the  damp  article  in  the  sunlight 
to  dry.  If  there  is  no  sunlight,  place  it 
near  a  warm  (but  not  hot}  stove,  and 
let  dry  completely.  In  order  to  avoid 

streaks,  take  care  that  the  position  of  the 
article,  during  the  drying,  is  not  exactly 

To  Clean  Fire-Gilt  Articles.— Fire-gilt 
articles  are  cleaned,  according  to  their 
condition,  with  water,  diluted  hydro- 
chloric acid,  ammonia,  or  potash  solu- 
tion. If  hydrochloric  acid  is  employed 
thorough  dilution  with  water  is  especially 
necessary.  The  acidity  should  hardly 
be  noticeable  on  the  tongue. 

To  clean  gilt  articles,  such  as  gold 
moldings,  etc.,  when  they  have  become 
tarnished  or  covered  with  flyspecks,  etc., 
rub  them  slowly  with  an  onion  cut  in  half 
and  dipped  in  rectified  alcohol,  and  wash 
off  lightly  with  a  moist  soft  sponge  after 
about  2  hours. 

Cleaning  Gilded  and  Polychromed 
Work  on  Altars. — To  clean  bright  gold 
a  fine  little  sponge  is  used  which  is 
moistened  but  lightly  with  tartaric  acid 
and  passed  over  the  gilding.  Next  go 
over  the  gilt  work  with  a  small  sponge 
saturated  with  alcohol  to  remove  all  dirt. 
For  matt  gilding,  use  only  a  white  flannel 
dipped  in  lye,  and  carefully  wipe  off  the 
dead  gold  with  this,  drying  next  with  a 
fine  linen  rag.  To  clean  polychromed 
work  sponge  with  a  lye  of  rain  water, 
1,000  parts,  and  calcined  potash,  68 
parts,  and  immediately  wash  off  with  a 
clean  sponge  and  water,  so  that  the  lye 
does  not  attack  the  paint  too  much. 

To  Remove  Aniline  Stains. — 

I. — Sodium  nitrate 7  grains 

Diluted  sulphuric  acid  15  grains 

Water 1  ounce 

Let  the  mixture  stand  a  day  or  two 
before  using.  Apply  to  the  spot  with  a 
sponge,  and  rinse  the  goods  with  plenty 
of  water. 

II. — An  excellent  medium  for  the  re- 
moval of  aniline  stains,  which  are  often 
very  stubborn,  has  been  found  to  be 
liquid  opodeldoc.  After  its  use  the 
stains  are  said  to  disappear  at  once  and 

Cleansing  Fluids. — A  spot  remover  is 
made  as  follows: 

I. — Saponine 7  parts 

Water 130  parts 

Alcohol 70  parts 

Benzine.  ...  % 1,788  parts 

Oil  mirbane 5  parts 

II. — Benzene  (benzol)..        89  parts 

Ascetic  ether 10  parts 

Pear  oil 1  part 

This  yields  an  effective  grease  eradi- 
cator,  of  an  agreeable  odor. 



III.— To  Remove  Stains  of  Sulphate  of 
copper,  or  of  salts  of  mercury,  silver,  or 
gold  from  the  hands,  etc.,  wash  them  first 
with  a  dilute  solution  either  of  ammonia, 
iodide,  bromide,  or  cyanide  of  potassium, 
and  then  with  plenty  of  water;  if  the 
stains  are  old  ones  they  should  first  be 
rubbed  with  the  strongest  acetic  acid 
and  then  treated  as  above. 

Removal  of  Picric-Acid  Stains. — I. — 
Recent  stains  of  picric  acid  may  be  re- 
moved readily  if  the  stain  is  covered  with 
a  layer  of  magnesium  carbonate,  the  car- 
bonate moistened  with  a  little  water  to 
form  a  paste,  and  the  paste  then  rubbed 
over  the  spot. 

II.  — Apply  a  solution  of 

Boric  acid 4  parts 

Sodium  benzoate. ...        1  part 
Water 100  parts 

III. — Dr.  Prieur,  of  Besan9on,  recom- 
mends lithium  carbonate  for  the  removal 
of  picric-acid  stains  from  the  skin  or 
from  linen.  The  method  of  using  it  is 
simply  to  lay  a  small  pinch  on  the  stain, 
and  moisten  the  latter  with  water.  Fresh 
stains  disappear  almost  instantly,  and 
old  ones  in  a  minute  or  two. 

To  Remove  Finger  Marks  from  Books, 
etc. — I. — Pour  benzol  (not  benzine  or 
gasoline,  but  Merck's  "c.  p."  crystalliz- 
able)  on  calcined  magnesia  until  it  be- 
comes a  crumbling  mass,  and  apply  this 
to  the  spot,  rubbing  it  in  lightly,  with  the 
tip  of  the  finger.  When  the  benzol 
evaporates,  brush  off.  Any  dirt  that  re- 
mains can  be  removed  by  using  a  piece 
of  soft  rubber. 

II. — If  the  foregoing  fails  (which  it 
sometimes,  though  rarely,  does),  try  the 
following:  Make  a  hot  solution  of  sodium 
hydrate  in  distilled  water,  of  strength  of 
from  3  per  cent  to  5  per  cent,  according 
to  the  age,  etc.,  of  the  stain.  Have  pre- 
pared some  bits  of  heavy  blotting  paper 
somewhat  larger  than  the  spot  to  be  re- 
moved; also,  a  blotting  pad,  or  several 
pieces  of  heavy  blotting  paper.  Lay  the 
spiled  page  face  downward  on  the  blot- 
ting pad,  then,  saturating  one  of  the  bits 
of  blotter  with  the  hot  sodium  hydrate 
solution,  put  it  on  the  stain  and  go  over 
it  with  a  hot  smoothing  iron.  If  one  ap- 
plication does  not  remove  all  the  grease 
or  stain,  repeat  the  operation.  Then 
saturate  another  bit  of  blotting  paper  with 
a  4  per  cent  or  5  per  cent  solution  of  hy- 
drochloric acid  in  distilled  water,  apply 
it  to  the  place,  and  pass  the  iron  over  it 
to  neutralize  the  strong  alkali.  This  process 
will  instantly  restore  any  faded  writing 
or  printing,  and  make  the  paper  bright 
and  fresh  again. 

Glycerine  as  a  Detergent. — For  cer- 
tain kinds  of  obstinate  spots  (such  as 
coffee  and  chocolate,  for  instance)  there 
is  no  better  detergent  than  glycerine, 
especially  for  fabrics  with  delicate  colors. 
Apply  the  glycerine  to  the  spot,  with  a 
sponge  or  otherwise,  let  stand  a  min- 
ute or  so,  then  wash  off  with  water  or 
alcohol.  Hot  glycerine  is  even  more 
efficient  than  cold. 


See  also  Leather. 

To  Clean  Colored  Leather. — Pour  car- 
bon bisulphide  on  non-vulcanized  gutta- 
percha,  and  allow  it  to  stand  about  24 
hours.  After  shaking  actively  add  more 
gutta-percha  gradually  until  the  solution 
becomes  of  gelatinous  consistency. 
This  mixture  is  applied  in  suitable  quan- 
tity to  oil-stained,  colored  leather  and 
allowed  to  dry  two  or  three  hours.  The 
subsequent  operation  consists  merely  in 
removing  the  coat  of  gutta-percha  from 
the  surface  of  the  leather — that  is,  rub- 
bing it  with  the  fingers,  and  rolling  it  off 
the  surface. 

The  color  is  not  injured  in  the  least  by 
the  sulphuret  of  carbon;  only  those 
leathers  on  which  a  dressing  containing 
starch  has  been  used  look  a  little  lighter 
in  color,  but  the  better  class  of  leathers 
are  not  so  dressed.  The  dry  gutta-per- 
cha can  be  redissolved  in  sulphuret  of 
carbon  and  used  over  again. 

To  Clean  Skins  Used  for  Polishing 
Purposes. — First  beat  them  thoroughly 
to  get  rid  of  dust,  then  go  over  the  surface 
on  both  sides  with  a  piece  of  good  white 
soap  and  lay  them  in  warm  water  in 
which  has  been  put  a  little  soda.  Let 
them  lie  here  for  2  hours,  then  wash  them 
in  plenty  of  tepid  water,  rubbing  them 
vigorously  until  perfectly  clean.  This 
bath  should  also  be  made  alkaline  with 
soda.  The  skins  are  finally  rinsed  in 
warm  water,  and  dried  quickly.  Cold 
water  must  be  avoided  at  all  stages  of  the 
cleansing  process,  as  it  has  a  tendency  to 
shrink  and  harden  the  skins. 

The  best  way  to  clean  a  chamois  skin 
is  to  wash  and  rinse  it  out  in  clean  water 
immediately  after  use,  but  this  practice  is 
apt  to  be  neglected  so  that  the  skin  be- 
comes saturated  with  dirt  and  grime. 
To  clean  it,  first  thoroughly  soak  in 
clean,  soft  water.  Then,  after  soaping 
it  and  rolling  it  into  a  compact  wad,  beat 
with  a  small  round  stick — a  buggy  spoke, 
say — turning  the  wad  over  repeatedly, 
and  keeping  it  well  wet  and  soaped. 
This  should  suffice  to  loosen  the  dirt. 
Then  rinse  in  clean  water  until  the  skin 



is  clean.  As  wringing  by  hand  is  apt  to 
injure  the  chamois  skin,  it  is  advisable  to 
use  a  small  clothes  wringer.  Before 
using  the  skin  again  rinse  it  in  clear  water 
to  which  a  little  pulverized 

alum  has 

been  added. 


To  Renovate  Straw  Hats.— I. — Hats 
made  of  natural  (uncolored)  straw,  which 
have  become  soiled  by  wear,  may  be 
cleaned  by  thoroughly  sponging  with  a 
weak  solution  of  tartaric  acid  in  water, 
followed  by  water  alone.  The  hat  after 
being  so  treated  should  be  fastened  by 
the  rim  to  a  board  by  means  of  pins,  so 
that  it  will  keep  its  shape  in  drying. 
II. — Sponge  the  straw  with  a  solution  of 

By  weight 
Sodium  hyposulphite.    10  parts 

Glycerine 5  parts 

Alcohol 10  parts 

Water 75  parts 

Lay  aside  in  a  damp  place  for  24  hours 
and  then  apply 

By  weight 

Citric  acid 2  parts 

Alcohol 10  parts 

Water 90  parts 

Press  with  a  moderately  hot  iron,  after 
stiffening  with  weak  gum  water,  if  neces- 

III. — If  the  hat  has  become  much  dark- 
ened in  tint  by  wear  the  fumes  of  burning 
sulphur  may  be  employed.  The  material 
should  be  first  cleaned  by  thoroughly 
sponging  with  an  aqueous  solution  of 
potassium  carbonate,  followed  by  a  sim- 
ilar application  of  water,  and  it  is  then 
suspended  over  the  sulphur  fumes. 
These  are  generated  by  placing  in  a  metal 
or  earthen  dish,  so  mounted  as  to  keep  the 
heat  from  setting  fire  to  anything  beneath, 
some  brimstone  (roll  sulphur),  and 
sprinkling  over  it  some  live  coals  to  start 
combustion.  The  operation  is  con- 
ducted in  a  deep  box  or  barrel,  the  dish 
of  burning  sulphur  being  placed  at  the 
bottom,  and  the  article  to  be  bleached 
being  suspended  from  a  string  stretched 
across  the  top.  A  cover  not  fitting  so 
tightly  as  to  exclude  all  air  is  placed  over 
it,  and  the  apparatus  allowed  to  stand 
for  a  few  hours. 

Hats  so  treated  will  require  to  be  stif- 
fened by  the  application  of  a  little  gum 
water,  and  pressed  on  a  block  with  a 
hot  iron  to  bring  them  back  into  shape. 

Waterproof  Stiffening  for  Straw  Hats. 
— If  a  waterproof  stiffening  is  required 
use  one  of  the  varnishes  for  which  for- 
mulas follow: 

I. — Copal 450  parts 

Sandarac 75  parts 

Venice  turpentine  40  parts 

Castor  oil 5  parts 

Alcohol 800  parts 

II.— Shellac 500  parts 

Sandarac 175  parts 

Venice  turpentine       50  parts 

Castor  oil 15  parts 

Alcohol 2,000  parts 

III.— Shellac 750  parts 

Rosin 150  parts 

Venice  turpentine     150  parts 

Castor  oil 20  parts 

Alcohol 2,500  parts 

How  to  Clean  a  Panama  Hat. — Scrub 
with  castile  soap  and  warm  water,  a 
nail  brush  being  used  as  an  aid  to  get 
the  dirt  away.  The  hat  is  then  placed  in 
the  hot  sun  to  dry  and  in  the  course  of 
two  or  three  hours  is  ready  for  use.  It 
will  not  only  be  as  clean  as  when  new, 
but  it  will  retain  its  shape  admirably. 
The  cleaned  hat  will  be  a  trifle  stiff  at 
first,  but  will  soon  grow  supple  under 

A  little  glycerine  added  to  the  rinsing 
water  entirely  prevents  the  stiffness  and 
brittleness  acquired  by  some  hats  in  dry- 
ing, while  a  little  ammonia  in  the  wash- 
ing water  materially  assists  in  the  scrub- 
bing process.  Ivory,  or,  in  fact,  any 
good  white  soap,  will  answer  as  well  as 
castile  for  the  purpose.  It  is  well  to 
rinse  a  second  time,  adding  the  glycerine 
to  the  water  used  the  second  time.  Im- 
merse the  hat  completely  in  the  rinse 
water,  moving  it  about  to  get  rid  of 
traces  of  the  dirty  water.  When  the  hat 
has  been  thoroughly  rinsed,  press  out  the 
surplus  water,  using  a  Turkish  bath  towel 
for  the  purpose,  and  let  it  rest  on  the 
towel  when  drying. 


To  Remove  Old  Oil,  Paint,  or  Varnish 
Coats. — I. — Apply  a  mixture  of  about  5 
parts  of  potassium  silicate  (water  glass, 
36  per  cent),  about  1  part  of  soda  lye  (40 
per  cent),  and  1  part  of  ammonia.  The 
composition  dissolves  the  old  varnish 
coat,  as  well  as  the  paint,  down  to  the 
bottom.  The  varnish  coatings  which 
are  to  be  removed  may  be  brushed  off  or 
left  for  days  in  a  hardened  state.  Upon 
being  thoroughly  moistened  with  water 
the  old  varnish  may  be  readily  washed 
off,  the  lacquer  as  well  as  the  oil  paint 
coming  off  completely.  The  ammonia 
otherwise  employed  dissolves  the  var- 
nish, but  not  the  paint, 



II. — Apply  a  mixture  of  1  part  oil  of 
turpentine  and  2  parts  of  ammonia. 
This  is  effective,  even  if  the  coatings 
withstand  the  strongest  lye.  The  two 
liquids  are  shaken  in  a  bottle  until  they 
mix  like  milk.  The  mixture  is  applied 
to  the  coating  with  a  little  oakum;  after  a 
few  minutes  the  old  paint  can  be  wiped 

To  Clean  Brushes  and  Vessels  of  Dry 
Paint  (see  also  Brushes  and  Paints). — 
The  cleaning  o£  the  brushes  and  ves- 
sels in  which  the  varnish  or  oil  paint  had 
dried  is  usually  done  by  boiling  with 
soda  solution.  This  frequently  spoils  the 
brushes  or  cracks  the  vessels  if  of  glass; 
besides,  the  process  is  rather  slow  and 
dirty.  A  much  more  suitable  remedy  is 
amyl  acetate,  which  is  a  liquid  with  a 
pleasant  odor  of  fruit  drops,  used  mainly 
for  dissolving  and  cementing  celluloid. 
If  amyl  acetate  is  poured  over  a  paint 
brush  the  varnish  or  hardened  paint  dis- 
solves almost  immediately  and  the  brush 
is  again  rendered  serviceable  at  once.  If 
necessary,  the  process  is  repeated.  For 
cleaning  vessels  shake  the  liquid  about  in 
them,  which  softens  the  paint  so  that  it 
can  be  readily  removed  with  paper.  In 
this  manner  much  labor  can  be  saved. 
The  amyl  acetate  can  be  easily  removed 
from  the  brushes,  etc.,  by  alcohol  or  oil 
of  turpentine. 

Varnish  and  Paint  Remover. — Dis- 
solve 20  parts  of  caustic  soda  (98  per 
cent)  in  100  parts  of  water,  mix  the  solu- 
tion with  20  parts  of  mineral  oil,  and  stir 
in  a  kettle  provided  with  a  mechanical 
stirrer,  until  the  emulsion  is  complete. 
Now  add,  with  stirring,  20  parts  of  saw- 
dust and  pass  the  whole  through  a  paint 
mill  to  obtain  a  uniform  intermixture. 
Apply  the  paste  moist. 

To  Remove  Varnish  from  Metal.— To 
remove  old  varnish  from  metals,  it  suf- 
fices to  dip  the  articles  in  equal  parts  of 
ammonia  and  alcohol  (95  per  cent). 

To  Remove  Water  Stains  from  Var- 
nished Furniture. — Pour  olive  oil  into  a 
dish  and  scrape  a  little  white  wax  into  it. 
This  mixture  should  be  heated  until 
the  wax  melts  and  rubbed  sparingly  on 
the  stains.  Finally,  rub  the  surface  with 
a  linen  rag  until  it  is  restored  to  bril- 

To  Remove  Paint,  Varnish,  etc.,  from 
Wood. — Varnish,  paint,  etc.,  no  matter 
how  old  and  hard,  may  be  softened  in  a 
few  minutes  so  that  they  can  be  easily 
scraped  off,  by  applying  the  following 

Water  glass 5  parts 

Soda  lye,   40°  B.   (27 

per  cent) 1  part 

Ammonia  water 1  part 


Removing  Varnish,  etc. — A  patent 
has  been  taken  out  in  England  for  a 
liquid  for  removing  varnish,  lacquer,  tar, 
and  paint.  The  composition  is  made  by 
mixing  4  ounces  of  benzol,  3  ounces  of 
fusel  oil,  and  1  ounce  of  alcohol.  It  is 
stated  by  the  inventor  that  this  mixture, 
if  applied  to  a  painted  or  varnished  sur- 
face, will  make  the  surface  quite  clean  in 
less  than  10  minutes,  and  that  a  paint- 
soaked  brush  "  as  hard  as  iron  "  can  be 
made  as  soft  and  pliable  as  new  by 
simply  soaking  for  an  hour  or  so  in  the 

To  Remove  Enamel  and  Tin  Solder. — 
Pour  enough  of  oil  of  vitriol  (concen- 
trated sulphuric  acid)  over  powdered 
fluorspar  in  an  earthen  or  lead  vessel,  so 
as  just  to  cover  the  parts  whereby  hydro- 
fluoric acid  is  generated.  For  use,  dip 
the  article  suspended  on  a  wire  into  the 
liquid  until  the  enamel  or  the  tin  is  eaten 
away  or  dissolved,  which  does  not  injure 
the  articles  in  any  way.  If  heated,  the 
liquid  acts  more  rapidly.  The  work 
should  always  be  conducted  in  the  open 
air,  and  care  should  be  taken  not  to  in- 
hale the  fumes,  which  are  highly  inju- 
rious to  the  health,  and  not  to  get  any 
liquid  on  the  skin,  as  hydrofluoric  acid 
is  one  of  the  most  dangerous  poisons. 
Hydrofluoric  acid  must  be  kept  in  earth- 
en or  leaden  vessels,  as  it  destroys  glass. 

Removing  Paint  and  Varnish  from 
Wood. — The  following  compound  is 
given  as  one  which  will  clean  paint  or 
varnish  from  wood  or  stone  without  in- 
juring the  material: 

Flour  or  wood  pulp. .  385  parts 
Hydrochloric  acid. . .  450  parts 
Bleaching  powder..  .  160  parts 

Turpentine 5  parts 

This  mixture  is  applied  to  the  surface 
and  left  on  for  some  time.  It  is  then 
brushed  off,  and  brings  the  paint  away 
with  it.  It  keeps  moist  quite  long  enough 
to  be  easily  removed  after  it  has  acted. 

Paste  for  Removing  Old  Paint  or 
Varnish  Coats. — 

I. — Sodium  hydrate 5  parts 

Soluble  soda  glass  ...  3  parts 

Flour  paste 6  parts 

Water 4  parts 

II. — Soap 10  parts 

Potassium  hydrate.  . .  7  parts 

Potassium  silicate. ...  2  parts 



To  Remove  Old  Enamel.— Lay  the 
articles  horizontally  in  a  vessel  contain- 
ing a  concentrated  solution  of  alum  and 
boil  them.  The  solution  should  be  just 
sufficient  to  cover  the  pieces.  In  20  or 
25  minutes  the  old  enamel  will  fall  into 
dust,  and  the  article  can  be  polished  with 
emery.  If  narrow  and  deep  vessels  are 
used  the  operation  will  require  more 


Two-Solution  Ink  Remover. — 

I. — (a)   Citric  acid 1  part 

Concentrated  solu- 
tion of  borax  ...      2  parts 
Distilled  water. ...    16  parts 
Dissolve  the  acid  in  the  water,  add  the 
borax  solution,  and  mix  by  agitation. 

(fc)  Chloride  of  lime. . .  3  parts 

Water 16  parts 

Concentrated  bor- 
ax solution  .....  2  parts 

Add  the  chloride  of  lime  to  the  water, 
shake  well  and  set  aside  for  a  week,  then 
decant  the  clear  liquid  and  to  it  add  the 
borax  solution. 

For  use,  saturate  the  spot  with  solu- 
tion (a),  apply  a  blotter  to  take  off  the  ex- 
cess of  liquid,  then  apply  solution  (6). 
When  the  stain  has  disappeared,  apply 
the  blotter  and  wet  the  spot  with  clean 
water;  finally  dry  between  two  sheets  of 
blotting  paper. 

II. — (a)  Mix,  in  equal  parts,  potassium 
chloride,  potassium  hypochlorite,  and  oil 
of  peppermint.  (&)  Sodium  chloride, 
hydrochloric  acid  and  water,  in  equal 

Wet  the  spot  with  (a),  let  dry,  then 
brush  it  overlightly  with  (6),  and  rinse  in 
clear  water. 

A  good  single  mixture  which  will  an- 
swer for  most  inks  is  made  by  mixing 
citric  acid  and  alum  in  equal  parts.  If 
desired  to  vend  in  a  liquid  form  add  an 
equal  part  of  water.  In  use,  the  powder 
is  spread  well  over  the  spot  and  (if  on 
cloth  or  woven  fabrics)  well  rubbed  in 
with  the  fingers.  A  few  drops  of  water 
are  then  added,  and  also  rubbed  in.  A 
final  rinsing  with  water  completes  the 

Ink  Erasers. — I. — Inks  made  with  nut- 
galls  and  copperas  can  be  removed  by 
using  a  moderately  concentrated  solu- 
tion of  oxalic  acid,  followed  by  use  of 
pure  water  and  frequent  drying  with 
clean  blotting  paper.  Most  other  black 
inks  are  erased  by  use  of  a  weak  solution 
of  chlorinated  lime,  followed  by  dilute 
acetic  acid  and  water,  with  frequent  dry- 

ing with  blotters.  Malachite  green  ink 
is  bleached  by  ammonia  water;  silver 
inks  by  potassium  cyanide  or  sodium 
hyposulphite.  Some  aniline  colors  are 
easily  removed  by  alcohol,  and  nearly  all 
by  chlorinated  lime,  followed  by  diluted 
acetic  acid  or  vinegar.  In  all  cases 
apply  the  substances  with  camel's-hair 
brushes  or  feathers,  and  allow  them  to 
remain  no  longer  than  necessary,  after 
which  rinse  well  with  water  and  dry  with 
blotting  paper. 
II. — Citric  acid 1  part 

Water,  distilled 10  parts 

Concentrated  solution 

of  borax 2  parts 

Dissolve  the  citric  acid  in  the  water 
and  add  the  borax.  Apply  to  the  paper 
with  a  delicate  camel's-hair  pencil,  re- 
moving any  excess  of  water  with  a  blot- 
ter. A  mixture  of  oxalic,  citric,  and  tar- 
taric  acids,  in  equal  parts,  dissolved  in 
just  enough  water  to  give  a  clean  solution, 
acts  energetically  on  most  inks. 

Erasing  Powder  or  Pounce. — Alum,  1 
part;  amber,  1  part;  sulphur,  1  part; 
saltpeter,  1  part.  Mix  well  together  and 
keep  in  a  glass  bottle.  If  a  little  of 
this  powder  is  placed  on  an  ink  spot  or 
fresh  writing,  rubbing  very  lightly  with  a 
clean  linen  rag,  the  spot  or  the  writing 
will  disappear  at  once. 

Removing  Ink  Stains. — I. — The  ma- 
terial requiring  treatment  should  first  be 
soaked  in  clean,  warm  water,  the  super- 
fluous moisture  removed,  and  the  fabric 
spread  over  a  clean  cloth.  Now  allow 
a  few  minims  of  liquor  ammonia?  fortis, 
specific  gravity  0.891,  to  drop  on  the  ink 
spot,  then  saturate  a  tiny  tuft  of  absorbent 
cotton-wool  with  acidum  phosphoricum 
dilutum,  B.  P.,  and  apply  repeatedly  and 
with  firm  pressure  over  the  stain;  repeat 
the  procedure  two  or  three  times,  and 
finally  rinse  well  in  warm  water,  after- 
wards drying  in  the  sun,  when  every 
trace  of  ink  will  have  vanished.  This 
method  is  equally  reliable  for  old  and 
fresh  ink  stains,  is  rapid  in  action,  and 
will  not  injure  the  most  delicate  fabric. 

II. — To  remove  ink  spots  the  fabric 
is  soaked  in  warm  water,  then  it  is 
squeezed  out  and  spread  upon  a  clean 
piece  of  linen.  Now  apply  a  few  drops 
of  liquid  ammonia  of  a  specific  gravitj' 
of  0.891  to  the  spot,  and  dab  it  next 
with  a  wad  of  cotton  which  has  been 
saturated  with  dilute  phosphoric  acid. 
After  repeating  the  process  several  times 
and  drying  the  piece  in  the  sun,  the  ink 
spot  will  have  disappeared  without  leav- 
ing the  slightest  trace. 



III. — Ink  spots  may  be  removed  by 
the  following  mixture: 

Oxalic  acid 10  parts 

Stannic  chloride  ....        2  parts 

Acetic  acid 5  parts 

Water  to  make 500  parts 


IV. — The  customary  method  of  cleans- 
ing ink  spots  is  to  use  oxalic  acid.  Thick 
blotting  paper  is  soaked  in  a  concen- 
trated solution  and  dried.  It  is  then  laid 
immediately  on  the  blot,  and  in  many 
instances  will  take  the  latter  out  without 
leaving  a  trace  behind.  In  more  stub- 
born cases  the  cloth  is  dipped  in  boiling 
water  and  rubbed  with  crystals  of  oxalic 
acid,  after  which  it  is  soaked  in  a  weak 
solution  of  chloride  of  lime — say  1  ounce 
to  a  quart  of  water.  Under  such  circum- 
stances the  linen  should  be  thoroughly 
rinsed  in  several  waters  afterwards. 
Oxalic  acid  is  undesirable  for  certain 
fabrics  because  it  removes  the  color. 

V. — Here  is  a  more  harmless  method: 
Equal  parts  of  cream  of  tartar  and  citric 
acid,  powdered  fine,  and  mixed  together. 
This  forms  the  "  salts  of  lemon  "  sold  by 
druggists.  Procure  a  hot  dinner  plate, 
lay  the  part  stained  in  the  plate,  and 
moisten  with  hot  water;  next  rub  in  the 
above  powder  with  the  bowl  of  a  spoon 
until  the  stains  disappear;  then  rinse  in 
clean  water  and  dry. 

To  Remove  Red  (Aniline)  Ink.— 
Stains  of  red  anilines,  except  eosine,  are 
at  once  removed  by  moistening  with 
alcohol  of  94  per  cent,  acidulated  with 
acetic  acid.  Eosine  does  not  disappear 
so  easily.  The  amount  of  acetic  acid  to 
be  used  is  ascertained  by  adding  it,  drop 
by  drop,  to  the  alcohol,  testing  the 
mixture  from  time  to  time,  until  when 
dropped  on  the  stain,  the  latter  at  once 


See  also  Household  Formulas. 

To  Renovate  Brick  Walls.— Dissolve 
glue  in  water  in  the  proportion  of  1  ounce 
of  glue  to  every  gallon  of  water;  add, 
while  hot,  a  piece  of  alum  the  size  of  a 
hen's  egg,  £  pound  Venetian  red,  and  1 
pound  Spanish  brown.  Add  more  water 
if  too  dark;  more  red  and  brown  if  too 

Cleaning  Painted  Doors,  Walls,  etc. — 
The  following  recipe  is  designed  for 
painted  objects  that  are  much  soiled. 
Simmer  gently  on  the  fire,  stirring  con- 
stantly, 30  parts,  by  weight,  of  pulverized 
borax,  and  450  parts  of  brown  soap  of 

good  quality,  cut  in  small  pieces,  in  3,000 
parts  of  water.  The  liquid  is  applied  by 
means  of  flannel  and  rinsed  off  at  once 
with  pure  water. 

To  Remove  Aniline  Stains  from  Ceil- 
ings, etc. — In  renewing  ceilings,  the  old 
aniline  color  stains  are  often  very  annoy- 
ing, as  they  penetrate  the  new  coating. 
Painting  over  with  shellac  or  oil  paint 
will  bring  relief,  but  other  drawbacks 
appear.  A  very  practical  remedy  is  to 
place  a  tin  vessel  on  the  floor  of  the  room, 
and  to  burn  a  quantity  of  sulphur  in  it 
after  the  doors  and  windows  of  the  room 
have  been  closed.  The  sulphur  vapors 
destroy  the  aniline  stains,  which  disap- 
pear entirely. 

Old  Ceilings. — In  dealing  with  old 
ceilings  the  distemper  must  be  washed 
off  down  to  the  plaster  face,  all  cracks 
raked  out  and  stopped  with  putty  (plas- 
ter of  Paris  and  distemper  mixed),  and 
the  whole  rubbed  smooth  with  pumice 
stone  and  water;  stained  parts  should  be 
painted  with  oil  color,  and  the  whole 
distempered.  If  old  ceilings  are  in  bad 
condition  it  is  desirable  that  they  should 
be  lined  with  paper,  which  should  have 
a  coat  of  weak  size  before  being  distem- 

Oil  Stains  on  Wall  Paper.— Make  a 
medium  thick  paste  of  pipe  clay  and 
water,  applying  it  carefully  flat  upon  the 
oil  stain,  but  avoiding  all  friction.  The 
paste  is  allowed  to  remain  10  to  12  hours, 
after  which  time  it  is  very  carefully  re- 
moved with  a  soft  rag.  In  many  cases  a 
repeated  action  will  be  necessary  until 
the  purpose  desired  is  fully  reached. 
Finally,  however,  this  will  be  obtained 
without  blurring  or  destroying  the  de- 
sign of  the  wall  paper,  unless  it  be  of  the 
cheapest  variety.  In  the  case  of  a  light, 
delicate  paper,  the  paste  should  be  com- 
posed of  magnesia  and  benzine. 

To  Clean  Painted  Walls.— A  simple 
method  is  to  put  a  little  aqua  ammonia 
in  moderately  warm  water,  dampen  a 
flannel  with  it,  and  gently  wipe  over  the 
painted  surface.  No  scrubbing  is  nec- 

Treatment  of  Whitewashed  Walls.— 
It  is  suggested  that  whitewashed  walls 
which  it  is  desired  to  paper,  with  a  view 
to  preventing  peeling,  should  be  treated 
with  water,  after  which  the  scraper 
should  be  vigorously  used.  If  the  white- 
•wash  has  been  thoroughly  soaked  it  can 
easily  be  removed  with  the  scraper. 
Care  should  be  taken  that  every  part  of 
the  wall  is  well  scraped. 



Cleaning  Wall  Paper. — I. — To  clean 
wall  paper  the  dust  should  first  be  re- 
moved by  lightly  brushing,  preferably 
with  a  feather  duster,  and  the  surface 
then  gently  rubbed  with  slices  of  moder- 
ately stale  bread,  the  discolored  surface 
of  the  bread  being  removed  from  time 
to  time,  so  as  to  expose  a  fresh  portion  for 
use.  Care  should  be  taken  to  avoid 
scratching  the  paper  with  the  crust  of  the 
bread,  and  the  rubbing  should  be  in  one 
direction,  the  surface  being  systematically 
gone  over,  as  in  painting,  to  avoid  the 
production  of  streaks. 

II. — Mix  4  ounces  of  powdered  pumice 
with  1  quart  of  flour,  and  with  the  aid  of 
water  make  a  stiff  dough.  Form  the 
dough  into  rolls  2  inches  in  diameter  and 
6  inches  long;  sew  each  roll  separately 
in  a  cotton  cloth,  then  boil  for  40  or  50 
minutes,  so  as  to  render  the  mass  firm. 
Allow  to  stand  for  several  hours,  remove 
the  crust,  and  they  are  ready  for  use. 

III. — Bread  will  clean  paper;  but  un- 
less it  is  properly  used  the  job  will  be  a 
very  tedious  one.  Select  a  "  tin  "  loaf  at 
least  two  days  old.  Cut  off  the  crust  at 
one  end,  and  rub  down  the  paper,  com- 
mencing at  the  top.  Do  not  rub  the 
bread  backwards  and  forwards,  but  in 
single  strokes.  When  the  end  gets  dirty 
take  a  very  sharp  knife  and  pare  off  a 
thin  layer;  then  proceed  as  before. 

It  is  well  to  niake  sure  that  the  walls 
are  quite  dry  before  using  the  bread,  or  it 
may  smear  the  pattern.  If  the  room  is 
furnished  it  will,  of  course,  be  necessary 
to  place  cloths  around  the  room  to  catch 
the  crumbs. 

IV. — A  preparation  for  cleansing  wall 
paper  that  often  proves  much  more  effec- 
tual than  ordinary  bread,  especially  when 
the  paper  is  very  dirty,  is  made  by  mix- 
ing §  dough  and  ^  plaster  of  Paris.  This 
should  be  made  a  day  before  it  is  needed 
for  use,  and  should  be  very  gently  baked. 

If  there  are  any  grease  spots  they 
should  be  removed  by  holding  a  hot 
flatiron  against  a  piece  of  blotting  paper 
placed  over  them.  If  this  fails,  a  little 
fuller's  earth  or  pipe  clay  should  be  made 
into  a  paste  with  water,  and  this  should 
then  be  carefully  plastered  over  the 
grease  spots  and  allowed  to  remain  till 
quite  dry,  when  it  will  be  found  to  have 
absorbed  the  grease. 

V. — Mix  together  1  pound  each  of  rye 
flour  and  white  flour  into  a  dough, 
which  is  partially  cooked  and  the  crust 
removed.  To  this  1  ounce  common 
salt  and  £  ounce  of  powdered  naph- 
thaline are  added,  and  finally  1  ounce  of 
corn  meal,  and  |  ounce  of  burnt  umber. 
The  composition  is  formed  into  a  mass. 

of  the  proper  size  to  be  grasped  in  the 
hand,  and  in  use  it  should  be  drawn  in 
one  direction  over  the  surface  to  be 

VI. — Procure  a  soft,  flat  sponge,  being 
careful  that  there  are  no  hard  or  gritty 
places  in  it,  then  get  a  bucket  of  new, 
clean,  dry,  wheat  bran.  Hold  the 
sponge  flat  side  up,  and  put  a  handful  of 
bran  on  it,  then  quickly  turn  against  the 
wall,  and  rub  the  wall  gently  and  care- 
fully with  it;  then  repeat  the  operation. 
Hold  a  large  pan  or  spread  down  a  drip 
cloth  to  catch  the  bran  as  it  falls,  but 
never  use  the  same  bran  twice.  Still 
another  way  is  to  use  Canton  flannel  in 
strips  a  foot  wide  and  about  3  yards 
long.  Roll  a  strip  around  a  stick  1 
inch  thick  and  10  inches  long,  so  as  to 
have  the  ends  of  the  stick  covered,  with 
the  nap  of  the  cloth  outside.  As  the 
cloth  gets  soiled,  unroll  the  soiled  part 
and  roll  it  up  with  the  soiled  face  inside. 

In  this  way  one  can  change  places  on 
the  cloth  when  soiled  and  use  the  whole 
face  of  the  cloth.  To  take  out  a  grease 
spot  requires  care.  First,  take  several 
thicknesses  of  brown  wrapping  paper 
and  make  a  pad,  place  it  against  the 
grease  spot,  and  hold  a  hot  flatiron